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Helen L. Peterson papers 1944-1992

Creator:
Peterson, Helen L
Subject:
National Congress of American Indians
City and County of Denver Commission on Community Relations
American Indian Development, Inc
Physical description:
55 linear feet
Culture:
Coeur d'Alene Indians
Colorado River Tribes
Shoshoni Fort Hall
Navajo Indians
Papago
Apache San Carlos
Dakota Indians
Cherokee
Menominee Indians
Salish Indians
Mohawk Indians
Seneca
Bannock Indians
Winnebago Indians
Dakota-Colville
Kootenai Indians
Warm Spring Apache Indians
Type:
Photographs
Collection descriptions
Date:
1944
1944-1992
Topic:
NCAI Bulletin
Local number:
NMAI.AC.016
Notes:
Helen Peterson, an enrolled Oglala Dakota, studied business administration at Colorado State College and the University of Colorado and has had a career as an administrator. In 1948, she was appointed the first director of the Denver mayor's Committee on Human Relations (later the City and county of Denver Commission on Community Relations). In 1953-1961, she served as the executive she served as the executive director of the National Congress of American Indians in Washington, D.C. In 1962, she returned to her former position in Denver, serving there until 1970 except for 1968 when she served as assistant director after she determined and gained approval for the idea that a member of the legal profession should be the director. In 1967-1970 , she also served as executive director of American Indian Development, Inc., an educational organization devoted to helping American Indians expand their activities in community, local, state, and national life. Peterson was later an assistant to the Commissioner with the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs
Peterson was named outstanding American Indian of 1955 at the annual American Indian Exposition at anadarko, Oklahoma. She was given distinguished service awards by Columbia University, Bureau of Indian Affairs, National Congress of American Indians, White Buffalo Council of Denver, and the National Institute for Women of Color. In 1973, she was awarded an honorary doctorate of humane letters from the University of Colorado
Summary:
The collection includes correspondence, notes, miscellaneous administrative documents, financial records, calendars, questionnaires, notes from interviews, survey forms, copies of resolutions, proceedings, speeches, programs, press releases, printed and processed material, and many other types of documents. Mainly these relate to Petersons's career and special interests between 1953 and 1970. There are also a few documents that concern the organizations which Peterson served for periods preceding or following her periods in office. Of special interest are the amterials related to the NCAI, many of which supplement the records in that organization's files. The collection also includes documents that concern a wide range of Indian interests and activities
Cite as:
Helen L. Peterson Papers, National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives
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James E. Curry papers 1935-1955

Creator:
Curry, James E. 1907-1972
Correspondent:
Paul, William L Jr
Subject:
Cohen, Henry
Cohen, Felix
Bingham, Jonathan
United States Bureau of Indian Affairs
National Congress of American Indians
Rosebud Sioux Tribe
Three Affiliated Tribes
Physical description:
121.7 linear feet
Culture:
Alaskan natives
Aleut (Akutan, Pribilof Islands)
Fort Sill Apache
San Carlos Apache
Arapaho Oklahoma
Assiniboine Fort Belknap Fort Peck
Bannock Fort Hall
Blackfeet
Cheyenne Northern Southern
Chickahominy
Chippewa Lac Courte Oreilles
Choctaw Indians
Cocopa Indians
Coeur d'Alene Indians
Croatan
Dakota Big Foot
Dakota Cheyenne River
Dakota Crow Creek
Dakota Devil's Lake
Dakota Flandreau
Dakota Fort Totten
Dakota Lower Brule
Standing Rock Agency
Eskimo Gambell Kiana
Flathead
Haida Kasaan
Hopi
Huron
Iroquois Indians
Kiowa Indians
Maricopa Gila River Salt River
Mohave Fort Mohave
Mohave Apache Fort McDowell
Navajo Indians
Papago
Paiute Fallon Fort McDermitt Moapa Pyramid Lake Shivwits Walker River Yerington
Pima Gila River Salt River
San Felipe
San Ildefonso
San Juan
San Ana
Sandia
Seminole Florida Oklahoma
Shawnee Eastern
Shoshoni Fort Hall
Taos Pyote clan
Tesuque
Tlingit Angoon Craig Juneau Kake Ketchikan Klawak Klukwan Taku Wrangell
Tsimshian Metlakatla
Ute Uintah-Ouray
Zuni Indians
Chickasaw Indians
Osage Indians
Kansa Indians
Umatilla Indians
Fox Indians
Mandan Indians
Arikara Indians
Hidatsa Indians
Crow Indians
Yaqui Indians
Creek Indians
Catawba Indians
Menominee Indians
Comanche Indians
Seri Indians
Sia
Washo Indians
Nez Percé Indians
Seneca
Omaha Indians
Cochiti Indians
Yavapai Indians
Delaware Indians
Sauk Indians
Yuma
Isleta Indians
Caddo Indians
Winnebago Indians
Laguna Indians
Jemez Indians
Colville Indians
Havasupai Indians
Kootenai Indians
Klamath Indians
Kickapoo Indians
Oto Indians
Spokan
Yakama Indians
Cocopa
Walapai
Quinaielt
Lummi Indians
Niska Indians
Stockbridge Indians
Wesort
Tillamook Indians
Missouri Indians
Nooksak
Coeur d'Alene
Dakota Big Foot Cheyenne River Crow Creek Devilʹs Lake Flandreau Fort Totten Lower Brule Mdewakanton Oglala Rosebud Santee Sisseton Wahpeton Standing Rock Yankton
Kalispel Indians
Muckleshoot Indians
Potowatomi
Type:
Letters
Collection descriptions
Clippings
Notes
Legal documents
Place:
Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians of North Carolina
Santa Clara
Date:
1935
1935-1955
Topic:
Indian claims
American Indians--credit
Local number:
NMAI.AC.015
Notes:
James E. Curry was trained in law in Chicago and practiced in that city from 1930 until 1936, serving part of that time as secretary of the local branch of the American Civil Liberties Union. From 1936 to 1938, he was an attorney with the United States Department of the Interior Bureau of Indian Affairs, being largely involved with matters of credit affecting Indians. From 1938 to 1942, he continued service with the Interior Department but worked in several capacities involving the Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration, the department's Consumer Counsel Division, and the Puerto Rico Water Resources Authority
In 1945, Curry returned to Washington and set up private practice, also maintaining for a time an office in Puerto Rico. In Washington, he became the attorney for the National Congress of American Indians and from that time until the 1950s his practice increasingly involved representation of American Indian tribes, mostly in claims against the federal government. In this work, for a time, he was involved in business relations with a New York Law firm that included Henry Cohen, Felix Cohen, and Jonathan Bingham
He also often worked closely with lawyers who lived near the tribes he represented, William L. Paul, Jr., of Alaska, for example. This aspect of his practice--representing Indian tribes--was largely broken up during the early 1950s when the Commissioner of Indian Affairs began to use his powers to disapprove contracts between Curry and the tribes. In 1952 and 1953, his official relationship with the National Congress of American Indians was also ended. After this, while Curry continued until his death to act as a consultant in Indian claims with which he had earlier been involved, his career and life developed in a different direction
Summary:
The material in the collection includes documents relating to many aspects of Curry's career but most of it relates to his work with Indian tribes and the National Congress of American Indians. For the most, the collection is made up of such materials as letters exchanged with government officials, Indians, and other attorneys; copies of legal documents; published government documents; notes; and clippings and other printed materials. Of particular significance is a subject file relating to Indian affairs
It includes material concerning affairs of Alaskan natives and the Aleut (Akutan, Pribilof Islands), Apache (including Fort Sill, Jicarilla, Mescalero, San Carlos White Mountain), Arapaho (Southern), Assiniboine (Fort Belknap, Fort Peck), Bannock (including Fort Hall), Blackfeet, Caddo, Catawba, Cherokee (Eastern), Cheyenne (Northern, Southern), Chickahominy, Chickasaw, Chippewa (including Lac Courte Oreilles), Choctaw, Cochiti, Cocopa, Coeur d'Alene, Colville, Comanche, Creek, Croatan, Crow, Dakota (Big Foot, Cheyenne River, Crow Creek, Devil's Lake, Flandreau, Fort Totten, Lower Brule
Mdewakanton, Oglala, Rosebud, Santee, Sisseton-Wahpeton, Standing Rock, Yankton), Delaware, Eskimo (including Gambell, Kiana), Flathead, Fox, Haida (including Kasaan), Havasupai, Hopi, Iroquois (Caughnawaga, Seneca, St. Regis), Isleta, Jemez, Kalilspel, Kansa (Kaw), Kickapoo, Kiowa, Klamath, Kutenai, Laguna, Lummi, Maricopa (Gila River, Salt River), Menominee, Missouria, Mohave (Fort Mohave), Mohave Apache (Fort McDowell), Muckleshoot, Navaho, Nez Perce, Niska, Nooksak, Omaha, Osage, Oto, Papago, Paiute (Fallon, Fort McDermitt), Moapa, Pyramid Lake, Shivwits, Walker River, Yerington)
Pima (Gila River, Salt River), Potowatomi, Quinaielt, San Felipe, San Ildefonso, San Juan, Santa Ana, Santa Clara, Sandia, Sauk, Seminole (Florida, Oklahoma), Seneca, Seri, Shawnee (Eastern), Shoshoni (including Fort Hall), Sia, Spokan, Stockbridge, Taos (Pyote clan), Tesuque, Three Affiliated Tribes (Mandan, Arikara, and Hidatsa), Tillamook, Tlingit (including Angoon, Craig, Juneau, Kake, Ketchikan, Klawak, Klukwan, Taku, Wrangell), Tsimshian (Metlakatla), Umatilla, Ute (including Uintah-Ouray), Walapai, Washo, Wesort, Winnebago, Wyandot, Yakima, Yaqui, Yavapai, Yuma, and Zuni
There are also materials relating to Curry's work with the Bureau of Indian Affairs and National Congress of American Indians, and material that reflects his interest in conditions and events in given locations (often filed by state) and in organizations with interest in Indians. The material relating to Curry's work in Puerto Rico has been deposited in the Archivo General de Puerto Rico, Instituto de Cultura Puertorriquena, in San Juan
Cite as:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); James E. Curry papers, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives
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National Congress of American Indians records, 1933-1990 (bulk 1944-1989)

