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Ernst Herzfeld Papers, Series 1: Travel Journals; Diary of Expedition From Samarra (iraq) to Asadabad (Hamadan, Iran), 1913

Creator:
Herzfeld, Ernst 1879-1948  Search this
Subject:
Herzfeld, Ernst 1879-1948  Search this
Physical description:
Diary : 1 volume (57 pages) ; 25.8 cm. x 21.3 cm
Type:
Diaries
Notebooks
Place:
Iraq, Salah ad-Din, Samarra
Asia
Iraq
Iran
Hamadān (Iran)
Sāmarrā' (Iraq)
Date:
1913
Topic:
Ancient Near Eastern Art  Search this
Antiquities  Search this
Architecture  Search this
Art of the Islamic World  Search this
Description and travel  Search this
Excavations (Archaeology)  Search this
Local number:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers, S-10
FSA A.6 01.08
FSA A.06 07.10
Restrictions & Rights:
Access is by appointment only, Monday through Thursday 10:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Please contact the Archives to make an appointment: AVRreference@si.edu
Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository
See more items in:
Ernst Herzfeld Papers 1899-1962
Ernst Herzfeld Papers, Series 7: Records of Samarra Expeditions 1906-1945
Ernst Herzfeld Papers, Series 1: Travel Journals 1905-1928
Data Source:
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_288665

Paul E. Garber Collection

Creator:
Garber, Paul Edward, 1899-1992  Search this
Names:
Early Birds of Aviation (Organization).  Search this
National Air Museum (U.S.)  Search this
National Air and Space Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Tusch, Mary E. "Mother"  Search this
Extent:
241.95 Cubic feet (488 boxes plus flat files)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Audiotapes
Correspondence
Diaries
Lectures
Photographs
Printed material
Scrapbooks
Slides (photographs)
Date:
1824-1992
Summary:
The Paul E. Garber Collection documents Paul Edward Garber's life, both personal and professional, prior to and during his 72-year tenure at the National Air and Space Museum.
Scope and Contents:
The Paul E. Garber Collection includes material from both the personal and professional realms of Garber's life. It is centered on the following three areas: Garber's personal life; his aeronautics interests; and his association with the Smithsonian Institution—the National Air Museum, and later the National Air and Space Museum. The collection is a particularly rich source of material relating to Garber's development of the military target kite, his involvement in a multitude of aviation-related clubs and organizations, and as a record of his daily work duties and influence upon the National Air and Space Museum. The following types of materials, dating from 1824 to 1992, are included: correspondence; diaries; notes and writings by Garber regarding a variety of aeronautical and museum topics; lectures and interviews; scrapbooks; newspaper clippings; magazine articles; photo albums; photographs, slides, negatives, and lantern slides; pamphlets and brochures; drawings; newsletters; and audio recordings.
Arrangement:
Little emphasis has been placed on dividing this collection between Garber's personal and professional lives, as the two capacities intersected in almost every way. Whenever possible, Garber's original folder titles and order have been preserved. All titles that appear in [brackets] are the archivist's.

The collection is organized into the following 15 series:

Series 1: Correspondence, circa 1901-circa 1992 and undated

Series 2: Invitations and Programs, 1910-1988 and undated

Series 3: National Air and Space Museum (NASM), 1916-1992 and undated

Series 4: World War II Target Kites and Naval Reserve, 1919-1986 and undated

Series 5: Manuscripts and Speeches, 1925-1989 and undated

Series 6: Personal Materials, 1824-1992 and undated

Series 7: Personal Interest, circa 1908-circa 1992 and undated

Series 8: Organizations, 1908-1992 and undated

Series 9: Newsletters, 1938-1992 and undated

Series 10: Biographical Files, circa 1910-circa 1992 and undated

Series 11: Subject Files, 1909- circa 1990 and undated

Series 12: Photographs, circa 1880-1992 and undated

Series 13: Negatives, Transparencies, Film, and Slides, circa 1940s-circa 1970s and undated

Series 14: Oversize Materials, 1842-1990 and undated

Series 15: Audio Recordings
Biographical / Historical:
Paul Edward Garber (1899-1992) was instrumental in obtaining a substantial portion of the National Air and Space Museum's aircraft collection. His 72-year tenure with the Smithsonian Institution and his dedication to the belief that aeronautics artifacts were worthy of preservation for the sake of National memory effectively make him the progenitor of the National Air and Space Museum we know today.

