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Lee Ya-Ching Papers

Creator:
Ya-Ching, Lee  Search this
Extent:
11.9 Cubic feet (22 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scripts (documents)
Photographs
Maps
Scrapbooks
Date:
1938-1970
Summary:
This collection consists of 11.9 cubic feet of material chronicling Lee Ya-Ching's role as a pilot trying to raise funds for China during World War II. The collection contains the following types of material: correspondence, both official and personal; maps; publications; newspapers; invitation; programs from events; lecture notes; scripts from radio shows; photographs, both official and snapshots; trip schedules and agendas; address books; scrapbooks; and official paperwork and licenses.
Scope and Content note:
This collection consists of 11.9 cubic feet of material chronicling Lee Ya-Ching's role as a pilot trying to raise funds for China during World War II. The collection contains the following types of material: correspondence, both official and personal; maps; publications; newspapers; invitations; programs from events; lecture notes; scripts from radio shows; photographs, both official and snapshots; trip schedules and agendas; address books; scrapbooks; and official paperwork and licenses.
Arrangement:
This collection of materials listed in the finding aid is arranged into two series, Ms Lee's personal papers and her professional papers. Within each series, items are arranged by material type then chronologically. No attempt was made to translate foreign language material in the collection.
Biographical/Historical note:
Lee Ya-Ching was born in Canton, China in 1912. As an only child who lost her mother at a young age, Ya-Ching was raised by her father and grandmother. Under her father's guidance she learned many skills, including martial arts, some previously restricted to male children. Ya-Ching attended English schools in Hong Kong and Shanghai and at the age of 16 was sent to London to attend finishing school.

In 1929 at the age of 17, Ya-Ching went to Geneva, Switzerland. It is there that she took her first ride in an airplane and vowed to learn how to fly. She enrolled in Ecole Aero Club de Suisse and, in 1934, became the first woman to receive a pilot's license from the school. Determined to continue her education, Ya-Ching went to the United States and attended the Boeing School of Aeronautics in Oakland, California in 1935. In November of that year she became the first woman licensed through the Boeing School. Upon completion of her training at the Boeing school Ya-Ching returned to China and began campaigning for a Chinese pilot's license, eventually obtaining the license in 1936. Seeing a need to train new pilots, Ya-Ching and some fellow pilots opened a civilian flying school in Shanghai in 1936.

When Japan invaded China in 1937, Ya-Ching volunteered to fly for her country, but was refused. Undeterred, she served her country by establishing hospitals. Leaving Shanghai for Hong Kong just before the city fell, she was finally given the opportunity to fly for China by piloting Red Cross planes ferrying supplies from Hong Kong to Canton. Realizing that China needed aid and supplies, Ya-Ching embarked on a Goodwill Tour of the United States and Canada in 1938. When the war prevented her return to China, Ya-Ching continued the tour expanding her appearances into South America.

Not much is known of Ya-Ching's life after the war. She returned to Hong Kong for a number of years. In the 1960's she returned to California, where she died in 1998 at the age of 86.

Time Line of Lee Ya-Ching

xxxx -- The following timeline covers key events in Ya-Ching's life, as well world events. Events involving Ya-Ching are shown in normal type world events are shown in italics.

1909 -- M. Vallon flies first plane in China

1911 -- China ousts the 2000 year old Imperial System for a Republic

April 16, 1912 -- Lee Ya-Ching is born in Canton, China

1916 -- Ya-Ching's mother dies of tuberculosis

1917 -- China enters World War 1 on the side of the Allies

1926 -- Begins career as a movie actress

1928 -- Leaves the film industry and goes to school in England

1929 -- The CCP (Chinese Communist Party) is ousted from China Goes to Switzerland

September 1931 -- Japan seizes control of Manchuria

November 1931 -- CCP resurfaces in China and forms the Chinese Soviet Republic in Jiangxi Province

May 1932 -- Amelia Earhart becomes first woman to solo across the Atlantic

1933 -- Begins flying lessons at Geneva's Cointrin-Ecole d'Aviation

1934 -- Receives her pilot's license from Ecole Aéro Club de Suisse

1935 -- Attends and receives license from the Boeing School of Aeronautics in Oakland, California

1935 -- Falls out of an aerobatic plane, earning her membership in the Caterpillar Club

1936 -- Receives her pilot's license from the Chinese Government First domestic airline established in China Opens a civilian flying school in Shanghai

1937 -- Flies for the Red Cross ferrying supplies from Hong Kong to Canton Japan invades China Earns Hong Kong commercial pilot's license Helps establish hospitals in Shanghai

1938 -- Begins goodwill tour of United States and Canada

1939 -- Appears in US film Disputed Passage with Dorothy Lamour

1940 -- Flies "Estrella China" to Caribbean, Central and South America Aids Ruth Nichols in raising money for Relief Wings

1941 -- Begins working for United China Relief

December 7, 1941 -- Bombing of Pearl Harbor forces American entry into World War II

1944 -- Begins Goodwill and Fund Raising tour of South America and Caribbean

August 1945 -- Atom bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, followed by Japanese surrender and end of World War II

1946 -- Returns to China and retires

1946 -- Fighting between CCP and KMT (Nationalist party) resumes

October 1949 -- KMT retreats to Taiwan Mao Zedong establishes the People's Republic of China

1950 -- Receives Hong Kong private pilot's license

1963 -- Receives Hong Kong Special Purpose Pilot's license

1971 -- Permanently moves to the United States

1997 -- British rule ends in Hong Kong

January 28, 1998 -- Dies at the age of 86
Provenance:
Pax Cheng and Mary Wolfson, Gift, 2007, NASM.2008.0009.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
World War, 1939-1945 -- Civilian relief  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- China  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Women air pilots  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scripts (documents)
Photographs
Maps
Scrapbooks
Citation:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers, NASM.2008.0009, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2008.0009
See more items in:
Lee Ya-Ching Papers
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2008-0009
Additional Online Media:

Hattie Meyers Junkin Papers

Creator:
Junkin, Hattie Meyers, 1896-1985  Search this
Names:
Advance Aircraft Company  Search this
Waco Aircraft Company  Search this
Weaver Aircraft Company  Search this
Barnaby, Ralph S. (Ralph Stanton), 1893-1986  Search this
Brukner, Clayton J., 1896-1977  Search this
Junkin, Elwood J. (Elwood James), 1897-1926  Search this
Weaver, George E. "Buck", 1895-1924  Search this
Extent:
3.3 Cubic feet (12 Boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Diaries
Publications
Photographs
Correspondence
Date:
1906-1982
bulk 1920-1933
Summary:
This collection consists of the personal papers of Hattie Meyers Junkin. The material consists of correspondence, scrapbooks, and manuscripts, as well as material on Junkin's husbands and Weaver Aircraft Co.
Scope and Contents:
This collection contains the personal papers of Hattie Meyers Junkin. The material consists of correspondence, scrapbooks, photographs, periodical articles and manuscripts, including material about her three husbands and about the history of the Waco Aircraft Company. This collection could very easily be called the Hattie and George "Buck" Weaver collection since much of the collection material revolves around her life with him and his Weaver/Waco Aircraft Company legacy.
Arrangement note:
The collection has been divided into nine series. These series are described below.

Series 1: General correspondence

Series 2: Soaring and gliding

Series 3: General materials of Hattie Meyers Junkin

Series 4: Waco Company History

Series 5: George "Buck" Weaver materials

Series 6: Scrapbooks

Series 7: Miscellaneous

Series 8: General Photographs

Series 9: Negatives

Series 1: General Correspondence.

This series is divided into two sub-series, personal and business correspondence. The personal correspondence materials consists primarily of letters written by George "Buck" Weaver to Hattie between 1917 to 1923. It also includes letters from family members, friends and acquaintances including Charles Meyers (Hattie's brother), Katherine Stinson, and "Matty" Emil Laird. There are also invitations, christmas cards and special occasion announcements. The business sub-series is comprised of mostly letters to publishers, but also includes letters to women's organizations, business associates, news media and other formal correspondence. Materials have been arranged chronologically.

Series 2: Soaring and Gliding.

This series contains primarily newspaper articles and photographs related directly to Ms. Junkin's soaring activities. There is also correspondence related directly to the topic of soaring, contest programs, bulletins and miscellaneous materials.

Series 3: General materials Hattie Meyers Junkin.

This series contains primarily her writings in major periodical publications, but also contains periodical articles about her children and her personal activities, club correspondence, Early Bird Dinner materials and other general materials.

Series 4: Waco Company History.

This series contains materials directly related to the Waco company and the activities of its founders including, early drafts of Hattie's history of the Waco Company--The Human Investment in Waco Aircraft, Elwood "Sam" Junkin biography, materials related to the Bruckner litigation for control of the Waco Aircraft Company, photographs of early Waco aircraft, and publicity materials including a Waco $0.13 stamp.

Series 5: George "Buck" Weaver materials.

This series contains materials related directly to George "Buck" Weaver. Much of the material in this series pertains to Weaver's activities as a civilian aviation instructor, in Waco, Texas during World War I. Most of the materials found in this series were found together when processing began.

Series 6: Scrapbooks.

This series contains six scrapbooks dating primarily between the years 1914-1926. Much of the material pertains to George "Buck" Weaver's activities at Waco, Texas, his barnstorming activities, promotional activities for the Weaver Aircraft Company and his marriage to Hattie and their family life. Some of the more recent materials deals with Hattie's soaring activities. PLEASE NOTE: Most of the pages in these scrapbooks are loose and the materials fragile. PLEASE HANDLE WITH EXTREME CARE.