Creator:
National Congress of American Indians
Subject:
Bronson, Ruth Muskrat
Curry, James E. 1907-1972
Deloria, Vine
Harjo, Suzan Shown
McNickle, D'Arcy 1904-1977
Peterson, Helen L
Snake, Reuben 1937-1993
Tonasket, Mel
Trimble, Charles E
Arrow, Inc
National Congress of American Indians
National Tribal Chairmen's Association
United Effort Trust
United States American Indian Policy Review Commission
United States Bureau of Indian Affairs
United States Indian Claims Commission
Physical description:
251 linear feet
Type:
Administrative records
Collection descriptions
Audiotapes
Clippings
Correspondence
Financial records
Photographs
Videotapes
Place:
United States
Date:
1933
1933-1990
bulk 1944-1989
20th century
1934-
Topic:
Alaska Natives--Land tenure
Indians of North America--Civil rights
Indians of North America--Economic conditions
Indians of North America--Government relations
Indians of North America--Legal status, laws, etc
Indians of North America--Politics and government
Indians of North America--Social conditions
Indian termination policy
Radioactive wastes--Management
Trail of Broken Treaties, 1972
Local number:
NMAI.AC.010
Notes:
The National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) is a major American Indian advocacy organization, designed to serve as a link between tribal governments and the United States government. NCAI was founded in 1944, in Denver, CO, as a membership organization for "persons of Indian blood." In 1955, group membership was limited to recognized tribes, committees, or bands. The organization is overseen by an Executive Council, which selects a five-member Executive Committee and an Executive Director. The Executive Director is then responsible for managing the organization's staff and overseeing its initiatives and everyday operations. Since 1944, NCAI has held annual conventions in the fall to elect officers and pass resolutions, which become the basis for the organization's policy positions. Beginning in 1977, a mid-year conference in May or June was added to provide further opportunities for in-depth exploration of issues
Since its inauguration, NCAI has worked on a wide variety of issues facing Indians in the US. Some of those issues include voting rights, land claims, education, economic development, natural resource protection and management, nuclear waste, repatriation, and government-to-government relations with the federal government. In 1954, NCAI organized an emergency conference to protest the US government's newly-announced termination policy. NCAI has also frequently worked closely with other Indian organizations, such as the Native American Rights Fund and National Tribal Chairmen's Association, and with various government bodies, such as the Bureau of Indian Affairs and Indian Health Service
Summary:
The NCAI records document the organization's work, particularly that of its office in Washington, DC, and the wide variety of issues faced by American Indians in the twentieth century. The bulk of the material relates to legislation, lobbying, and NCAI's interactions with various governmental bodies. A large segment also concerns the annual conventions and executive council and executive committee meetings. Finally, the records also document the operations of the NCAI, including personnel, financial, and fundraising material. The collection also includes the records of two of NCAI's Executive Directors, Charles E. "Chuck" Trimble (1972-1977) and Suzan Shown Harjo (1984-1989). Included are correspondence, publications, reports, administrative records, photographs, and audio and video recordings
Cite as:
National Congress of American Indians Records, National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives
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National Tribal Chairmen's Association records 1971-1978

Creator:
National Tribal Chairmenʹs Association
Youpee, William
Toda, Chinzu
Subject:
United States Indian Health Service
American Indian Movement
Advisory Commission on Intergovernment Relations
Association on American Indian Tradition and Cultural Activities
Physical description:
40 linear feet
Culture:
American Indians legal cases tribal government agriculture
Type:
Sound recordings
Letters
Printed material
Minutes
Lists
Date:
1971-1978
Topic:
Indian-government relations
Indian interest groups
Local number:
NMAI.AC.014
Notes:
Planning for the establishment of the National Tribal Chairmenʹs Association took place in Pierre, North Dakota, in April 1971, and formal organization took place in Albuquerque in July 1971. The organization serves as a voice for elected Indian leaders of federally recognized tribes and promotes American Indian unity, observation of treaty and other rights, preservation of values, and progress in justice, social standing, education, economic well being, and political influence of all Indians of the United States. The organization no longer exists
Summary:
The files are those of the Washington, D.C., office that were acculated primarily under William Youpee. Youpee served as the first president of the association and became its executive director in 1972. There are also files accumulated by Chinzu Toda, a Bureau of Indian Affairs employee who was on loan to the NTCA. In 1978, Kenneth E. Black became the executive director. Material created from 1978 to the end of the NTCA are in private hands
Cite as:
Records of the National Tribal Chairmenʹs Association, Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives
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Arrow, Inc., and American Indian Tribal Court Judges records ca. 1949-1999

Creator:
Arrow, Inc
American Indian Tribal Court Judges Association
Hunter, Dwight
Superneau, Regina
Subject:
American Indian Tribal Court Clerks Association
United States Department of Justice Legal Enforcement Assistance Administration
United States Bureau of Indian Affairs
United States Department of Labor
Great Lakes Intertribal Council justice
Physical description:
96.5 linear feet
Culture:
American Indians legal system
American Indians scholarships
American Indians Operation Mainstream
Warms Springs court manual
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
1949
1949-1999
ca 1949-1999
Topic:
Family law--American Indian
Child welfare--American Indian
Parenting--American Indian
Juvenile law--American Indian
Local number:
NMAI.AC.013
Notes:
Arrow, Inc. ("Americans for Restitution and Righting of Old Wrongs," frequently ARROW, Inc.) was initially known as the National Congress of American Indians Fund. It was incorporated in April 1949 under the laws of the District of Columbia by three trustees--Ruth M. Bronson, D'Arcy McNickle, and N.B. Johnson. Its founding was prompoted by the involvement of the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) in alleviating the suffering of certain Southwestern tribes brought by a particularly harsh winter. Since the NCAI was engaged in political activities, its donors could not receive tax deductions for their contributions. In contrast, the NCAI Fund was dedicated to charitable and educational work among American Indians and was initially granted tax exempt status. Thus, its donors could receive tax benefits for contributions in spite of the fact that the Fund was regarded as an arm of the NCAI, itself essentially a political lobbying organization
In time, questions arose about the close connection between the NCAI and the NCAI Fund and caused considerable anxiety for Fund officers since it potentially threatened the tax status. In October 1949, desire for greater distance from NCAI led to the adopition of the name Arrow, Inc. In truth, however, the close connections with the NCAI continued, for the NCAI business committee had the power to appoint and remove Arrow trustees. In 1952, NCAI abolished its business committee; and, with the approval of NCAI's officers, Arrow took the opportunity to eliminate references to NCAI from its bylaws. Nevertheless, close cooperation still continued for many years
Starting in 1952, Arrow was an autonomous organization managed by a board of directors appointed by its members. Operating largely through grants and donations, Arrow used some of its funds to finance a publications program, including a newsletter called Arrow or, in a latter-day interpretation of ARROW as an acronym, American for the Restitution and Righting of Old Wrongs. Most monies, however, went into a wide variety of education and charitable projects. In the year 2000 Arrow, inc. closed its doors
A project undertaken by Arrow to improve tribal courts led directly to establishing the American Indian Tribal Court Judges Association (AITCJA) in 1968. This ongoing organization, now with membership represeting almost all Indian Court judges, not only grew out of an Arrow activity but continued a close association with Arrow. only sharing executive director with Arrow as well as sponsorhsip of its projects with Arrow. Generaly, such projects involved educational activities designed to raise the standards and professionalism of Indian courts. In 1980, the National American Indian Court Clerks Association was established as an auxiliary of AITCJA
Summary:
These records, located in the Cultural Resources Center at NMAI, contain organizational records from ARROW, Inc. and the American Indian Tribal Court Judges Association (AITCJA). Included in this collection are both processed and unprocessed materials relating to the work conducted by these two organizations providing educational, financial and legal assistance to Native American communities. Virtually all the records in this collection concern projects undertaken by Arrow, Inc., and most are projects whose sponsorship was shared with the AITCJA. Included are porposals, reports, relevant correspondence, and training materials. Most of these projects were supported by the Department of Justice Legal Enforcement Assistance Administration, United States Bureau of Indian Affairs, and United States Department of Labor
Cite as:
Arrow, Inc. records, and the American Indian Tribal Court Judges Association records, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives
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Leuman Maurice Waugh collection, 1909-1963