Garber was born in Atlantic City, New Jersey, on 31 August 1899, a few years prior to the development of powered flight. Growing up during this exciting time, young Garber was exposed to a number of experiences that ignited his interest in aeronautics. Garber recalled that, while visiting Washington, D.C., in 1909, he took a streetcar across the Potomac River to watch Orville Wright fly the world's first military airplane at Fort Myer, Virginia.

The Garber family eventually left Atlantic City and permanently settled in Washington, D.C. In 1913 Garber and his schoolmates formed the Capital Model Aeroplane Club, organizing competitions for the making and flying of model aircraft and kites. In 1915, after visiting the Smithsonian Institution, Garber made a copy of Octave Chanute's biplane glider. After testing a smaller model, which he flew as a kite, Garber constructed a 20-foot wingspan version, using barrel staves sawed into thirds as ribs and covering them in red chintz fabric. Over several weekends, Garber made numerous towed take-offs and glides. These flights would eventually qualify him for membership into the Early Birds of Aviation, Inc. Between 1917 and 1918 Garber studied at the McKinley Technical School in Washington, D.C., and the University of Maryland, College Park. He also studied Aeronautical Engineering at the Research University, Washington, 1920-1921. He never received a degree from any institution he attended. Garber finished his teen years by joining the Army in 1918 and was about to begin flight training at College Park when World War I ended. Afterwards, he took a job as a ground crewman and messenger with the United States Post Office Department's Air Mail Service.

In 1920 Garber began his career with the Smithsonian Institution, starting as a "Preparator," dealing with the maintenance of exhibits. Advancing through the ranks, he was at various times an Aide, Assistant Curator, and Associate Curator. During World War II, Garber's talents in modeling and kite making allowed him to accept a commission in the U.S. Navy at the rank of Lt. Commander. His military target kites became an important part of gunnery training, serving as both targets and examples for identifying enemy aircraft. Following the ending of the war, Garber resigned at the rank of Commander and returned to the Smithsonian where, in 1952, he became the first Curator of the National Air Museum, which was created by act of Congress in 1946.

On 10 May 1952 Garber married Irene Tusch, daughter of the aeronautical enthusiast Mary E. "Mother" Tusch. Throughout the next decade plus, Garber received promotions to Head Curator and Senior Historian, serving in this last position until 1965. From 1965 to 1969, Garber was the Assistant Director of Aeronautics. Forced to retire by Federal law upon reaching the age of 70, Garber received the honorary lifetime titles of Historian Emeritus and Ramsey Fellow.

Garber wrote several books on aeronautics and flight: Building and Flying Model Aircraft. A Guide for Youthful Beginners in Aeronautics, 1920; We: The Story of Achievement in Aviation, 1929; Kites and Kite Flying, 1931; Flying in Safety, 1939; and Navy Target Kites, 1944. He wrote multiple editions on the National Aircraft/Aeronautical Collections (1941, 1949, 1956, and 1965), as well as numerous pamphlets, handbooks, encyclopedia entries, and articles on aviation-related subjects.