Series 7: Miscellaneous materials.

This series contains materials that were organized by Ms. Junkin in a specific fashion or did not fit logically into any of the series listed. In most cases materials in this series are duplications, but their organization offers a researcher insight into materials she thought most important.

Series 8: General Photographs.

This series contains general photographs which did not fit into any of the series above. Many of these photos are publicity shots or photos of family and friends.

Series 9: Negatives.

This series contains 72 negatives found in the collection. These have been separated out and rehoused as a preservation measure. Some of the negatives have prints, but most do not. These associations have been noted in the list below. They are described first by item number (i.e. #27), general topic (i.e Soaring and Gliding), subject and date if known, and if a print is available. They have been arranged by general topic groups. Please request assistance from a staff member when handling these negatives. The staff member will also be able to inform you of ordering procedures if you wish to order copies of these negatives and prints.
Biographical/Historical note:
Hattie Meyers Junkin (1896-1985) was an aviator and observer of a number of historical events. Always interested in aviation, in 1917 she married George "Buck" Weaver ( -1924), a civilian flying instructor at the military training center at Waco, TX. Weaver, along with Clayton Bruckner and Elwood "Sam" Junkin, founded the Advance Aircraft Company in 1921 (Weaver Aircraft Company, 1922-29; Waco Aircraft Co., 1929-1946). Following Weaver's death she married Junkin ( -1926), but he died shortly afterwards and control of Weaver Aircraft slipped away. In 1929 she married Ralph Stanton Barnaby (1893-1986), a glider pilot and aviation pioneer. In 1931 she became one of the first women to earn a glider class C license and attended the University of Washington (DC) studying law, although she was unable to take the bar exam. In 1940 she moved to Garden City, NJ, where she remained until moving to Alabama in the late 1970s. She spent much of her life writing, including articles on Weaver Aircraft.
General note:
Other type of material: printing block.
Related Materials:
The National Air and Space Museum (NASM) Archives Division holds additional material about people related to Hattie Meyers Junkin, although at present this particular collection is all the information available about Hattie Meyers Junkin. Biographical information about Charles William Meyers and George "Buck" Weaver can be found in the biographical fiche collection at the NASM Archives/Garber Facility. Biographical material about Ralph Stanton Barnaby can be found in the Ralph Stanton Barnaby Collection (1915-1986), Accession number 1987-0048. It is also stored at the NASM Archives/Garber Facility. In the NASM Archives downtown facility, we recommend the biographical files which contains additional materials about George "Buck" Weaver and Charles William Meyers. There is also aircraft information available in the Waco Aircraft Technical Files found also in the NASM Archives downtown facility. For additional material related to aircraft, please see the Waco Aircraft Company Records, Accession number XXXX-0151. This collection contains mostly drawings of Waco aircraft and some company records. It is stored at the NASM Archives/Garber Facility.

For additional photographic materials about Charles William Meyers and Waco Aircraft, please see the NASM videodisc files located at the NASM Archives facility downtown. Images of Charles W. Weaver can be seen on NASM videodisc 2B-19072 to 2B-19078. Images of various types of Waco Aircraft can been seen on NASM videodiscs 1B, 2A, and 3B. In some cases, there are original videodisc prints available in the NASM Archives facility downtown and copy negatives at the Smithsonian Institution, Office of Printing and Photographic Services (OPPS). Please consult a staff member for more details and about ordering procedures.
Provenance:
Hattie Meyers Junkin, Gift, 1983, NASM.XXXX.0171
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Periodicals  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Women in aeronautics  Search this
Gliding and soaring  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Diaries
Publications
Photographs
Correspondence
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0171
See more items in:
Hattie Meyers Junkin Papers
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0171
Additional Online Media:

Manila Davis Talley Scrapbook

Creator:
Talley, Manila Davis.  Search this
Names:
Curtiss-Wright Corporation  Search this
United States. Civil Air Patrol  Search this
Extent:
0.23 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Scrapbooks
Date:
bulk 1917-1967
bulk 1929-1942
Summary:
This collection consists of a scrapbook relating to Manila Davis Talley and her aviation career.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of one scrapbook which contains newspaper clippings, membership cards, programs, photographs, and pilot's licenses, mostly relating to Manila Davis Talley and her aviation career. The focus of the collection is on the years 1929-42, and highlights Talley's career as a salesperson for Curtis-Wright, and her association with the 99s and the Betsy Ross Corps. Also included is the scrapbook is information on the Women's National Air Races, the Women's National Air Meets, and Talley's work with the Civil Air Patrol. The scrapbook also includes clippings and other items related to Amelia Earhart, Jimmy Doolittle and General Balbo.
Arrangement:
Single item in original order.
Biographical / Historical:
Manila Davis Talley (1898-1973) soloed in October 1929 and received her pilot's license in April of 1930. She joined Curtis-Wright Corporation as a saleswoman in late 1929 or early 1930. Talley joined the 99s (international association of female pilots) in 1930 and was a founding member of Betsy Ross Corps, a private 1930s female auxiliary/reserve for the Army Air Corps. Talley was the third woman to go through Air Force War College, in December 1966.
Provenance:
Estate of Manila Davis Talley, Gift, Unknown, NASM.XXXX.0041
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Women air pilots  Search this
Airplane racing  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Citation:
Manila Davis Talley Scrapbook, NASM.XXXX.0041, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0041
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0041
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Additional Online Media:

Louise McPhetridge Thaden Collection

Creator:
Thaden, Louise (McPhetridge), 1905-1979  Search this
Names:
Bendix Trophy  Search this
National Women's Air Derby (1929)  Search this
Ninety-Nines (Organization)  Search this
United States. Civil Air Patrol  Search this
Extent:
2.18 Cubic feet (2 records center boxes)
2.08 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Publications
Diaries
Maps
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Correspondence
Date:
1925-1949
Summary:
This collection consists of photographs, news clippings, and correspondence documenting Thaden's aviation career.
Scope and Contents:
The Louise McPhetridge Thaden Collection contains numerous newspaper and journal articles, personal letters and business correspondence, writings, photographs, and scrapbooks, all relating to her aviation career.

The National Air and Space Museum (NASM), Archives Division also holds additional materials about Louise Thaden. Biographical information can be found in the biographical fiche collection at the NASM Archives/Garber Facility. In the NASM Archives downtown facility, we recommend the Biographical Files which contain additional newspaper and journal articles, letters, memorabilia, and photographs. Please note that these files also contain microfiche.

For additional photographs please see the NASM videodisc files located at the NASM Archives Udvar-Hazy facility. The images can be seen on NASM videodisc 7B-6445 --6491 (Accession # 1989- 0132). Also check NASM videodisc 2B-46705 --46805. In most cases, there are original videodisc prints available in the NASM Archives facility downtown and copy negatives at the Smithsonian Institution, Office of Printing and Photographic Services (OPPS). Please consult a staff member for more details and about ordering procedures
Arrangement:
This collection had little original arrangement, and accordingly, has been divided into six general series according to material types.

Series 1: GENERAL. This series contains mostly journal and newspaper articles, but also includes telegrams, letters, applications, invitations, examples of commercial endorsements, membership certificates, and original race information and itineraries. It is arranged in chronological order. Significant events are highlighted. In some cases, newspaper clippings with handwritten messages have been kept for their inherent value.

Series 2: WRITINGS. This series contains samples of her various writings. It is arranged in chronological order.

Series 3: PHOTOGRAPHS. This series contains photographs. The subject matter ranges from childhood activities to award ceremonies. It is divided by two large subject groupings: first—people (arranged by general categories), second—events (arranged by date). All paperwork directly related to a particular photograph has been kept with that photograph. Please note that Smithsonian Institution negative numbers are written on the back of each photograph when applicable. Sub-topics listed in the finding aid are meant to highlight particular topics in each folder and are not intended to indicate exclusive content. Please review each folder thoroughly.

Series 4: SCRAPBOOKS. This series contains seven scrapbooks of various sizes and content and two Civil Air Patrol award certificates. The inclusive dates are listed next to the individual scrapbook. The content of the scrapbooks date mostly from 1919-1940 and contain photographs, newspaper articles, membership certificates, licenses, contestant ribbons, invitations, business cards, and cartoons about Thaden. Handling notes are listed next to individual scrapbooks in the finding aid. Please follow these notes so that the physical integrity of the object can be preserved.

Series 5: THADEN AIRCRAFT CO. AND RELATED MATERIAL. This series contains information about Thaden Aircraft Company and Herbert von Thaden. Items in this series include: newspaper and journal article, resumes, letters, photographs, and information about the All-Metal aircraft created by Herbert Thaden. This series is the only portion of the collection with any obvious arrangement and was separated into its own series for this reason.

Series 6: MISCELLANEOUS. This series contains all of the materials that do not appear to fit easily into any of the above series. The items here include undated or general journal and newspaper articles, newspapers from University of Arkansas, maps, Who's Who application, musical score, souvenir stamps, travel souvenirs, and resumes.
Biographical/Historical note:
Louise McPhetridge Thaden (1905-1979) was one of the United States foremost female aviators during the late 1920s and 1930s. She received instruction in 1927, soloing and receiving her pilot's license in 1928. In December 1928, Thaden achieved a new altitude record of 20,260 ft. In March 1929, she made a new solo duration record, 22+ hours. A month later she set a new speed record of 156 mph. Thaden was the only woman to hold all three records simultaneously. In August 1929, Thaden won the First Women's National Air Derby, commonly called the Powder Puff Derby. Three years later (August 1932), she, along with Francis Marsalis, set the new refueling duration record of 196 hours. In July 1936, Thaden set the new light plane speed record at 109.58 mph. In the same year, she also won the National Air Race, and was awarded the Bendix Transcontinental Air Race Trophy, becoming the first woman ever to receive this trophy. She set an East-West speed record in 1936, and an inter-city distance speed record and another 109.56 mph speed record in 1937.