Creator:
Waugh, Leuman Maurice 1877-1972
Waugh, Donald
Subject:
American Board of Orthodontics
American Association of Dental Schools
Columbia University
New York Athletic Club
Nanuk Mi-kin-inni (Yacht)
Northland (Coast Guard cutter: WPG-49)
United States Public Health Service
Physical description:
2.1 linear ft. (5 boxes; 1 map case drawer)
1036 lantern slides
1746 photographic prints
1622 photographic negatives
80 Film Reels 16mm
Culture:
Inuit
Type:
Clippings
Collection descriptions
Correspondence
dental records
Maps
printed ephemera
Realia
Writings
Place:
Alaska
Labrador (N.L.)
Kuskokwim River (Alaska)
Date:
1909
1909-1963
Topic:
Inuit--Dental care
Inuit--Census
Inuit--Names, Personal
Dentistry
Nutrition and dental health
Teeth--Radiography
Missions, Medical
Anthropology
Dentists
Orthodontists
Local number:
NMAI.AC.003
Notes:
Waugh's original order was disturbed over the years after his death and during transfer from the Waugh family to the Rankin Museum. NMAI archivists elected to arrange the collection chronologically
Dentist, professor, explorer, and lecturer, New York, NY. Born March 6, 1877 in New Dundee, Ontario, Canada, received D.D.S from University of Buffalo in 1900. Waugh went on to serve in several positions on the faculty of the University of Buffalo and the Columbia Dental School in New York, NY. He was an active member of the Explorers' Club and was Commodore of the Yatching Department of the New York Athletic Club. Waugh volunteered to undertake Alaskan studies on caries research among the Inuit for the U.S. Public Health Service. In 1929, the Health Service appointed Waugh Dental Director (Reserve) at the rank of Colonel. Waugh privately carried out a Labrador study between 1921 and 1927 over the course of five summers. Under the sometimes-partial aegis of the U.S. Public Heath Service, Waugh also studied twelve Alaskan Inuit communities between 1929 and 1938. During his trips, Waugh compiled data on the teeth, mouths, and diet of indigenous communities, in addition to photographs and films of both dental subjects and indigenous communities. In 1936, Waugh was appointed to a position with the Alaska Health Service by the U.S. Secretary of the Interior via the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Waugh's expeditions at times included three dentists (including his son, Donald Waugh), a physician and a nurse. A popular lecturer and prolific writer, Waugh continued to advocate for the health of the northern indigenous communities he visited long after his trips ended. Waugh continued to be active in professional organizations well after his retirement, until a few years before his death at his home in Betterton, Maryland, on May 6, 1972
Summary:
Contains correspondence, clippings, essays, reports, speeches, articles, journals, logs, sketches, drawings, and other materials collected and compiled by Waugh detailing his experiences as a dentist in Arctic Alaska region and Labrador, his dental methodologies, and his personal attitudes towards the individual Inuit and Inuit communities he encountered. The Leuman Maurice Waugh papers supplement his related photograph and film holdings through the materials generated by Waugh's dental expeditions to Labrador and Arctic Alaska to treat members of Inuit communities. The materials consist of raw deal data and community census information, professional and personal correspondence, clippings and essays, reports and lectures, and logistics and trip planning documents. The photogrpah collection includes prints, lantern slides and negatives. The media collection includes 80 film reeels but they are in need of preservation and cannot be viewed
Cite as:
Leuman Maurice Waugh collection, 1909-1963. National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives
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Flora S. Kaplan collection, 1965-1989 (bulk 1972-1977)

Creator:
Kaplan, Flora S
Physical description:
.4 linear feet
3262 photographic slides : color ; 35mm
1828 photographic negatives : black and white ; 35mm
53 photograhic prints : black and white ; 11x14 in. silver gelatin
3 photograhic prints : black and white ; 8x10 in. silver gelatin
7 photograhic prints : black and white ; 11x14 in. duplicate prints
Type:
Books
Collection descriptions
Place:
Mexico
Puebla (Mexico)
Chiapas, Mexico
Michoacán de Ocampo (Mexico)
Morelos (Chihuahua, Mexico)
Oaxaca (Mexico : State)
Distrito Federal (Mexico)
Jalisco (Mexico)
Veracruz-Llave (Mexico : State)
Guerrero (Coahuila, Mexico)
Date:
1965
1965-1989
bulk 1972-1977
Topic:
Pottery
Pottery, Mexican
Folk art
Art and anthropology
Local number:
NMAI.AC.024
Notes:
Flora Edouwaye S. Kaplan, anthropologist, is a professor emerita, and former founding director (1978-99) of the Museum Studies Program, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, New York University. She taught Anthropology as a Fulbright professor, (1983-85), University of Benin, Nigeria; and previously taught at Lehman College, CUNY (1970-1976), before arriving at New York University in 1976. She publishes widely on Benin (Nigeria) and on Mexico, museum politics, art, photography, religion and gender. She holds degrees in anthropology from The Graduate Center, CUNY (Ph.D.), and Columbia University (M.A., archaeology). Dr. Kaplan is a former curator of The Brooklyn Museum, New York. She was a research associate at the Museum of the American Indian, (1977-87), and is an associate at the Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies at NYU. She currently co-edits the books series 'Museum Meanings' (Routledge) and has been a Board member of the journal 'Museums & Society' (University of Leicester Press) since 2004
Summary:
The Flora S. Kaplan collection consists primarily of photographic materials documenting the pottery and pottery techniques of Mexican potters, as well as their families and lifestyles. A small amount of manuscript materials, includeing field notebooks, accompanied the slides, prints, and negatives which were donated to the National Museum of the American Indian in 2008 and 2009. Although the bulk of the photographs were taken by Flora Kaplan herself, a limited number of images were shot by photographer Sidney Kaplan (no relation). The photographs were taken primarily in the following area: barrios of Puebla de los Angeles (capital of the state of Puebla) (Barrios de la Luz) and the surrounding towns in the Puebla Valley (Acatepec, Santa Mari#a Tonantzintla, Amozoc, Cholula, La Acocota, Tepeaca, Izucar de Matamoros, Tecali de Herrera, Acoman, Ocototlan). There are also photographs of potters in the Mexican states of Chiapas (Chamula, Chanal, Amatenango,San Cristobal de las Casas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapa de Corzo) ; Morelos, Michoacan (Janitzio, Alcoman, Capula, Tzintzuntzan, Morelia, Patzcuaro) ; Oaxaca (San Bartolome Coyotepec, Santa Maria Del Tule) ; Guerrero (Acapulco), Veracruz (Puerto de Veracruz, Minatitla#n) ; Mexico (Teotihuacan) and the Distrito Federal (Mexico City)
Cite as:
Flora S. Kaplan Collection, National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives
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Carol H. Krinsky papers, 1964-2004