Ms. Thaden also distinguished herself in her efforts to promote aviation safety through campaigns to mark airports more effectively. She actively sought ways to promote women in aviation through her work with the U.S. Department of Defense, Advisory Committee on Women in the Services (DACOWITS) 1959-1961 and in her work with the Civil Air Patrol, 1949-1979. She also co-founded the Ninety-Nines, and organization of women pilots. She received numerous awards and honors throughout her life including: Harmon Trophy, Famous Aviators Wall—Mission Inn (Riverside, CA), Arkansas Aviators Hall of Fame, First Flight Society Hall of Fame, Virginia Aviation Hall of Fame, International Aerospace Hall of Fame of the San Diego Aerospace Museum, National Aviation Hall of Fame, Women in Aviation International Pioneer Hall of Fame, and Civil Air Patrol Distinguished Service Award and Meritorious Service Award. She was also an active writer who published an autobiography entitled High, Wide and Frightened and several journal and newspaper articles. In 1928, she married Herbert von Thaden, an aeronautical engineer and designer of several all-metal aircraft. They had two children, William and Patricia, who donated the materials found in the collection.

Personal

1905-11-10 -- Born, Iris Louise McPhetridge, Bentonville Arkansas: Roy Fry and EdnaHobbs McPhetridge

1921-1926 -- University of Arkansas

1928-07-21 -- Married to Herbert von Thaden

undated -- Children: William and Patricia

November 1979-11-09 -- Death

Professional

1926-1927 -- J.H. Turner Coal & Building Materials Company, Wichita Kansas: Sales

1928-1929 -- D.C. Warren Company, Oakland, CA (Airplane Distributor):Sales & manager

1930-1931 -- Pittsburgh Aviation Industries: Public Relations

1930-1931 -- Penn School of Aeronautics: Director, Women's Division

1934 -- US Department of Commerce, Bureau of Air Commerce: Developed & organized (with Phoebe Omlie) National Air Marking Program,

1935-1936 -- Initiated program

1937-1940 -- Beech Aircraft Corporation: Factory Representative

1941 -- Porterfield Aircraft Company: Factory Representative

1943-1948 -- Thaden Engineering Company: Purchasing Agent & Office Manager

1953-1954 -- Research & Development, Reinforced plastics, Roanoke, Virginia,

1955-1961 -- Thaden Molding Corporation: Vice President, Director, High Point North Carolina,

1961-1969 -- Thaden Engineering Company: Partner

1969-1979 -- Sole Owner, High Point, North Carolina,

Aviation Records and Races

1928-12-07 -- Altitude, First official altitude record for women in the US; 20,260 feet, Hisso180 hp Travel Air

1929-03-16 - 1929-03-17 -- Solo Duration; 22 hrs 3 minutes 28 seconds, Hisso 180 hp Travel Air

1929-04-18 -- Speed 156 mph, Wright J-5 Travel Air

undated -- Only woman ever to hold all 3 records simultaneously (Altitude, Solo Duration, & Speed)

1929-08-18 - 1929-08-18 -- Winner, first National Woman's Air-Derby; 20:02:02, average speed 135.97 mph, Wright J-5 Travel Air; Santa Monica, CA to Cleveland, OH

1932-08-14 - 1932-08-22 -- Refueling Duration, (with Francis Marsalis); 196 hrs, Wright J-6 220 hpCurtiss Thrush, "The Flying Boudoir"

1936-07-12 -- Light Plane Speed; 109.58 mph (100 km), 90 hp Porterfield

1936-09-04 -- Winner, Bendix Transcontinental Air Race; First woman to win Bendix, Wright 420 hp Beech Staggerwing CI7R; New York to Los Angeles, 14 hrs 55 minutes

1936-09-04 -- East-West Speed; New York to Los Angeles; 165.346 mph, Wright 420 hp Beech Staggerwing CI7R

1937-01-21 -- Inter-City Distance Speed; Wright 420 hp Beech Staggerwing; Detroit to Akron, 40 minutes 43 seconds

1937-05-29 -- 100 km Speed; 197.9 mph, Wright 420 hp Beech Staggerwing D17

Aviation History

1927 -- Instruction

1928-02-08 -- Solo

1928-02-28 -- Federation Aeronautique Internationale Aviators Certificate No. 6850 after approximately 5 hrs 15 minutes solo time, signed by Orville Wright

1929 -- Transport pilot License number 1943; 4th woman to earn this rating

Organizations

Delta Delta Delta (Delta Iota Chapter)

Ninety-Nines (International Organization of Women Pilots): -- Founding & Charter Member 1929-1930: First de facto President 1930-1936: National Secretary 1934-1936: Vice President 1960-1961: Amelia Earhart Scholarship Committee

1937-1938: National Aeronautic Association; National Secretary

Veteran Air Pilots

1945-1952: American Red Cross Motor Corps

OX5 Pioneers Club of America

Silver Wings

Aircraft Owners & Pilots Association (AOPA)

1959-1961: US Department of Defense, Advisory Committee on Women in the Services (DACOWITS)

1960-1961: Executive Committee

1960-1961: Information Sub-committee Chairman

Civil Air Patrol 1949-1970

Lieutenant Colonel Command Pilot Search & Rescue Mission Pilot Cadet Squadron Commander Director of Cadets, Virginia Wing Director of Cadets Squadron, Cadets Middle East Region Coordinator for Women, Middle East Region National Commanders Cadet Committee 1959-1963: National Commanders Training Committee Chairman National Scholarships Committee 1970: Retired Status

League of American Pen Women, Honorary Member (Pittsburgh, PA)

Business & Professional Women, 381st (Vincinnes, IN)

Strategic Missile Wing, United States Air Force (Wichita, KS)

Honors and Awards

1936: Harmon Trophy (Aviatrix) Federation Aeronautique Internationale, Champion Aviatrix of the United States

1932: Baltimore Sunday News Outstanding Female Trophy

Famous Aviators Wall, Mission Inn, Riverside, CA

Civil Air Patrol: Distinguished Service Award; Exceptional Service Award; Meritorious ServiceAward with Cluster

OX5 Club of America, Broadwick Award --Outstanding Aviatrix

Citation: The Society of Experimental Test Pilots

Airport: Louise M. Thaden Field, Bentonville, AR

1974: The Louise M. Thaden Office & Library, Staggerwing Museum, Tullahoma, TN

OX5 Pioneer Aviators Hall of Fame

1973: OX5 Silver Wings Achievement Award

1980: Arkansas Aviation Hall of Fame

1988: First Flight Society Aviation Hall of Fame, Kitty Hawk, NC

1989: Virginia Aviation Hall of Fame

1989: Recreation flight, 1929 First Women's Air Derby, 60th Anniversary, Susan Dusenbury, pilot

1991-04-05: Flying helmet taken aboard Atlantis Space Shuttle by Mission Specialist Linda Goodwin, Ph.D., NASA Flight #STS-37

1996-08: Staggerwing Beech Commemorative Tour honoring Louise Thaden, winner of 1936 Bendix Transcontinental Air Race; 60th Anniversary

1997-07: Award of Achievement, The Ninety-Nines, Inc.

1999-04: The International Aerospace Hall of Fame of the San Diego Aerospace Museum

1999-07: National Aviation Hall of Fame, Dayton OH

2003-03: Women in Aviation, International --named as one of the "100 Women Who Made a Difference" in the history of aviation, 14th annual conference

Louise Thaden Woman of the Year Award --Annual presentation by Bentonville/Bella Vista Chamber of Commerce at the NW AR Business Women's Conference, began 2000

2000-03: Women in Aviation, International Pioneer Hall of Fame
Provenance:
William Thaden, gift, 1983, XXXX-0006, NASM
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Periodicals  Search this
Women in aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Publications
Diaries
Maps
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Correspondence
Citation:
Louise McPhetridge Thaden Collection, Acc. XXXX-0006, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0006
See more items in:
Louise McPhetridge Thaden Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0006
Additional Online Media:

Hans Groenhoff Photographic Collection

Creator:
Groenhoff, Hans  Search this
Names:
Groenhoff, Hans  Search this
Extent:
5.27 Cubic feet (41 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Aerial photographs
Date:
1933-1975
Summary:
Hans Groenhoff (1906-1985) was a celebrated American aviation photographer from the 1930s through the 1960s, also working as a pilot, journalist, editor, correspondent, and—in his retirement years—as an aviation tourism publicist for the Bahamas. This collection of 25,550 images consists of Groenhoff's collection of negatives and transparencies, spanning his career from 1933 to 1975.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of Groenhoff's collection of negatives and transparencies, spanning his career from 1933 to 1975, and includes images of military and civilian aircraft and events, glider and sailplane activities, air shows and races, airlines and airports, weather (clouds) and aerial images.
Arrangement:
Series 1: 1962 Acquisition, approximately 24,250 images; photography made by Groenhoff in the period 1933 to 1962, consists of mixed medium format black-and-white negative single-sheet or cut-frame roll film (Subseries 1, HGA), 35mm black-and-white roll film (Subseries 2, HGD), and mixed medium format color transparency (positive) film (Subseries 3, HGC), as well as black-and-white print enlargements made by the Smithsonian of selected images. Also included in this series are a small number of posed portraits of Groenhoff at work.