Creator:
Krinsky, Carol Herselle
Subject:
Lake Superior Band of Chippewa Indians
Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community
Physical description:
2.92 linear feet (7 boxes)
Culture:
Apache Indians
Hopi Indians
Navajo Indians
Pima Indians
Maricopa Indians
Pueblo Indians
Hupa Indians
Tohono O'Odham Indians
Pequot Indians
Paugusset Indians
Mohegan Indians
Ojibwa Indians
Iroquois Indians
Mohawk Indians
Oneida Indians
Seneca Indians
Shinnecock Indians
Makah Indians
Swinomish Indians
Yakama Indians
Tulalip Indians
Winnebago Indians
Type:
Correspondence
Collection descriptions
Interviews
Photographs
Clippings
Place:
Alaska
Arizona
New Mexico
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Florida
Georgia
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Kansas
Louisiana
Maine
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Jersey
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Oklahoma
Oregon
Rhode Island
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Virginia
Washington (State)
Wisconsin
Wyoming
Mille Lacs Band of Chippewa Indians
White Earth Band of Chippewa Indians
Lac du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of the Lac du Flambeau Reservation in Wisconsin
Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians, Minnesota
Date:
1964
1964-2004
Topic:
Architecture, Modern
Indians of North America
Indians of North America--Government relations
Indians of North America--Social life and customs
Local number:
NMAI.AC.008
Notes:
Carol Herselle Krinsky is a professor of Fine Arts at New York University. She received a BA from Smith College in 1957, a MA from the NYU Institute of Fine Arts in 1960, and a Ph.D. from NYU in 1965. Professor Krinsky has received many honors and awards throughout her careers, including the Miess Publication Award from the College Art Association (1985), the National Jewish Book Award (1986), a Merit of Distinction from the International Center for Holocaust Studies (1987), a Golden Dozen Teaching Award from NYU (1990) and the Brunner Research Award from the New York City Chapter of the American Institute of Architects. She has also been named a Senior Fulbright Scholar
Summary:
The Krinsky papers consist of research materials collected and used by Professor Carol Herselle Krinsky for her book "Contemporary Native American Architecture: Cultural Regeneration and Creativity." This book discusses the connection between trends in modern architecture and native culture, as well as how culture has been revived through architecture and how existing structures are altered to better reflect the native culture they serve. The collection mainly consists of correspondence, newspaper clippings, interview transcripts and photographs. News clippings in this collection include articles in German. Series 1 consists of research on tribes on a geographical basis. Information includes background information on the tribe, including their social and economic situation, tribal disputes with local, state or federal governments, and information about building projects and existing structures. Folders in this section are first divided by state. In some cases, the states are further divided by tribe. Tribes may be divided by individual projects. Series 2 contains general background information. This includes information on the interaction between Native Americans and the United States, both on an individual level and a tribal/governmental level, how this relationship has changed over time, the impact this relationship has had on Native communities, and how communities are working to maintain their culture despite this relationship. This research is not specific to tribe or location and is therefore divided by subject matter. Larger subjects are sub-divided by date
Cite as:
Carol H. Krinsky papers, 1964-2004, National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives
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Teriananda papers, 1972-1999

Creator:
Teriananda 1947-
Subject:
Peltier, Leonard
Physical description:
.83 linear feet (2 boxes)
Culture:
Navajo Indians
Hopi Indians
Type:
Letters
Collection descriptions
Reports
Clippings
Articles
Writings
Date:
1972
1972-1999
Topic:
Indians of North America
Indians of Mexico
Indians of Central America
Indians of South America
Indians of North America--Land tenure
Indians of North America--Civil rights
Indians of North America--Relocation
AIDS (Disease)
Naturopathy
Traditional medicine
Local number:
NMAI.AC.009
Notes:
Teriananda was born in Manhattan in 1947, where she grew up and has continued to live throughout her adult life. Teriananda's father, born in Brooklyn, became a financial officer and independent scholar; her mother, born in British Guiana (now Guyana), was a classical pianist who immigrated to the United States and later became an editorial assistant, working part-time during Teriananda's childhood. Her parents instilled in her a belief that she was "a citizen of the world." She studed ballet as a youngster, and as a teenager, immersed herself in the artistic and intellectual milieu of the Lower East Side and Greenwich Village. An improperly diagnosed back injury while she was a senior in high school resulted in severe back problems in the 1970s that have persisted throughout her life
Teriananda became interested in indigenous struggles in the 1970s, following a "back crisis" that almost took her life yet proved to be psychically transformative. In seeking to know who she was, she realized she needed to know where she was, and this led her to ask who the original inhabitants of the continent were. She soon became involved in activist struggles for indigenous rights and worked with a number of Native American groups during the 1970s and 1980s, including the International Treaty Council's attempts to found the United Nations permanent Working Group on Indigenous People, support for Yvonne Wanrow and Leonard Peltier, the issue of uranium contamination from mining on Native American land, and the problem of the Joint Land Use Area near Big Mountain on the Hopi and Navajo reservations
Teriananda also worked on issues surrounding the AIDS crisis after the death of several friends from the disease. She had become familiar with the possibilities of natural medicines, partly through contact with traditional Native teachers, and she became active promoting the benefits of nutritional, herbal and other natural therapies to sufferers of AIDS. As Teriananda's own health issues persisted and worsened, she turned to Tibetan Buddhism, and has devoted herself to artistic pursuits influenced by this spiritual path. Although she has cut back on her activism, due to health problems and family demands, Teriananda remains a committed political activist who stays informed of current issues and is determined to pass on the heritage of struggles for peace and justice to the next generation
Summary:
This collection, from the 1970s to the 1990s, is comprised of published and unpublished writings by Teriananda, as well as letters, reports, newspaper and magazine articles, group newsletters, flyers and announcements of political events, and news releases. The issues represented here, including support work for "The Longest Walk" campaign for justice for Leonard Peltier and the Big Mountain relocation, are indicative of the concerns in parts of Indian country in the United States and elsewhere during these decades
Series I, Writings (1978-1991) contains original writings by Teriananda, including an interview with Native American activist Bill Wahpepah, a report on the state of the natural world with an appendix of written materials Teriananda used to supplement the report, and a newsletter for the New York City Big Mountain Support group
Series II, Political Activities (undated; 1972-1996) consists of a variety of writings over more than two decades, including newsletters, reports, flyers, newspaper and magazine articles, and news releases, all of it relating to the political activities with which Teriananda has been involved in support of indigenous peoples. These include support for Latin American indigenous struggles, rain forest initiatives, the Black Hills, Leonard Peltier, the Longest Walk, which was enacted to protest and lobby against eleven bills before Congress which Indians felt would alter treaties between the U.S. government and various Indian tribes, and issues surrounding the Navajo relocation from the Hopi-Navajo Joint Use Area around Big Mountain
Cite as:
Teriananda papers, 1972-1999, National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

G. Edward Montgomery papers, 1951-1976

Creator:
Montgomery, G. Edward
Physical description:
.83 linear feet (2 boxes)
Culture:
Machiguenga Indians
Type:
Publications
Collection descriptions
Correspondence
Manuals
Proposals
Place:
Peru
Date:
1951
1951-1976
Topic:
Indians of South America
Local number:
NMAI.AC.011
Notes:
Dr. G. Edward Montgomery is an Associate Professor of Ethnology at Washington University in St. Louis, MO. He received an A.B. from Stanford University in 1964 and a Ph.D. from Columbia University in 1972. His research focuses on the Washu Indians of Nevada, the Machiguenga Indians in Peru and the Northern Tamil Nadu area in India. He has focused on five fields of study: human ecology; the old medical anthropology; southern Asian regional interests (especially southeastern India); food and nutritional anthropology; and analyses of the complexities of U.S. American cultures
Summary:
The Montgomery papers consist of research collected by Dr. G. Edward Montgomery on his 1973 research trip to study the Machiguenga people of Lima, Peru. This material includes information regarding his pre-trip activities, data collected on his trip and research collected for use in various publications. During this trip, Montgomery conducted a study of how human behavior is influenced by human understanding of the world in which they live. The data collected on this trip includes environmental readings, vital statistics, calculations on energy intake and expenditure by gender, and technology used by tribes. The collection includes correspondence, research materials, equipment manuals, proposals, original data, presentations and publications
Cite as:
G. Edward Montgomery papers, 1951-1976, National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