Series 2: 1984 Acquisition (HGB), approximately 1,300 images; photography made by Groenhoff in the 1960s and 1970s, primarily during his employment with the Bahamas Ministry of Tourism, consists of mixed format black-and-white and color roll film and a small number of 35mm color slides.

Series 3: "Focus On Flight" Exhibit and Book Materials. This small series consists of mixed materials (copy photography and documents) used in the creation of the NASM exhibit, Focus on Flight: Four Decades of Aerial Photography (Rudy Arnold and Hans Groenhoff) (November 1984 through September 1985), and the related book by curator E. T. (Tim) Wooldridge, Focus on Flight: The Aviation Photography of Hans Groenhoff, published for the National Air and Space Museum by Smithsonian Institution Press (Washington, D.C.), 1985.
Biographical/Historical note:
Hans Groenhoff (1906-1985) was born and educated in Germany, but emigrated to the United States in 1927. Residing in New York City, Groenhoff pursued his interest in aviation and photography. Following in the footsteps of his brother Günther, a famous aviator and pioneer glider pilot in Germany, Hans Groenhoff became an active glider pilot in the nearby Elmira, New York, area, nurturing a lifelong fascination with clouds and aerial photography. Groenhoff's photography career took off when he inherited two cameras following the death of his brother in a glider accident in 1932; he went on to work as a photographer, journalist, editor, and correspondent, with his photographs and articles published in mainstream magazines such as Life, Colliers, Esquire, National Geographic, and The Saturday Evening Post, as well as aviation publications such as Air Trails Pictorial, Sportsman Pilot, Aero Digest, and especially Flying and Popular Aviation, for whom he was a regular correspondent. Groenhoff also shot advertising and publicity photography for aircraft manufacturers and the U.S. Army Air Forces. Following the death of his first wife, Fridel Barth, in 1954, Groenhoff moved to the Miami, Florida, area to take advantage of better weather for photographing aircraft. In 1956, Groenhoff married Frances Semman, who assisted him in his work. In his retirement years, Groenhoff was employed by the Bahamas Government to promote the Islands as a tourist destination for private and sport aviation, founding their popular "Bahamas Flying Treasure Hunt" events which ran annually for several years.

Hans Groenhoff's aviation photography career is documented in the book Focus on Flight: The Aviation Photography of Hans Groenhoff by E. T. Woodridge (Smithsonian Institution, 1985).
Provenance:
Hans Groenhoff, Purchase, 1962, 1984, NASM.XXXX.0359, NASM
Restrictions:
Physical access to film originals (negatives, transparencies, and slides) requires notice a minimum of two business days in advance of visit to allow for retrieval of materials from cold storage.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aerial photography  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Gliders  Search this
Airlines  Search this
Airports  Search this
Aeronautics -- Competitions  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
Women air pilots  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Seaplanes  Search this
Airships  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Aerial Photographs
Citation:
Hans Groenhoff Photographic Collection, Acc. XXXX.0359, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0359
See more items in:
Hans Groenhoff Photographic Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0359
Additional Online Media:

Helen G. James Collection

Extent:
0.13 Cubic feet (1 box)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
1952-1955, 2018
bulk 1952-1955
Summary:
This collection consists of one nine by six inch green photograph album containing 70 pages of back and white images, mostly snapshots, relating to Helen G. James' United States Air Force career, 1952-1955. The collection also contains James' military and discharge records as well as legal documents from her discharge lawsuit.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of one nine by six inch green photograph album containing 70 pages of back and white images, mostly snapshots, relating to Helen G. James' United States Air Force career, 1952-1955. The collection also contains James' military and discharge records as well as legal documents from her discharge lawsuit, and two photographs of a bronze cast sculpture of James' hand, holding her dog tag.
Arrangement:
Collection is in original order.
Biographical / Historical:
Helen G. James, born and raised in rural Pennsylvania, enlisted in the US Air Force in 1952. Receiving positive performance evaluations, she was promoted from radio operator to crew chief, achieving the rank of Airman Second Class. While stationed at Roslyn Air Force Base, James came under investigation by the Office of Special Investigations (OSI) as part of the "Lavender Scare," the campaign to remove all lesbian and gay people from government employment in the 1950s. She was arrested and discharged as "undesirable" with no severance pay or other benefits. James then moved to California where she got an advanced degree in physical therapy from Stanford University. In 1972, she began teaching in the physical therapy program at California State University at Fresno and in 1989 she went into private practice. During the 1960s James successfully upgraded her status from "undesirable" to "General Discharge under Honorable conditions." As her less than honorable discharge status was always on her mind she successfully sued the US Air Force in January 2018 to have her discharge upgraded to honorable. James is now eligible for all Veterans benefits, including access to heath care for the US Department of Veterans Affairs and burial in a national cemetery.
Provenance:
Helen James, Gift, 2018, NASM.2018.0042
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Women in aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Citation:
Helen G. James Collection, NASM.2018.0042, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2018.0042
See more items in:
Helen G. James Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2018-0042
Additional Online Media:

Ninety-Nines, Inc. History Books Collection

Creator:
Ninety-Nines (Organization)  Search this
Names:
Air Race Classic  Search this
Angel Derby  Search this
Ninety-Nines (Organization)  Search this
Powder Puff Derby  Search this
Earhart, Amelia, 1897-1937  Search this
Thaden, Louise (McPhetridge), Mrs, 1905-1979  Search this
Extent:
8.73 Cubic feet (23 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Publications
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Date:
1929-1981
Summary:
The Ninety-Nines, Inc. History Books Collection consists of scrapbooks (yearbooks) complied by the officers of the Ninety-Nines to document the organization. Included in the yearbooks are the following: photographs of the members and officers; news clippings of the organization, individual chapters and sections, and about individual members; programs from air races, including Air Race Classic, Angel Derby, and the Powder Puff Derby; minutes from the annual meetings; and newsletters of the organization, The 99news, Ninety-Nine News, and Ninety-niner.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of 19 bound scrapbooks and 34 unbound scrapbooks chronicling the history of the Ninety-Nines. Some of the volumes are described with a date range (September 1, 1937 -- September 1, 1938), while others are described with a volume number and date range (Volume 28, 1956 -- 1957). Organization of the Ninety-Nines History Books varies somewhat over the years. Usually, the books begin with photographs of the officers of the national organization, followed by minutes and a program from the annual meeting. The books end with copies of The Ninety-Nines Newsletters from the previous year. Additional contents of each book are dependent upon the events that happened in a particular year. In the early years of the organization, the books include further refinements of the constitution and by-laws, and various newspaper and magazine articles regarding accomplishments of the organization or individual members. In subsequent years, the history books focus more on the air races in which members participated or various events sponsored by the organization.

The researcher will note that in 1953 volume numbers were assigned to the books. For the sake of continuity and clarity in the finding aid, the processing archivist assigned volume numbers where appropriate. These numbers appear in square brackets where appropriate, i.e. [35]. Due to the fragile nature of the bound scrapbooks, photocopying may not be possible.
Arrangement:
The Ninety-Nines, Inc. History Books Collection is arranged chronologically, by date and/or volume number.
Biographical/Historical note:
On November 2, 1929, twenty-six licensed women pilots gathered together at Curtiss Field, Valley Stream, Long Island, New York, to discuss the formation of a club "to promote women pilots among themselves, and to encourage other women to fly, as well as to break down general opposition to aviation." (1) After that first meeting, letters were sent out to the 117 licensed women pilots in the United States, giving all of them the opportunity to become charter members in the new club. The name of the club was to be determined by the number of women who wished to join. When 99 letters were returned by the approved date, the club became known as The Ninety-Nines. Many famous female pilots of the time, including Amelia Earhart, Ruth Elder, Viola Gentry, Phoebe Omlie, and Louise Thaden were charter members.

In the succeeding years, The Ninety-Nines have ably fulfilled the purpose set forth in the original letter. Many aviation records have been set by members of The Ninety-Nines. Amelia Earhart was the first woman to pilot an aircraft across the Atlantic and, in 1936, Louise Thaden and Blanche Noyes won the Bendix Trophy Race. Since 1941, the organization has bestowed a variety of scholarships and grants to members who are seeking advanced training in specialized branches of aviation. Today, the Ninety-Nines, Inc. has grown to include 6,500 members in 35 countries.

(1) Clara Trenckmann to Mr. Skinner and Mr. Mellen, October 1, 1929. "September 1, 1929 -- September 1, 1930," Folder 1, Box 1, Ninety-Nines, Inc. History Books Collection (Acc.XXXX-0470). Archives Division, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.
Provenance:
Ninety-Nines, Inc., unknown, XXXX-0470
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Periodicals  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- Societies, etc.  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
Women in aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Publications
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Citation:
Ninety-Nines Inc., History Books Collection, Acc. XXXX-0470, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0470
See more items in:
Ninety-Nines, Inc. History Books Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0470
Additional Online Media:

Pilots' Licenses Collection

Names:
Aero Club of America  Search this
National Aeronautic Association (U.S.)  Search this
Coffyn, Frank, 1878-1960  Search this
Havens, Beckwith.  Search this
Keightley, George M., 1889-1967  Search this
Upson, Ralph Hazlett, 1888-1968  Search this
Extent:
0.33 Cubic feet (1 box)
Container:
Box 107 (Shared)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Ephemera
Identity cards
Date:
1911-1944
Summary:
This collection contains examples of pilot's licenses that were issued in the early 20th century. It includes licenses from various nations such as France, Italy, Canada and the United States.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of a variety of pilot's licenses issued by civilian, government and military organizations dating from 1911 to 1944. The collection contains 52 items, and includes a variety of license types and personal effects relating to each pilot. Licenses issued by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) form a large portion of the non-military parts of the collection, with four of the FAI's founding organizations being featured in the collection. These are Aero Club D'Italia, the Aero Club of America, the Aéro-Club de France and the Royal Aero Club. The US Navy and Air Corps form the majority of military licenses in the collection, with licenses issued by the US Department of Commerce representing civil licenses issued by the Government. Included with many licenses in the collection are other forms of personnel identification attributed to the individual. Examples of these personal effects include a firearms license, an Aviation country club membership card, a business cards and a London-issued driver's license.