Reuben Snake papers 1970-1990

Creator:
Snake, Reuben 1937-1993
Subject:
National Congress of American Indians
Native American Religious Freedom Project
Native American Church of North America
National Tribal Chairmen's Association
Physical description:
1.25 linear feet (3 boxes)
Type:
Writings
Collection descriptions
Reports
Interviews
Correspondence
Clippings
Obituaries
Biography files
Biographies
Date:
1970
1970-1990
Topic:
Winnebago Indians
Peyote
Local number:
NMAI.AC.012
Notes:
Reuben A. Snake, Jr. was born January 12, 1937 at Winnebago, Nebraska, the youngest child of Reuben Harold and Virginia Greyhair Snake. Reuben's mother divorced her husband and later remarried, but Reuben's early life was fraught with hardships, including a period of separation from his parents and siblings. When the family's financial situation improved, parents and children were able to reunite and eventually settled in Hastings, Minnesota. Reuben entered Haskell Institute in Lawrence, Kansas, in 1950 but later dropped out due to problems with alcohol. He joined the Army in 1956, from which he was honorably discharged, and two years later he married Kathy McKee, with whom he raised four daughters and two sons. In 1965 he quit drinking
Reuben was active in the American Indian Movement (AIM) in the 1970s and organized many demonstrations during his tenure as national chairman of that organization. After being elected chairman of the Winnebago tribe, he reorganized the tribe, centralizing its administration and improving funding and accountability. Reuben was involved with educational issues as well, serving on education committees for the National Congress of American Indians and the National Tribal Chairmen's Association. He worked both nationally and internationally to publicize the issues of Indian health, education and religious freedom
Reuben began to renew his spiritual and cultural ties with the Native American Church in the 1970s and eventually became a Roadman for the Church. With the help of Senator Daniel Inouye from Hawaii, he fought judicial battles to legalize the importation of peyote from Mexico for use in sacramental ceremonies. In 1990, when the United States Supreme Court ruled that the sacred use of peyote was not protected by the Constitution, Reuben became the official spokesperson for the Native American Church to educate the public about church philosophy and history. He organized the Native American Religious Freedom Project to lobby for national legislation that would amend and strengthen the American Indian Religious Freedom Act
Reuben had suffered a major heart attack in 1986 and by the early 1990s, his health was deteriorating. He died on June 28, 1993. Reuben did not live to see the results of his hard work on behalf of Native American religious freedom--the Amendments to the American Indian Religious Freedom Act, which President Clinton signed into law in October 1994. These amendments protected the religious use of peyote by Indians
Summary:
The Reuben A. Snake papers, located in the Cultural Resource Center of the National Museum of the American Indian, contain writings, correspondence, biographical materials and written materials relating to the Native American Church which document the literary and political activities of this Winnebago tribal leader. Also included in this collection are video and audio tapes that contain interviews, talks, radio broadcasts, and other orally and visually transmitted items. These materials have been transferred to the NMAI Media Archives. All photographs have been transferred to the NMAI Photo Archives
Series I, Writings (undated, 1972-1993), contains original writings by Reuben Snake, Tribal Chairman's reports and observations, position papers and interviews
Series II, Correspondence (undated, 1982-1996), consists of miscellaneous correspondence, correspondence with interviewers and the correspondence of James Botsford, Snake's attorney
Series III, Biographical (undated, 1985-1996), consists of news clippings related to Snake's work as Winnebago tribal chairman, Reuben's vitae and tributes to him and eulogies and obituaries after his death. Also included is the draft of Jay Courtney Fikes' biography of Snake
Series IV, Native American Church (1971-1993), includes resolutions made by various tribal governments and addressed to the U.S. Congress in support of the Native American Church, as well as the agendas of NAC officers' and delegates' meetings. The Native American Religious Freedom Project files contain materials relating to the lobbying efforts of the Native American Church and drafts of the proposed amendments to the American Indian Religious Freedom Act. The rermaining files contain news clips documenting court cases on Native American use of peyote and articles on the effects of peyote and its sacramental value to the Native American Church
Cite as:
Reuben A. Snake, Jr. Papers, 1970-1990, National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

Lawrence "Larry" James Beck papers, 1938-1994

Creator:
Beck, Larry 1938-1994
Physical description:
6 linear feet (13 boxes, 1 half-sized box, 2 oversized boxes)
Culture:
Yupik Eskimos
Type:
Correspondence
Collection descriptions
Drawings
Negatives
Newsletters
Notes
Pamphlets
Photographs
Portfolios (groups of works)
Sketches
Slides (photographs)
Place:
North America
Washington (State)
Date:
1938
1938-1994
Topic:
Indian art
Inuit masks
Public sculpture, American
Sculptors
Local number:
NMAI.AC.017
Notes:
Lawrence "Larry" James Beck (1938-1994) was sculptor and mixed-media artist of Yup'ik descent. Born in Seattle, Washington to a non-Indian father and a Norwegian/Yup'ik mother, Beck originally studied engineering at the University of Washington before turning his attention to art. In 1964 he earned a B.A. in painting, followed by an M.F.A. in 1965
During the late 1960s and 1970s, Beck's work focused on his large scale, abstract pieces and established his reputation as a sculptor. His early works were comprised of found metals and objects assembled in a lyrical but humorous manner. During 1975-1980, he installed projects for Golden Gardens Park in Seattle, Highline Community College and Boeing (King County Airport). He also worked on a piece for the Occidental Park site in Seattle, but due to circumstances of the city it was never installed
In the early 1970s Beck visited the his ancestral homelands on the Alaskan coast and established a connection to Yup'ik culture. In 1973 he started to produce a new series of pieces called "Inukshuk", which is Inuit for sculpture presence. This term was also used for three major commissions that later followed and Beck continued to use Inuit terminology in his work. After the 1980 install of the Boeing sculpture, Beck experienced what he would call his sculpture career crisis. He became disappointed with public art and abandoned sculpture to focus on creating abstract Inuit Inua (spirit) masks. On March 27, 1994, Beck died of a heart attack in his home in Washington
Summary:
The Lawrence James Beck papers contain biographical materials, sculpture portfolios, art shows, notes, sketches and drawings, publications, correspondence and visual material including photos, slides and negatives of Beck's art
Series 1: Biographical and Personal, (undated, 1938-1994), contains resumes, personal articles and articles by Larry's friends, articles of interest to him, notes on his dreams, video tape transcription and notes on 'The Bank', the studio/home that he purchased in 1970 in Conway, Washington. Series 2: Correspondence, (undated, 1966-1994), contains correspondence pertaining to his artwork or shows, correspondence between Larry and family, also includes correspondence with the United States Government, as well as miscellaneous correspondence. Organized alphabetically and then chronologically
Series 3: Sculptures and shows, (undated, 1966-1994), contains art show information and art projects that Larry participated in. Series 4: Sketches, drawings, notes and ideas, (undated), contains handwritten notes on artwork, or ideas of what to produce, drawings of sculptures and various ideas about sculptures. Series 5: Publications, (undated, 1966-1995), contains pamphlets, newsletters, journals and non art related publications that were of interest to Larry
Series 6: Miscellaneous material, (undated), contains invoices of materials and non-art related purchases, shipping material receipts of artwork, resumes from other people and literature on producing sculpture. Series 7: Visual material, contains photographs, negatives and slides. All visual material is organized by influences to Larry's work, his sculptures, Larry's Native American art, family and people, and vacations and travel
Cite as:
Lawrence James Beck papers, 1938-1994, National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

The Arctic Circle records 1967-1987

Creator:
Arctic Circle (Gallery: Los Angeles, Calif.)
Witt, Bert
Witt, Ellen 1917-2007
Subject:
Arluk, George 1949-
Ashevak, Karoo 1940-
Pitseolak, Peter 1902-1973
Pudlo 1916-1992
Arctic Circle (Gallery: Los Angeles, Calif.)
Physical description:
1.6 linear feet
624 photographic slides
152 photographic prints
Culture:
Inuit (Canadian Eskimo)
Type:
Articles
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Brochures
Clippings
Slides (photographs)
Place:
California
Los Angeles
Arctic regions
Baker Lake (Nunavut)
Cape Dorset (Nunavut)
Date:
1967
1967-1987
20th century
Topic:
Art galleries, Commercial
Inuit art--Exhibitions
Local number:
NMAI.AC.004
Notes:
The Arctic Circle was founded in Los Angeles in 1970 as a private art gallery devoted entirely to the exhibition and sale of scuplture and graphicarts by Inuit artists of the Canadian Arctic. The gallery was created and founded by Bert and Ellen Witt and run out of their home on North La Jolla Avenue in Los Angeles, California. Between 1970 and the late 1980's approximately six to eight exhibitions were mounted on themes illustrative of Native life in the Canadian Arctic. Bert Witt, sometimes accompanied by his wife Ellen and son Tony, traveled extensively in the Canadian Arctic where he visited many Inuit communities and formed personal aquaintances with native artists. Through the Artic Circle, Witt supported the Arctic co-operative movement by purchasing art through co-ops in each settlement he visited or through the co-op distribution points for the Northwest Territories and Arctic Quebec
Summary:
The Arctic Circle records include materials gathered by Bert and Ellen Witt for their private gallery of Inuit art, The Arctic Circle. These materials include, information about Native artists such as George Arluk, Karoo Ashevak, Peter Pitseolk and Pudlo Pudlat, which is organized by community; reference material organized topically; slides from the gallery's annual print collections as well as photographs of scupltures and textiles displayed in the gallery. Much of the reference material used by the gallery pertains to native communities in the Nunavet Territory of Canada, such as Cape Dorset and Baker Lake as well as other small communities throughout the Northwest Territiories. Additionally photographs taken by Bert and Ellen Witt's son Tony during a trip to Canada in 1973 are included in this collection
Cite as:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Collection Title, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

Paul J. Woolf papers, 1940-1963

Creator:
Woolf, Paul J. 1899-1985
Physical description:
.2 linear feet
Type:
Notebooks
Collection descriptions
Ephemera
Correspondence
Notes
Articles
Diaries
Publications
Date:
1940
1940-1963
Local number:
NMAI.AC.005
Notes:
Paul J. Woolf began his photographic career in London, taking pictures as a child. He attended the University of California, Berkeley and the Clarence White School of Photography. By 1942 he was established as a professional photographer who specialized in design and night-time photography. Woolf also maintained a practice as a clinical social worker while continuing his work as a photographer
Summary:
These materials provide supporting documentation for the Paul Woolf photographs. Series I consists of reference materials, including publications and ephemera, with dates 1941-1942, 1962, and undated. Series II contains biographical materials, including articles about Woolf and his C.V., dated 1955 and 1964. Series III consists of documentation of Woolf's travel and photography, including typescript and handwritten notes, correspondence and ephemera, with dates 1958, 1963 and undated. Series IV is comprised of two diaries, the first describing travels in Colorado and other western states in 1958 and the second describing travels in Mexico and Guatemala in 1963
Cite as:
Paul J. Woolf papers, 1940-1963, National Museum of the American Indian Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation records, 1890-1998

Creator:
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation
Burnett, Edwin K
Dockstader, Frederick J
Draper, Alexander F
Eager, George
Force, Roland W
Heye, George G (George Gustav) 1874-1957
Williams, John S. 1901-1982
Tibbles, Thomas Henry 1840-1928
Collector:
Barnard, W. C
Barrett, S. A (Samuel Alfred) 1879-1965
Beauchamp, William Martin 1830-1925
Bolton, Reginald Pelham 1856-1942
Cabot, William Brooks 1858-1949
Churchill, Clara G
Churchill, Frank C (Frank Carroll) 1850-1912
Coates, James R
Cramer, Maynard
Davis, Edward H. b. 1862
Elliott, Margaret R. 1887-1976
Emmons, George Thornton
Fick, Ida A. R
Frič, Alberto Vojtěch 1882-1944
Gridley, Marion E (Marion Eleanor) 1906-1974
Grumet, Robert Steven
Harrington, M. R (Mark Raymond) 1882-1971
Harte, Neville A. 1907-1997
Harvey, Byron
Harvey, Fred
Harvey, Katherine M. 1892-1962
Hibben, Harold J. 1881-1956
Hindle, Walter d. 1992
Hodge, Frederick Webb 1864-1956
Johnson, Frederick 1904-1994
Jones, Joseph 1833-1896
Keppler, Udo J. 1872-1956
Kercher, Robert A
Koehler, Aurora 1846-1928
Lewis, Edwin C
Lippincott, William J
Lothrop, S. K (Samuel Kirkland) 1892-1965
Lummis, Charles Fletcher 1859-1928
MacDowell, E. C
Nelson, John Louw b. 1895
O'Hara, Geoffrey 1882-1967
Olsen, Godfrey J
Pepper, George H (George Hubbard) 1873-1924
Sackler, Arthur M
Skinner, Alanson 1886-1925
Smith, Watson 1897-1993
Speck, Frank G (Frank Gouldsmith) 1881-1950
Stiles, William F. 1912-1980
Turbyfill, Charles Orr 1888-1966
Verrill, A. Hyatt (Alpheus Hyatt) 1871-1954
Waterman, T. T (Thomas Talbot) b. 1885
Wildschut, William
Woodward, Arthur 1898-1986
Subject:
Huntington Free Library
Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation
Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research
Bartlett East Greenland Expedition (1930)
Harriman Alaska Expedition (1899)
Hendricks-Hodge Expedition (1917-1923)
Hyde Exploring Expedition (1902-1903)
Physical description:
400 linear feet
Type:
Mixed archival materials
Collection descriptions
Place:
Arkansas
California
Canada
Cuba
Ecuador
Guatemala
Haiti
Missouri
Nevada
New Mexico
New York (State)
Panama
Peru
Tennessee
Texas
Hawikuh (N. M.)
Pueblo Bonito Site (N.M.)
Date:
1890
1890-1998
Topic:
Archaeological expeditions
Ethnological expeditions
Excavations (Archaeology)
Indians of Central America
Indians of North America
Indians of South America
Museums--Collection management
Museums--Management
Local number:
NMAI.AC.001
Notes:
The Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation was established by wealthy collector George Gustav Heye in 1908. Heye began collecting American Indian artifacts as early as 1897. Based first our of his apartment in New York, Heye bought collections and documentary photographs, sponsored expeditions, and traveled and collected items himself. In addition, he sponsored numerous expeditions across the Western Hemisphere, including North American, Canada, South America and Central America. As he accumulated numerous objects it became apparent that he would need a separate space from his apartment to contain his burgeoning collection
From 1908 to 1917 Heye housed his artifacts on temporary loan at the University of Pennsylvania's University Museum, Pennsylvania, in lofts on East 33rd Street in New York City, and at other depositories. However, once the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation was completed in 1916, the collections moved to their permanent museum location at Audubon Terrace, at 155th Street and Broadway in New York City. The museum, containing ethnographic and archaeological collections from North, Central and South America, then opened to the public in 1922. Less than ten years later, Heye completed a storage facility and research branch in the Pelham Bay area of the Bronx. Heye served as Chairman of the Board and Museum Director until his death in 1957. After growing concern about the financial and other management of the collections came to a head, the museum became part of the Smithsonian Institution in 1989 and in 1994 opened exhibit and public program space in the U.S. Customs House at Bowling Green near New York City's Battery Park. The Cultural Resources Center in Suitland, Maryland later opened in 1999 and the main Washington, DC museum opened in 2004
Summary:
The records document the governance and programmatic activities of the Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation (MAI) from its inception in 1904 until becoming part of the Smithsonian Institution in 1989
Cite as:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Museum of the American Indian/Heye Foundation Records, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

Gertrude Litto collection 1958 - 1980 1970 - 1972

Creator:
Litto, Gertrude
Physical description:
10.0 Linear feet
Type:
Manuscripts
Collection descriptions
Photographs--1970-1980
Place:
Bolivia
Chile
Colombia
Ecuador
Peru
South America
Venezuela
Date:
1958
1958-1980
1958 - 1980
1970 - 1972
Topic:
Folk art
Pottery
Local number:
NMAI.AC.021
Notes:
Processing Information: Photos, negatives and slides processed by Emily Moazami, in 2006, and manuscript and papers processed by Cara Bertram, intern in 2011
Gertrude ́Trudý Litto was born in 1929. She received her B.A.F. in painting and illustration at Syracuse University, afterwards Litto continued her studies in pottery and art education and in 1967 received her M.A. She is married Frank Litto and has three sons, Claude, Leo and Corbin. Litto worked as an elementary school art teacher in New York before she was granted a sabbatical to travel through South America.In 1971-72, Litto traveled through Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Chile to study the methods and products of contemporary Native potters. Accompanied by her husband and sons, Litto recorded the styles and techniques of sixty different pottery-making communities in South America. This information was compiled into Littós 1976 book entitled, South American Folk Pottery. Photographs taken on location were captured by the Litto family, while those shot in a studio are credited to Robert Emerson Willis. Through photographic images, this collection documents the blended and changing styles of South American pottery
Summary:
The Gertrude Litto Collection, located in the Cultural Resource Center of the National Museum of the American Indian, contains the manuscript, notes and images for her book South American Folk Pottery. Her manuscript, notes and photos record the methods and products of Native potters in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Chile
This collection is comprised of the papers and images gathered and created by Litto during her travels through South America in 1971-1972 and her subsequent manuscript for her book, South American Folk Pottery. It includes thousands of photographic materials (roughly 7.5 linear feet) including black and white prints, slides, and negatives, the images in this collection include both those published in her book, as well as unpublished material. The collection also includes travel materials, maps, letters, field notes from South America and the manuscript for the book
Cite as:
Gertrude Litto Collection, National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