Included in this collection are licenses belonging to Raymond Emmanuel Bollack, Laura Bromwell, John Milton Bryant, Frank T. Coffyn, Curtis La Q. Day, Richard Duncan, Lester D. Gardner, G. S. Gillespie, Paul R. Gruhler, Beckwith Havens, Frederick A. Hoover, George M. Keightley, Benjamin Scovill Kelsey, Alfred S. Koch, Lawrence Leon, Grover Loening, Zenos Ramsey Miller, Thomas DeWitt Milling, Charles L. Morris, Thea Rasche, Roland Rohlfs, D. deR. M. Scarrit, Walter J. Shaffer, Thomas E. Springer, Norman Sweetser, Alexander Blair Thaw II, Ralph H. Upson, Clifford L. Webster and E. A. Yeager. A blank license attributed to the Service de la Navigation Aérienne is also included.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged by alphabetical order by last name of the licensee.
Biographical / Historical:
Pilot's licenses became a requirement in the United States after the 1926 Air Commerce Act, however, private organizations issued their own licenses prior to this date. Prominent international organizations, such as the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI), issued licenses to aviators around the world. The FAI was founded in 1905 through the collaboration of aviation clubs from eight countries, those being France, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Great Britain, Spain, Switzerland, and the United States. These licenses often served to allow individuals to participate in aeronautic events endorsed by these organizations. Licenses were available for different vehicles with licenses available across various disciplines, with examples being separate documents for balloonists and heavier-than-air pilots. Military organizations often had their own licenses with their own standards. Including examples of licenses issued by various international organizations, the collection provides insight into the types of license that were issued to military and civilian pilots during the first half of the twentieth century.
Provenance:
Gifts and transfers from various sources and unknown, NASM.XXXX.0650.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Air pilots  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Women air pilots  Search this
Genre/Form:
Identity cards
Citation:
Pilots' Licenses Collection, NASM.XXXX.0650, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0650
See more items in:
Pilots' Licenses Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0650
Additional Online Media:

Shakir S. Jerwan Scrapbooks

Creator:
Jerwan, Shakir S., 1881-1942  Search this
Names:
Moisant Aviation School  Search this
Moisant International Aviators, Inc.  Search this
Audemars, Edmond  Search this
Barrier, Rene  Search this
Byrd, Richard Evelyn, 1888-1957  Search this
Cabrera, Manuel Estrada  Search this
Carranza, Venustiano, General  Search this
Frisbie, John J.  Search this
Garros, Roland  Search this
Jerwan, Shakir S., 1881-1942  Search this
Miller, Bernetta Adams.  Search this
Moisant, Alfred, 1862-1929  Search this
Moisant, Matilde, 1887-1964  Search this
Niles, Charles  Search this
Quimby, Harriet, 1875-1912  Search this
Simon, Rene  Search this
Extent:
0.87 Cubic feet (2 boxes; 1 folder)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Correspondence
Date:
1911-1919
Summary:
The Shakir S. Jerwan Scrapbooks Collection contains material from the period 1911-1919. During this period, Jerwan was Chief Pilot at the Moisant School of Aviation, Garden City, New York, and Director of Military Aviation for the government of Guatemala.
Scope and Contents:
This collection documents events in Shakir S. Jerwan's career during the period of 1911 to 1919. Scrapbook photographs (many signed) feature Jerwan's pupils and pilots at the Moisant School and of the Moisant International Aviators, including Harriet Quimby, Matilde Moisant, Bernetta Adams Miller, Roland Garros, René Barrier, René Simon and Edmond Audemars. Other photographs include John Frisbie and his man-carrying kites, Charles Niles and his Looper, and Monoplane, Jerwan's flying dog. Also included are a brochure and drawings for the Aeromotor Boat, designed by Shakir Jerwan and his brother, Fuad (Fred) Jerwan. Correspondence includes letters between Shakir Jerwan and Manuel Estrada Cabrera, president of Guatemala, and Venustiano Carranza, later president of Mexico.
Arrangement:
The collection consists of one photographic album and one scrapbook.
Biographical / Historical:
Shakir Saliba Jerwan (1881-1942), the son of a Protestant minister, was born in Beirut, Lebanon, then part of the Ottoman Empire. In 1904, Jerwan immigrated to the United States and became a citizen in 1910. In 1911, he learned to fly, earning F.A.I. license number 54. Jerwan was chief pilot for the Moisant School of Aviation, Garden City, New York from 1912 to 1914. From 1915 to 1919 he served as Director of Military Aviation in Guatemala. Jerwan returned to the United States in 1919. His later career was as a hotelier. He was a member of the Early Birds of Aviation.
Provenance:
Shakir S. Jerwan, gift, date unknown, XXXX-0231
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics -- History  Search this
Women in aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Military -- Guatemala  Search this
Aeronautics -- 1910-1920  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Air pilots -- Correspondence  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1910-1920
Citation:
Shakir S. Jerwan Scrapbooks Collection, Acc. XXXX.0231, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0231
See more items in:
Shakir S. Jerwan Scrapbooks
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0231
Additional Online Media:

Early Aviation Newsclippings Collection

Extent:
22.08 Cubic feet ((19 boxes))
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Newspaper clippings
Date:
bulk 1897-1934
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of newspaper clippings relating to airships, balloons, and early aircraft. The material includes articles on famous inventors, as well as accidents, predictions, war arms, weather bureau reports, and women in aeronautics.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Airships  Search this
Airplanes  Search this
Women in aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Newspaper clippings
Citation:
Early Aviation Newsclippings Collection, Acc. XXXX-0420, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0420
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0420
Additional Online Media:

Women and Flight: Portraits of Contemporary Women Pilots Collection

Creator:
Russo, Carolyn  Search this
Extent:
2.36 Cubic feet ((6 boxes))
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Transcripts
Biographies
Date:
bulk 1992-1997
Scope and Contents:
This collection will consist of three series of materials: biographical material, transcripts of interviews with the pilots and negatives and photographs. The contact sheets were added on March 26, 2007. A copy of the media digest for Women in Flight, (prepared by NASM's Office of Public Affairs) was added to this collection in June of 2007.
Biographical / Historical:
Women and Flight: Portraits of Contemporary Women Pilots, by Carolyn Russo, was published in 1997 by the National Air and Space Museum in association with Bulfinch Press. The work is a combination of Russo's photography and her interviews with each pilot.
Provenance:
Carolyn Russo, Gift, 2001
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Women air pilots  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Transcripts
Biographies
Citation:
Women and Flight: Portraits of Contemporary Women Pilots Collection, Acc. 2001-0022, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2001.0022
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2001-0022
Additional Online Media:

Rubye Berau Collection

Creator:
Berau, Rubye, 1900-1978  Search this
Names:
National Air Races  Search this
Ninety-Nines (Organization)  Search this
Doolittle, James Harold, 1896-1993  Search this
Harter, Harry  Search this
Kitchingman, Ray "Kitch"  Search this
Settle, Thomas G. W.  Search this
Smith, Babe Walker  Search this
Extent:
0.18 Cubic feet (1 flat box)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Articles
Logs (records)
Telegrams
Tickets
Place:
Ohio -- Akron
Date:
bulk 1931-1977
Summary:
The Rubye Berau Collection measures 0.18 cubic feet and dates from 1931-1977. The collection materials document Berau's aviation career.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of the following types of material chronicling the aviation career of Rubye Berau: scrapbook pages; photographs, including shots of Berau, Babe Walker Smith, Admiral T. G. W. Settle, Harry Harter, Major Addison, Ray "Kitch" Kitchingman, Jimmy Doolittle, and groups shots of Squadron of Death (S. O. D.) members; newspaper articles; Berau's logbook (1931-1936); Berau's 1935 noncommercial pilot's license; telegram; S.O.D. Emblem; and autographed National Air Race tickets, 1934-1935.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
Biographical / Historical:
Rubye Berau (1900-1978) was the proprietor of "The Canteen" in Akron, Ohio, when she became interested in aviation. In 1931, she became a member of the Squadron of Death (S.O.D.), an all-woman group of student fliers based at the Akron Airport. The Squadron had thirteen members and met the second Friday of each month and always on a Friday the 13th. Berau completed her training under Ray "Kitch" Kitchingman and received her pilot's license on August 23, 1932. She was part of an act with Babe Smith Walker, where Berau flew the aircraft and Walker was the parachute jumper. Berau also bought an aircraft, flown by Kitchingman, which was used to charter trips. She was a member of the Ninety-Nines.
Provenance:
Robert B. Cooley, Gift, 2004, NASM.2004.0066
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Women air pilots  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Genre/Form:
Scrapbooks
Photographs
Articles
Logs (records)
Telegrams
Tickets
Citation:
Rubye Berau Collection, Acc. 2004.0066, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2004.0066
See more items in:
Rubye Berau Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2004-0066
Additional Online Media:

United States Women in Aviation through World War I

Creator:
Oakes, Claudia M.  Search this
Names:
Clark, Julia.  Search this
Dutrieu, Helene.  Search this
Law, Ruth  Search this
Moisant, Matilde, 1887-1964  Search this
Myers, Mary, "Carlotta Queen of the Air"  Search this
Quimby, Harriet, 1875-1912  Search this
Raiche, Bessica.  Search this
Scott, Blanche Stuart, 1889-1970  Search this
Snook, Neta  Search this
Stinson, Katherine  Search this
Stinson, Marjorie  Search this
Extent:
0.74 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
circa 1909-1978
bulk 1904-1920
Summary:
This collection consists of research material used by National Air and Space Curator Claudia Oakes to prepare the publication United States Women in Aviation through World War I (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978).
Scope and Contents:
The material in this collection consists of photographs, photocopies of news clippings, correspondence, and biographies of the women who participated in the aviation field, not only in the United States but throughout the world, from 1880 through World War I. The women highlighted include: Ada Acosta, Ruth Law, Helene Dutrieu, Julia Clark, Alys McKey Bryant, Tiny Broadwick, Bernetta Miller, Matilde Moisant, Mary "Carlotta" Myers, Bessica Raiche, Harriet Quimby, Blanche Stuart Scott, Neta Snook, and Katherine and Marjorie Stinson.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged accordingly:

Series I: Photographs

Series II: Claudia Oakes' Notes

Series III: Subject Files

The first group of materials contains photographs of the women who participated in the aviation field, not only in the United States but throughout the world, from 1880 through World War I. Most photographs are identified by subject (pilot or aircraft name), date, captions, and, whenever possible, by Smithsonian's negative numbers.

The second group of materials includes the author's written notes and correspondence.

The third group of documents provides valuable biographical information about specific aviatrixes. These files are arranged in alphabetical order by subject.
Biographical / Historical:
This collection of photographs, written notes, articles, photocopies of news clippings, correspondence, and biographies was used by Claudia M. Oakes to prepare the publication, United States Women in Aviation Through World War I (Smithsonian Institution Press: Washington, D.C., 1978). She donated these materials sometime after the book's completion.
Provenance:
Claudia M. Oakes, transfer, 1989
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Women in aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Citation:
United States Women In Aviation Through World War I Collection, Acc. XXXX-0424, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0424
See more items in:
United States Women in Aviation through World War I
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0424
Additional Online Media:

Daisy Mae Miller Wright-Martin Aircraft Corporation Uniform Photographs

Creator:
Miller, Daisy Mae, 1894-1977  Search this
Names:
Wright-Martin Aircraft Co  Search this
Extent:
0.01 Cubic feet (1 folder)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
Circa 1918
Summary:
This collection consists of a page from a photo album featuring three photographs of Daisy Mae Miller dressed in her Wright-Martin Aircraft Corporation uniform. The page also contains information written by Miller about her time working for Wright-Martin.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of a page from a photo album featuring three photographs of Daisy Mae Miller dressed in her Wright-Martin Aircraft Corporation uniform. The page also contains information written by Miller about her time working for Wright-Martin.
Arrangement:
Collection is in original order.
Biographical / Historical:
In 1916 the Wright Company merged with the Glenn L. Martin Company to form the Wright-Martin Aircraft Corporation. Wright-Martin was initially located in New Brunswick, New Jersey and in 1918 a second factory was opened in Long Island City, New York. The company produced aircraft, including the Wright-Martin Model R and Wright-Martin Model V. Wright-Martin also held the American license to produce Hispano-Suiza engines, the demand for which increased dramatically during World War I causing the company to shift focus to engine manufacture. Wright-Martin was dissolved in 1919.

Daisy Mae Miller (1894-1977) worked for Wright-Martin Aircraft Corporation in their Long Island City facility.
Provenance:
Janet St. Pierre, Gift, 2019, NASM.2019.0033
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Women in aeronautics  Search this
Photographs  Search this
Aircraft industry  Search this
Citation:
Daisy Mae Miller Wright-Martin Aircraft Corporation Uniform Photographs, NASM.2019.0033, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2019.0033
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2019-0033
Additional Online Media:

Blanche Stuart Scott Collection

Creator:
Scott, Blanche Stuart, 1889-1970  Search this
Names:
Air Force Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Scott, Blanche Stuart, 1889-1970  Search this
Extent:
0.75 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Date:
1911-1969
Summary:
This collection consists of memorabilia relating to Blanche Stuart Scott. The material includes her certificates, membership cards, and ribbons, as well as a collection of newspaper clippings dating from 1939-1969.
Contents note:
The Blanche Stuart Scott Collection (NASM.XXXX.0062) contains approximately one cubic foot of material relating to the pioneer aviatrix. It includes correspondence, memorabilia and a great many newspaper clippings which have been photocopied onto acid-free paper.
Arrangement:
Original order, when identified, has been maintained.
Biographical/Historical note:
Blanche Stuart "Betty" Scott was born April 8, 1889, in Rochester, New York, where her father had a patent medicine business. Impetuous by nature, she soon attracted the attention and ire of the local authorities. The Rochester City Council objected to a thirteen year old driving an automobile about their city. However, there was not yet a minimum age for driving; Blanche was able to continue with her motoring trips.

A few years later, she would again make headlines behind the wheel of a car. In 1910, after attending finishing school, Scott became one of the first women to drive an automobile cross-country, travelling from New York to San Francisco. The trip was sponsored by the Willys-Overland Company and the car dubbed "Lady Overland." At the time, there were only 218 miles of paved road outside of the cities of the United States. Scott's trip totaled over six thousand miles, zigzagging between Overland dealers. Scott was accompanied by newspaperwoman Gertrude Buffington Phillips, who did no driving but filed reports as they progressed westward. They left New York on May 16 and reached San Francisco on July 23, 1910.

The trip had given Scott a taste for adventure and publicity. After meeting the press agent for Curtiss, Scott went to Hammondsport, New York, in August or September of 1910. She was accepted as Glenn H. Curtiss's first and only female student. Her first flight was on a 35 hp Curtiss pusher fitted with a governor to prevent takeoff on a student's taxi down the field. However, during one of Scott's "grass-cutting" sessions, a gust of wind lifted her suddenly airborne. She achieved a true solo flight shortly thereafter.

There is conflicting evidence regarding the exact date of Blanche Stuart Scott's first solo flight. That date was recognized by the Early Birds to be September 6, 1910. The date is variously given in newspaper accounts as early as August 18, 1910 and as late as mid-October of that year. Unfortunately, a fire reportedly claimed some of Ms. Scott's personal memorabilia during her lifetime. Whether Blanche Stuart Scott or Bessica Raiche was indeed America's first female aviator may never be determined.

After instruction, she joined Glenn Curtiss's Exhibition Team and made her first public appearance in Fort Wayne, Indiana, on October 24, 1910. Thus began the career of the woman who indisputably holds the title of America's first female professional flier, then billed as "The Tomboy of the Air." During her exhibition career she earned up to five thousand dollars a week, appearing in meets with such luminaries as Lincoln Beachey and Harriet Quimby.

In 1911, Scott found herself in the odd position of inadvertently setting an aviation record. Scott took off from Mineola one afternoon and impulsively flew sixty miles before alighting back at the field. It was the first woman's long distance flight.

Not long after, Scott became the first female test pilot. After contracting to fly for Glenn L. Martin in 1912, she flew Martin prototypes before the final blueprints for the aircraft had been made. In 1913, Scott joined the Ward Exhibition Team. She retired from active flying in 1916.

By the 1930s Scott was working in media, both print and broadcast. She spent nine years in California, writing for RKO, Universal, Warner Brothers, and other studios. In a succession of radio shows, Scott appeared as "Roberta" on Hollywood and Rochester area stations, which she wrote and produced. She would also try her hand at stage appearances and short story writing.

On September 6, 1948, Scott was once again achieving distinction. On a flight with pilot Charles E. Yeager in a TF-80C, she became the first American woman to ride in a jet. For the pleasure of his passenger, Yeager included some snap rolls and a 14,000 foot dive.

With her skills and experience, Blanche Stuart Scott was uniquely suited for her next mission. Beginning in 1954, she began work for the United States Air Force Museum. Acting as a travelling public relations unit, she sought to obtain materials related to early flight for that museum's collection.