Elayne Zorn collection, 1971-2010

Creator:
Zorn, Elayne
Subject:
Rosoff, Nancy B
Cutipa Lima, Juan de Dios
American Anthropological Association
Brooklyn Museum of Art
California Academy of Sciences Anthropology Dept
Textile Museum (Washington, D.C.)
University of Central Florida Dept. of Sociology & Anthropology
Physical description:
11 linear feet
10927 photographic negatives
11412 photographic slides
1474 photographic prints
57 cassette tapes
10 Videocassettes
Culture:
Quechua
Aymara
Type:
Audio cassettes
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Field notes
Negatives
Slides (photographs)
Photographic prints
Articles
Place:
Bolivia
Potosi
Andes Region
Potosí (Bolivia : Dept.)
Puno (Peru : Dept.)
Sacaca (Bolivia)
Taquili (Peru)
Date:
1971
1971-2010
Topic:
Festivals
Textile fabrics
Tourism
Women weavers--Social life and customs
Economic integration
Description and travel
Social life and customs
Economic conditions
Local number:
NMAI.AC.022
Notes:
Elayne Leslie Zorn was born on February 3, 1952 in New York City. She attended Hunter College High School and Barnard College. She received her Bachelor's of Fine Arts degree in Textile Arts from the California College of the Arts in 1975. She then began a long association with the community on the Island of Taquile, in the Puño region of Peru, conducting fieldwork on native weaving techniques. She also began a long-term affiliation with the Museo Nacional de Etnografia y Folklore in La Paz, Bolivia and collected textiles in the Macusani region of Peru for an exhibit at the California Academy of Sciences. She received her Master's degree in Latin American Studies from the University of Texas, Austin in 1983, with fieldwork concentrated on economic development and tourism in Taquile, Peru. During her time in Peru in the 1970's and 1980's, Zorn became an accomplished musician, playing the charango and Bolivian mandolin in performances in Andean towns as well as in New York City
Zorn resumed graduate studies in 1985 at Cornell University where she received her Master of Arts degree in anthropology in 1987 followed by her Ph.D. in 1997. At Cornell she worked under the supervision of Professor Billie Jean Isbell and conducted much of her dissertation fieldwork in Sakaka, Bolivia focusing on the global transformation of cloth and identity in highland Andean regions. Zorn worked as a visiting Assistant Professor of Anthropology at Colgate University from 1997 to 1998 and then hired as Professor of Anthropology at the University of Central Florida from 1998 until 2010. While at the University of Central Florida, Zorn received both teaching-related and research-related awards as well as grants to continue her fieldwork in the Andean regions of Peru and Bolivia. She also co-directed the PeruVine/PeruDigital Project, an interactive and immersive website to present field data from Peru's Institute of Ethnomusicology online. In 2004 Zorn published her book, Weaving a Future: Tourism, Cloth and Culture on an Andean Island(University of Iowa Press), an analysis of textile traditions as it relates to global change
In addition to her academic duties, throughout her career Zorn collaborated with various museums and cultural institutions as a consultant and collector. These included, but are not limited to, The Brooklyn Museum where Zorn collaborated with Nancy Rosoff, The Textile Museum, Smithsonian Center for Folklife Programs, UNICEF and the Inter-American Foundation. She was also a member of various professional societies including the American Anthropological Association, the Bolivian Studies Association, the Society for Latin American, Carribean, and Latino Studies as well as the Textile Society of America. Zorn passed away June 15, 2010 and was survived by her mother, Sandra Gordon, and her son, Gavriel Cutipa-Zorn
Summary:
The Elayne Zorn Collection spans the years of Zorn's professional and student activity in the fields of anthropology and Latin American studies from 1975 until 2010. This includes material from Zorn's field research in the Andean Regions of Peru and Bolivia as well as her professional activities as a textile collector and expert advisor for museum collections and exhibitions. This collection is arranged into six series with additional subseries. Series 1: Field Research, includes field notebooks, correspondence, and general research from Taquile, Peru, Sakaka, Bolivia and La Paz, Bolivia. Series 2: Professional Activities, includes presentation and lecture notes, object catalogs for various museum collections and Zorn's academic work conducted at the University of Central Florida. Series 3: Publications and Writings, contains both articles written by Zorn, including her Master's thesis and dissertation, and articles published by colleagues. Series 4: Ephemera and Miscellaneous, contains a variety of materials including posters, postcards, datebooks and calendars as well as material gathered by Zorn's former husband, Juan Cutipa. Series 5: Photographs, includes negatives, slides, prints and digital media that document Zorn's work in the field. The bulk of the photographs capture the daily lives of weavers as well as important community holidays and festivals. Series 6: Audio-Visual Materials, includes a small amount of VHS tapes as well as audio-cassettes on which Zorn recorded traditional Andean music performed at festivals she attended in Peru and Bolivia
Cite as:
Elayne Zorn Collection, National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

Phyllis Hersh collection

Author aut:
Hersh, Phyllis
Photographer pht:
Lensen-Tomasson, Nancy 1931-
Culture:
Kewa (Santo Domingo Pueblo)
A:shiwi (Zuni)
Cochiti Pueblo
Dine (Navajo)
Hopi Pueblo
Type:
Mixed archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Place:
New Mexico
Arizona
Topic:
Indian jewelers
Indians of North America--Jewelry
Jewelry making
Silverwork
Women jewelers
Local number:
NMAI.AC.023
Notes:
Processing Information: Manuscripts processed by Rachel Menyuk, Archives Techinican, and photographs processed by Heather Shannon, Photo Archivist, in 2012
With support from the Ford Foundation, Exxon, and Levi Strauss Company, in 1975 Phyllis Hersh undertook to identify and interview contemporary Hopi, Navajo, Santo Domingo, and Zuni jewelers. Her intention was to produce a book that was less focused on the history of native jewelry production and instead emphasized and explained the styles, approaches, and techniques of practicing jewelers. From the start, Hersh considered photography essential to the realization of her objectives for the book. In June 1975, Hersh hired photographer Nancy Lensen-Tomasson; between 1975 and 1980 the two made a number of trips around Arizona and New Mexico to photograph jewelry and jewelers on location. Hersh hoped that her book would both expand the market for authentic, high-quality Native American crafts and "educate and motivate" a younger generation of native jewelers. "The Indian Jewelers' Art," Hersh's working title for the book, was never published, although a related article authored by Hersh and accompanied by Lensen-Tomasson's photographs appeared in ExxonUSA (1st quarter 1977)
Summary:
The Phyllis Hersh collection consists of papers and photographs associated with a book project on contemporary Hopi, Navajo, Santo Domingo, and Zuni jewelry and jewelers. The papers measure 1.3 linear ft. and date from 1974 to 2008, with the bulk of the material dating from 1975 to 1980. The papers primarily document Hersh's work on "The Indian Jewelers' Art," an unfinished book on contemporary Native American jewelry. Her project was primarily supported by a Ford Foundation grant, and so the papers include correspondence with the Foundation, the requisite budget notes and receipts, project descriptions, and outlines. In addition, the collection includes documentation related to the royalty and copyright dispute between Hersh and her project photographer, Nancy Tomassen-Lensen. The color and black-and-white photographs and corresponding negatives-approximately 600 total photographic objects-in the Hersh collection are also related to "The Indian Jewelers' Art." They date from 1975 to 1980. The photographic materials represent the work of: Hopi jewelers Victor Coochwytewa, Bernard Dawahoya, Michael Hoyungawa, Charles Loloma, Lewis Lomay, Preston Monongye, Phil Navasya, Aldie Qumyintewa, Griselda Saufkie, Phillip Sekaquaptewa, and Michael Sockyma.Navajo jewelers Fred Begay, Kenneth Begay, Kee Benally, Carson Blackgoat, Harrison Blackgoat, Irene Blackgoat, Sadie Calvine, Mark Chee, Jesse Claw, Fannie Coan, Julia Coan, David Donald, Sarah DuBoise, Billie John Hoskie, Esther Coan Hoskie, Tom Hoskie, Della James, Francis James, Wallace James, Wilfred Jones, Chester Khan, Iven Kee, Mary Marie Yazzie Lincoln, Johnny Pablo, Ambrose Roanhorse, Willie Shaw, Fred Thompson, Katherine Wilson, Cindy Yazzie, and Lee Yazzie.Santo Domingo jewelers Edward Aguilar, Ernestine Aguilar, Mary Aguilar, Priscilla Aguilar, Tony Aguilar, Vidal Aragon, Joe Ray Calabaza, Raymond Calabaza, Elizabeth Chavez, Maria F. Garcia, Charles Lovato, Clara Lovato, Harold Lovato, Sedalio Lovato, Angie Reano Owens, Johnny Rosetta, Marlene Rosetta, and Joe V. Tortalita.Zuni jewelers Edward Beyuka, Rignie Boone, George Haloo CheeChee, Dennis Edaakie, Anita Hattie, Buddy Hattie, Horace Ilue, Morris Laahti, Sadie Laahti, Etta Lynee Laote, Lygatie Laote, Matthew Latteyge, Edith Tsabetsaye Lonjose, Orlinda Natewa, Rosemary Panteah, Isabel Paquin, Sherman Paquin, Bowman Pewa, Andrew Emerson Quam, Bonnie Quam, Joyce Romancito, Ann Sheyka, Porfillio Sheyka, and David Tsikewa.Cochiti jeweler Fidel Chavez
The Phyllis Hersh collection consists of papers and photographs associated with a book project on contemporary Hopi, Navajo, Santo Domingo, and Zuni jewelry and jewelers. The collection measures 1.3 linear ft. of mansucript materials, 521 photographic prints, and 85 photographic negatives, and dates from 1974 to 2008, with the bulk of the material dating from 1975 to 1980. The papers primarily document Hersh's work on "The Indian Jewelers' Art," an unfinished book on contemporary Native American jewelry
Cite as:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); Phyllis Hersh collection, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

Anne Forbes collection 1948-1977

Creator:
Forbes, Anne 1919-
Subject:
Herrera, Joe 1923-2001
Herrera, Velino
Toledo, José Rey 1915-1994
Indian Arts Fund (Santa Fe, N.M.)
United States Indian Arts and Crafts Board
Physical description:
1 linear foot
472 photographic prints
Culture:
Acoma Pueblo
Cochiti Pueblo
Diné (Navajo)
Isleta Pueblo
Jemez Pueblo
Laguna Pueblo
Nambe Pueblo
Picuris Pueblo
San Ildefonso Pueblo
San Juan Pueblo
Santa Clara Pueblo
Santo Domingo Pueblo
Taos Pueblo
Tesuque Pueblo
Zia Pueblo
Type:
Notes
Collection descriptions
Directories
Exhibitions
Photographs
Research
Photograph albums
Reports
Place:
Arizona
New Mexico
Southwest, New
Date:
1948
1948-1977
Topic:
Pueblo artists
Indian artists
Indians of North America--Education
Local number:
NMAI.AC.060
Notes:
Materials Separated from the Resource: This collection was part of a donation made by Anne Forbes that included 143 paintings and other works of art on paper that are now a part of the NMAI Modern and Contemporary Arts Collection with object numbers 26/3091 to 26/3227 and 26/3854, 26/3855. Artists include Harrison Begay, Theodore Edaaki, Luis Gonzales (Wo Peen), Joe Herrera, Velino Herrera, James Humetewa, Michael Kabotie, Richard Martinez, Theodore Suina, Beatien Yazz and others. For more information on these paintings please contact NMAI Collections at NMAICollections.si.edu
Miss Anne Forbes originated from Cambridge Massachusetts. After majoring in art from Bennington College in Vermont, Forbes pursued a Master's degree in social anthropology from Harvard University's Radcliffe College. Taking an interest in Southwest Indian Art, Forbes applied for a fellowship through the Indian Arts Fund for the summer of 1948 to study painting and other techniques used in Pueblo art. Although the fellowship lasted only a summer, Forbes spent the following year visiting various pueblos meeting native artists and purchasing original art works from them. It was at this time that Forbes befriended artists Joe Herrera (Cochiti Pueblo), Velino Herrera (Zia Pueblo) and Jose Rey Toledo (Jemez Pueblo). Forbes also spent time visiting Pueblo schools examining the state of arts education for native children as well as acquiring paintings and drawings made by the Pueblo schoolchildren. In 1958, Forbes sent out a first draft of her "Survey of American Indian Arts and Crafts, Southwest and Northern Plains" which was the culmination of her research on the state of native art at the time with a particular focus on Pueblo artists. Following the release of her report, Forbes did not continue professionally in the world of art instead moving into human relations. Forbes held onto the bulk of her art collection, exhibiting pieces here and there, until donating a large portion of the collection to the National Museum of the American Indian in 2003. A longtime member of the Self-Realization Fellowship, Forbes also donated some of her pieces to that organization
Summary:
The Anne Forbes collection includes documents and photographs pertaining to her research on Indian arts in the Southwest, United States conducted during 1948-1948 and revisited in 1958. The work culminated in the dissemination of a survey titled "Survey of American Indian Arts and Crafts, Southwest and Northern Plains." Forbes focused mostly on Pueblo paintings having developed personal relationships with several Pueblo painters including Joe Herrera (Cochiti Pueblo), Velino Herrera (Zia Pueblo) and Jose Rey Toledo (Jemez Pueblo). Materials in this collection include: biographical notes on individual Native artists from New Mexico, Arizona, Montana, Colorado, South Dakota and California as well as notes on museum collections and art dealers whose collections and purchases included Indian art from the Southwest; supporting materials to Forbes' research consisting of a collection of Smoke Signals newsletters from 1951 to 1965, as well as brochures and pamphlets from the Bureau of Indian Affairs concerning education and the arts, and exhibition documents and catalogs from museums featuring Native artists' works from the Southwest and Northern Plains. The two photo albums titled "Indian Paintings, Pottery, Pictographs, Prehistoric Murals, Dances, Artists" and "Pueblo Indian Paintings" hold photographs collected and taken by Forbes during her research. The bulk of the photographs are of works of art and are arranged by culture group and artist. There are also a small amount of photographs of the artists themselves and their families
Cite as:
Anne Forbes Collection, Box and Folder Number; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

Donald A. Cadzow Photograph Collection, 1882-1919

Creator:
Cadzow, Donald A. 1894-1960
Cadzow, Daniel
Physical description:
322 negatives
8 b&w photographic prints
Culture:
Ahtena Indians
Assiniboine Indians
Cree Indians
Dene Thá Indians
Inuit
Kainah Indians
Older Ojibwa Indians
Piegan Indians
Tsattine Indians
Vuntut Gwich'in Indians
Zuni Indians
Type:
Negatives
Collection descriptions
Photographic prints
Place:
Alaska
Alberta
New Mexico
Prairie Provinces
Saskatchewan
Yukon Territority
Manitoba
Northwest Territories
Yukon
Date:
1882
1882-1919
Topic:
Indians of North America
Local number:
NMAI.AC.001.004
Notes:
Donald A. Cadzow worked on expeditions and archeological excavations for George Gustav Heye and the Museum of the American Indian from 1916 until 1927. Between 1917 and 1919, Cadzow, collected artifacts and archaeological materials from the Copper and Kogmollok Eskimo, the Loucheux, Slavey, and Woodland Cree of Alberta, Canada. In 1919, Cadzow assisted Alanson Skinner on an archeological excavation in Cayuga County, New York. Cadzow next worked with Mark Harrington: excavating a site on Staten Island, New York in 1920; on the Hawikku expedition to study Zuni Indian culture in McKinley County, New Mexico in 1921; and to Arkansas and Missouri in 1922. In 1924 and 1925 he conducted an expedition to a prehistoric Algonkian burial site on Frontenac Island, Cayuga Lake, in New York; traveled to the Bungi tribe in Portage la Prairie, Manitoba, and the Prairie Cree in Saskatchewan, Canada. He continued this work in 1926 again visiting the Prairie Cree and also the Bush Cree in Saskatchewan, the Assiniboin in Saskatchewan and Alberta; the Iroquois and the Northern Piegan (Blackfoot) in Alberta. In 1927, the last year that Cadzow worked for Heye, he assisted George P. Putnam on an expedition to Baffin Island and the Hudson Bay district to visit the Sikosuilarmiut, Akuliarmiut, and Quaumauangmiut Eskimos. Donald A. Cadzow, the son of Hugh and Nellie Cadzow, was born in Auburn, New York in 1894. In 1911, at the age of 17, he traveled to the far Canadian Northwest to live with his uncle Daniel Cadzow at the Rampart House, a Hudson Bay Company trading post on the Alaska-Yukon boundary line. After five years there, Cadzow returned to the United States. He began working for George Gustav Heye in the fall of 1916, but enlisted as seaman in the U.S.N.R.F. on January 20, 1918, only to be released from service on December 22 that same year. He returned to work for Heye at the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation on January 1, 1919, and worked there until 1928. In May of 1928 he took a job in the Bond Department of Lage & Co., a brokerage company in New York City. He was state archeologist for the Pennsylvania Historical Commission from ca. 1929-39; and executive secretary from 1939-45. He was also treasurer of the Eastern States Archeological Federation from 1940-42. In 1945 he was named executive director of the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission and held the position until 1956. He died on February 9, 1960, in Pennsylvania. During his career Cadzow gave a number of lectures and radio talk programs, and published extensively in Indian Notes (Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, New York), for the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, in a variety of publications, and several books
Summary:
Images are of the following tribes: Assiniboine, Beaver (Tsattine), Blackfoot (Piegan), Bungi (Older Ojibwa), Chippewa (Older Ojibwa), Cree (Bush, Prairie, Wood, Woodland), Eskimo, Eskimo (Copper River), Kainah (Blood), Loucheux (Gwich'in), Zuni, Slavey (Dene Thá), Yellowknife (Ahtena)
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian Archives
Visitor Tag(s):

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