Blanche Stuart Scott passed away on January 12, 1970. She was a member of the Early Birds, the OX-5 Club, and the Long Island Early Fliers Club.
Provenance:
Unknown, unknown, NASM.XXXX.0062.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Women in aeronautics  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Periodicals  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Blanche Stuart Scott Collection, Acc. NASM.XXXX.0062, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0062
See more items in:
Blanche Stuart Scott Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0062
Additional Online Media:

Mary Billy Cline Quinn Collection

Creator:
Quinn, Mary Billy Cline, 1902 (date of birth)  Search this
Extent:
0.1 Cubic Feet (2 folders)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Publications
Date:
1929-1963
Summary:
This collection documents the flying career of Mary Billy Cline Quinn.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of the following types of material: aviator licenses, correspondence, pilot's logs, certificates, photographs, and newspaper clippings.
Arrangement:
The two folders in this collection are arranged by format. Folder 1 includes paper materials; folder 2, photographs.
Biographical / Historical:
Mary Billy Cline Quinn was born May 5, 1902, in Erie, Kansas. She studied law at the University of Kansas and graduated from the Kansas State Teachers College before making her career in aviation. She held Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI)/National Aeronautic Association (NAA) license #7580 and transport pilot license #12647, as well as sporting and foreign licenses. On July 2, 1930, Quinn set a brief world altitude record for a woman in a light plane, reaching 17,500 feet.
General:
The Aeronautics Department holds several artifacts relating to this collection:

1. A20030022000 - Jacket, Flying, Civilian

2. A20030023000 - Helmet, Cap, Flying, Civilian

3. A20030024000 - Gloves, Flying, Civilian

4. A20030025000 - Boots, Flying, Civilian

5. A20030026000 - Goggles, Flying Civilian

6. A20030027000 - Bracelet, Civilian

7. A20030028000 - Letter Opener, Civilian
Provenance:
Beth Q. Vaughn, Gift, October 2002, NASM.2003.0002
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Women in aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- Records  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Publications
Citation:
Mary Billy Cline Quinn Collection, Acc. NASM.2003.0002, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2003.0002
See more items in:
Mary Billy Cline Quinn Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2003-0002
Additional Online Media:

Betty Skelton Collection

Creator:
Skelton, Betty, 1926-  Search this
Names:
Fellow Lady Astronaut Trainees (FLATS, "Mercury 13")  Search this
Pitts Aviation Enterprises, Inc  Search this
Pitts S-1 Special, Little Stinker  Search this
Project Mercury (U.S.)  Search this
Extent:
8.21 Cubic Feet (10 legal document boxes, 4 flatboxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Advertisements
Clippings
Date:
circa 1920-2005
Summary:
In 2002 Betty Skelton donated a collection of materials outlining her career as an aviatrix and race car driver to the National Air and Space Museum. The donated material consists primarily of news clippings, pamphlets, magazines, photographs, and scrapbooks covering the span of Ms. Skelton's career.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists primarily of news clippings, pamphlets, magazines, photographs, and scrapbooks covering the span of Ms. Skelton's career.
Arrangement:
The collection has been divided into three series. The first series contains information on Betty Skelton's personal life, including birth and wedding announcements and family photos. The second, pertaining to her professional life, spans a broad range of materials covering the various careers pursued by Ms. Skelton. The third series consists of oversized items such as scrapbooks and large format magazines. Each series is further divided by format (i.e. news clippings, brochures, and photographs) and then chronologically.

SERIES I: Personal

News clippings; Photographs

SERIES II: Professional

News clippings, Programs and Pamphlets; Correspondence; Magazines/Press Releases; Photographs; Negatives

SERIES III: Oversized Materials
Biographical / Historical:
Betty Skelton Frankman, noted aviatrix, automobile test driver, race car driver, and business woman, was born in 1926 in Pensacola, Florida. Her interest in aviation was kindled at a young age while watching Navy stunt pilots practice. Soon, she and her parents began taking flying lessons and Betty soloed for the first time at age 12, four years before the legal age. As soon as she was legally able, age 16, Betty got her pilot's license. At age 19 she joined the Civil Air Patrol while also working as a flight instructor at her father's aviation school. She began a professional career as an aerobatic pilot in 1946, flying a 1929 Great Lakes 2T1A biplane. In 1948, while flying that aircraft, Betty won her first International Aerobatic Championship for Women. She would repeat this achievement in 1949 and 1950 while flying a Pitts-Special S-1C that she nicknamed "Little Stinker." By 1951 Betty realized that she had gone as far as a woman could go in aviation and retired.

Through a chance meeting with Bill France, the founder of the National Association of Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR), Betty began a second career as a test and race car driver. She set multiple land speed records and two transcontinental speed records. Her work with Dodge and Chevrolet led her to her next career as an advertising executive for Campbell-Ewald Advertising Agency, the firm that handled Chevrolet advertising.

In 1959, Betty was given the opportunity to train with the original Mercury 7 astronauts. She completed the same physical and physiological tests as the astronauts, but knew a woman was not destined to be the first American in space. The experience resulted in only a cover story in LOOK magazine (Vol. 24 No. 3 Feb. 2, 1960). In 1965, Betty married Donald Frankman and, eventually, the two moved to Florida and started a real estate business.

Betty held more combined aviation and automotive records than any other person. Her aviation achievements included: a world speed record for piston engine aircraft (unofficial), two light plane altitude records, and three international aerobatic championships. Her achievements in the automotive field included a women's closed course speed record (144.02 mph), a speed record for 200-249 cubic inch piston displacement (105.8 mph), a 24-hour stock car endurance record, a transcontinental record New York to Los Angeles (56 hrs 58 mins.), four land speed records, a South American transcontinental auto speed record, and multiple Bonneville Speed and Endurance Records.

She was also inducted into many halls of fame including, the International Aerobatic Hall of Fame, the NASCAR International Motorsports Hall of Fame, the Corvette Hall of Fame, the Tampa Sports Hall of Fame, and the Florida Women's Hall of Fame. In 1985, Betty and Don donated her Pitts Special "Little Stinker" to the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum (NASM). It currently hangs at the entrance to NASM's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center at Dulles, Virginia. Betty and her second husband, Dr. Allan Erde, retired to The Villages, Florida, a popular retirement community where many residents use golf carts to get from place to place. But Betty, in keeping with her moniker as the "fastest woman on Earth," drove a bright red Corvette convertible. She died at her home on August 31, 2011, at the age of 85.

The following timeline covers key events in Skelton's life, as well as in the aerospace and automotive industries. Events involving Skelton are shown in normal type while those of the latter are shown in italics.

Timeline of Betty Skelton

6/28/1926 -- Betty is born in Pensacola, Florida

May 1927 -- Charles Lindbergh makes the first solo west to east transatlantic flight

May 1932 -- Amelia Earhart becomes first women to solo across the Atlantic

1937 -- Amelia Earhart and Captain Fred Noonan go missing

12/7/1941 -- Bombing of Pearl Harbor forces American entry into World War II

1942 -- Officially soloed and received pilot's license at age 16

1944 -- Women's Airforce Service Pilots program ends

1945 -- Joins the Civil Air Patrol, eventually achieving rank of Major

May 1945 -- End of War in Europe

August 1945 -- Atom bomb dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki followed by Japanese surrender and end of World War II

1946 -- Begins career as aerobat at Southeastern Air Exposition in Jacksonville, Florida

1947 -- The United States Air Force becomes an independent military service Chuck Yeager breaks the sound barrier becoming the first man to fly faster than the speed of sound

1948 -- Becomes International Aerobatics Champion for women Buys "Little Stinker" Orville Wright dies at age 76 Berlin Airlift begins operation NASCAR is formed

1949 -- Pilots the smallest plane to cross the Irish Sea Represents United States in RAF Pageant – Belfast, Ireland Sets World Light Plane Altitude Record (~26,000 ft) First non-stop round the world flight is made by Capt. James Gallagher Represents United States in International Air Pageant – London, United Kingdom Unofficially sets world Speed Record for engine aircraft (426 mph) Retains title as International Aerobatics Champion for women

1950 -- Retains title of International Aerobatics Champion for women Becomes hostess of radio program "Van Wilson's Greeting Time"

1951 -- Four monkeys become the first living creatures to travel in space Retires from Flying Sets World Light Plane Altitude Record (~29,000 ft)

1953 -- Jacqueline Cochran becomes first women to fly faster than the speed of sound Stars in a movie short about motor boat jumping Meets Bill France and takes first ride in pace car

1954 -- Sets Stock Car Flying Mile Record (105.88 mph) Sets new world women's closed course record (144.02 mph) Sets new world women's closed course record (143.44 mph) First woman to drive an Indy Car

1955 -- Participates in Stock Car Endurance Run

1956 -- Becomes an advertising executive for Campbell-Ewald Participates in Stock Car Endurance Run First successful launch of a Chrysler Redstone Rocket from Cape Canaveral Sets new land speed record (145.044 mph) Sets transcontinental record New York to Los Angeles (56 hrs 58 mins)

1957 -- Sputnik 2 carries first dog into space Participates in Mobilgas Economy Run Sputnik is launched by the Soviet Union

1958 -- United States launches Explorer 1, the first US satellite to enter Earth's orbit National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is established South American Transcontinental Auto Speed Record (41hrs 14 mins)

1959 -- Trains with Mercury 7 astronauts

1960 -- Participates in Mobilgas Economy Run

1961 -- Alan Shepard becomes the first American in space Participates in Mobilgas Economy Run Yuri Gagarin becomes first man in space

1962 -- Cuban Missile Crisis Participates in Baja Run

1963 -- John F. Kennedy is assassinated Valentina Tereshkova becomes first women in space

1965 -- Sets new land speed record (315 mph) Marries Donald A. Frankman

1967 -- An accident during testing of Apollo 1 kills Virgil Grissom, Roger Chaffee, and Edward White

1969 -- Successfully lobbies to end discrimination against female pilots in air racing Becomes Vice President of Campbell-Ewald's new Women's Market and Advertising Department Apollo 11 is launched with Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins, making Neil Armstrong the first man on the moon

1970 -- Explosion onboard Apollo 13 First scheduled service of the Boeing 747

1972 -- The last manned mission to the moon, Apollo 17 is completed President Nixon announces funding for the building of a reusable space shuttle

1974 -- Charles Lindbergh dies at age 72

1975 -- Apollo/Soyuz Test Project and Soyuz 19 successfully dock in Earth orbit

1977 -- Begins working for First Florida Realty Publishes book Little Stinker British Airways and Air France begin regular Concorde service from New York's JKF Airport National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launches Voyager I & II

1980 -- Jacqueline Cochran dies at age 74

1981 -- Space Shuttle Columbia launches for the first shuttle mission

1983 -- Sally Ride becomes first American woman in space

1985 -- Donates Little Stinker to NASM

1986 -- Space Shuttle Challenger explodes on take off Soviet Union launches Mir Space Station

1988 -- Inducted into International Aerobatic Hall of Fame (1st woman)

1989 -- Destruction of the Berlin Wall

1993 -- Inducted into NASCAR International Motorsports Hall of Fame (1st woman) Inducted into Florida Women's Hall of Fame

1997 -- Inducted into Women in Aviation Pioneer Hall of Fame Mars Pathfinder lands on surface of Mars

2001 -- Space Station Mir ends its 15 year life in space Inducted into Corvette Hall of Fame (1st woman) Donald A. Frankman dies

2003 -- Concorde service between the United States and Europe ends Inducted into International Council of Air Shows Foundation Hall of Fame

2005 -- Marries Allan Erde Inducted into National Aviation Hall of Fame

2008 -- Inducted into Motorsports Hall of Fame of America

8/31/2011 -- Betty dies at her home in The Villages, Florida
Provenance:
Betty Skelton, Gift, 2001
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Pitts S-1 Special  Search this
Pitts aircraft  Search this
Aeronautics -- Competitions  Search this
Airplane racing  Search this
Women air pilots  Search this
Women in aeronautics  Search this
Stunt flying  Search this
Automobile racing  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Advertisements
Clippings
Citation:
Betty Skelton Collection, NASM.2002.0002, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2002.0002
See more items in:
Betty Skelton Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2002-0002
Additional Online Media:

Mary Charles Collection

Creator:
Charles, Mary  Search this
Names:
National Air Races  Search this
Ninety-Nines (Organization)  Search this
OX5 Aviation Pioneers.  Search this
Women's Air Reserve  Search this
Women's National Air Corps  Search this
Charles, Mary  Search this
Extent:
1.41 Cubic Feet (1 letter-size document box; 2 flat boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Correspondence
Photographs
Publications
Scrapbooks
Date:
1931-1966
bulk 1932-1936
Summary:
The Mary Charles Collection consists of documents, photographs, and scrapbooks collected/assembled by (Sarah) Mary Charles between 1931 and 1966. The collection showcases Charles' activity as a liscensed pilot. The bulk of the collection covers the span between 1931 and 1936.
Scope and Contents:
This collection, encompassing the years of 1931-1966, includes Women's National Air Corps material, Mary Charles' pilot certificates, OX5 Club material, Women's Air Reserve material, autographed photographs, correspondence, and newspaper clippings relating to women in aviation, as well as three scrapbooks covering the 1931 National Air Races in Cleveland.

Note: The digital images in this finding aid were repurposed from scans made by an outside contractor for a commercial product and may show irregular cropping and orientation in addition to color variations resulting from damage to and deterioration of the original objects.
Arrangement:
The Mary Charles Collection is a small collection and, as such, it has no distinct series groupings. Box 1 is arranged in strict chronological order; boxes 2 and 3 are arranged to accomodate a safe fit of the materials in the containers. Titles appearing in brackets [ ] are the archivist's.
Biographical / Historical:
(Sarah) Mary Charles (circa 1887-1972) was a licensed pilot and advocate for women's involvement in aeronautics. She received flying instruction from U.S. Naval Reserve experts at Clover Field, in Santa Monica, California, in 1929, and earned her pilot's license in 1931. Charles participated in the 1931 Cleveland Air Race, where she finished last as a result of engine problems. She did, however, place third in the women's dead stick landing contest.

In 1936, she received instruction in blind flying at Central Airport. Besides being active in the OX5 Club, the Women's International Association of Aeronautics (WIAA), the Ninety-Nines, and The Women Peace Officers Association of California, Charles was also a Captain in the Women's Air Reserve, a group of women pilots organized to fly and give medical treatment in inaccessible stricken areas.
Provenance:
Mary Charles, gift, 1966, XXXX-0011.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Women in aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics -- Exhibitions  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence
Photographs
Publications
Scrapbooks
Citation:
Mary Charles Collection, Accession XXXX-0011, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.XXXX.0011
See more items in:
Mary Charles Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-xxxx-0011
Additional Online Media:

Helen Richey Pilot Log and Collection [Suskalo]

Creator:
Richey, Helen, 1909-1947  Search this
Names:
Bendix Air Races  Search this
Central Airlines  Search this
Great Britain. Air Transport Authority  Search this
United States. Bureau of Air Commerce  Search this
United States. Bureau of Air Commerce. National Air Marking Program  Search this
Women Airforce Service Pilots (U.S.)  Search this
Richey, Helen, 1909-1947  Search this
Extent:
0.1 Cubic Feet (2 folders)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Clippings
Logs (records)
Date:
1933-1944
Summary:
This collection consists of Helen Richey's pilot log for 1944-1945, newspaper clippings covering the period from 1933 to 1944 and seven photographs of Ms. RIchey.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of Helen Richey's pilot log for 1944-1945, newspaper clippings covering the period from 1933 to 1944 and seven photographs of Ms. Richey.
Arrangement:
This collection is in original order.
Biographical / Historical:
Helen Richey (1909 - 1947) was an aviation pioneer who made headlines as a stunt pilot, a racing champion, a holder of speed and altitude records, a flight instructor, an Air Transport Auxiliary (ATA) and Womens Air Service Pilot (WASP) during WWII, the first women to pilot a commercial airliner on a regular scheduled run, and as the first woman to ever fly the United States mail. In April of 1930, Richey enrolled as a student pilot at Bettis Field's Curtiss-Wright flying school and on June 28, 1930, she earned her pilot's license. In December 1930, Richey was granted a limited commercial pilot's license bythe Department of Commerce. During the 1930s, Richey set a number of records and placed in several races, including as a co-pilot to Amelia Earhart in the 1936 Bendix Race. In 1934 Richey applied for a pilot's job with Central Airlines. She was hired and flew Central's route between Washington and Detroit. However, the Bureau of Air Commerce warned Centeral management to keep her on the ground in bad weather and the pilot's union rejected her application for membership. Due to these restrictions, Richey resigned from Central in October 1935. The Bureau of Air Commerce then offered Helen a new job as an air marking pilot for the government. She stayed with the air marking service until 1937 when the job was completed. In 1940 Richey was the first woman to earn an instructor's license and she was appointed an instructor for air cadets at Pittsburgh - Butler Airport. In 1942, she joined the American wing of the British Air Transport Auxiliary (ATA), where she ferried aicraft and needed materials thoughout the British Isles. Richey headed the ATA's American Group from 1942 until April 1943, when she returned to the States and joined the WASPs. Unable to find aviation employment after the WASPs disbanded in 1944, she committed suicide in 1947.
Provenance:
Gene Suskalo, Gift, 1998, NASM.1999.0006
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests
Topic:
Women air pilots  Search this
Women in aeronautics  Search this
Aeronautics, Military  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial -- United States  Search this
Aeronautics, Commercial  Search this
Aeronautics -- Competitions  Search this
Aeronautics  Search this
Airports  Search this
Airports -- Location  Search this
Aeronautics -- Records  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Flight training  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Clippings
Logs (records)
Citation:
Helen Richey Pilot Log and Collection [Suskalo], NASM.1999.0006, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1999.0006
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1999-0006
Additional Online Media:

Photograph of Fokker F.VIIB-3m "Friendship" Crew

Extent:
0.05 Cubic Feet (1 photograph)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographic prints
Date:
1928
Summary:
This collection consists of one 10 x 8 inch brown-toned photograph showing the Fokker F.VIIB-3m "Friendship" crew aboard the SS President Roosevelt.
Scope and Contents:
This collection consists of one 10 x 8 inch brown-toned photograph showing the Fokker F.VIIB-3m "Friendship" crew aboard the SS President Roosevelt at Cherbourg, France where local dignitaries boarded the ship while it was at port there to congratulate them. Shown in the photograph are Amelia Earhart, Wilmer Stultz, and Louis Gordon along with S. H. Wiley, American Consul at Cherbourg; Camille Théodore Quoniam, President of the Cherbourg Chamber of Commerce; Jules Lebrette-Villois, mayor of Cherbourg; and Harry Manning, Captain of the SS President Roosevelt.
Arrangement:
This collection is in original order.
Biographical / Historical:
Amelia Earhart became the first woman to cross the Atlantic Ocean by airplane (as a passenger) in June 1928. She flew in the Fokker F.VIIB-3m "Friendship" with pilot Wilmer Stultz and copilot/mechanic Louis Gordon from Newfoundland, Canada to Wales on a flight that took 20 hours and 40 minutes. The flight brought Earhart international attention and the opportunity to earn a living in aviation. After the flight, the crew traveled to Southampton, England and then returned to New York on the SS President Roosevelt.
Provenance:
Jeff Ballard, Gift, 2018, NASM.2018.0028.
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Women air pilots  Search this
Air pilots  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographic prints
Citation:
Photograph of Fokker F.VIIB-3m "Friendship" Crew, NASM.2018.0028, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.2018.0028
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-2018-0028
Additional Online Media:

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