In addition to his writing and lecturing, he was the recipient of many awards and trophies, including: the Washington Air Derby Association Trophy, 1954; the Air Line Traffic Association Citation, 1955; the Frank G. Brewer Trophy for Youth Education, 1959; the Elder Statesman of Aviation Award, 1964; the Trasvolata Atlantica Medal from Italy, 1964; the Santos-Dumont Medal of Merit from Brazil, 1966; the Paul Tissandier Diplome from the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (F.A.I.), 1968; the Smithsonian Institution's Gold Medal, 1969; the Order Rio Branco, 1969; the Mérito Aeronáutico Medal from Brazil, 1974; named an honorary pilot in the Brazilian Air Force, 1982; recipient of the Medalha Mérito Tamandaré of Brazil, 1983; named to the OX-5 Club's Aviation Hall of Fame, 1974; and received the Laskowitz Gold Medal from the New York Academy of Sciences, 1979. Garber was also made Honorary Naval Aviator #17 during the mid-1980's. He was a member of the National Aeronautics Association, the Air Mail Pioneers, the Early Birds of Aviation, Inc. (Secretary, 1956-1960; President 1968, 1976-77), the Connecticut Aeronautical Historical Society, the National Aviation Club, and the National Space Club.

Paul Garber died in his sleep at Arlington Hospital on 23 September 1992. His acquisition efforts and advocacy on behalf of the National Air and Space Museum continue to live on in the form of its rich aircraft collections. The National Air and Space Museum's Paul E. Garber Preservation, Restoration, and Storage Facility, formerly known as "Silver Hill," is named in his honor.
Provenance:
Paul Garber, Gift, 1991, NASM.1991.0063
Restrictions:
No restrictions on access.
Rights:
Material is subject to Smithsonian Terms of Use. Should you wish to use NASM material in any medium, please submit an Application for Permission to Reproduce NASM Material, available at Permissions Requests.
Topic:
Aeronautics  Search this
Kites  Search this
Models and modelmaking  Search this
Museums -- Curatorship  Search this
Genre/Form:
Audiotapes
Correspondence
Diaries
Lectures
Photographs
Printed material
Scrapbooks
Slides (photographs)
Citation:
Paul E. Garber Collection, Acc. NASM.1991.0063, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NASM.1991.0063
See more items in:
Paul E. Garber Collection
Archival Repository:
National Air and Space Museum Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nasm-1991-0063
Additional Online Media:

Karl Knaths papers

Creator:
Knaths, Karl, 1891-1971  Search this
Names:
Roseberg, Paul and Company  Search this
Einstein, Carl, 1885-1940  Search this
Hofmann, Hans, 1880-1966  Search this
Knaths, Karl, 1891-1971  Search this
Malevich, Kazimir Severinovich, 1878-1935  Search this
Mehler, F. A.  Search this
Meierhans, Joseph, b. 1890  Search this
Mocsanyi, Paul  Search this
Mondrian, Piet, 1872-1944  Search this
Phillips, Duncan, 1886-1966  Search this
Phillips, Marjorie, 1895-1985  Search this
Extent:
8.9 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Diaries
Sketchbooks
Paintings
Manuscripts
Prints
Sketches
Transcripts
Date:
1890-1973
bulk 1922-1971
Summary:
The papers of cubist painter Karl Knaths measure 8.9 linear feet and date from 1890 to 1973, with the bulk of the materials dating from 1922 to 1971. The collection includes biographical material, personal and professional correspondence, four diaries, 22 notebooks and notes on theoretical color and compositional approaches to painting, published and draft copies of essays on art, miscellaneous printed material, 132 sketchbooks and other artwork.
Scope and Contents note:
The papers of cubist painter Karl Knaths measure 8.9 linear feet and date from 1890 to 1973, with the bulk of the materials dating from 1922 to 1971. The collection includes biographical material, personal and professional correspondence, four diaries, 22 notebooks and notes on theoretical color and compositional approaches to painting, published and draft copies of essays on art, miscellaneous printed material, and 132 sketchbooks and additional artwork.

Biographical material consists of a copy of Knaths's curriculum vitae, a press release, and miscellaneous personal financial records.

Correspondence in the collection documents Knaths's relationships with family, friends, and business associates after his move to Provincetown, Massachusetts in 1919. Notable correspondents include Duncan and Marjorie Phillips, artist Joseph Meierhans, and the gallery Paul Rosenberg and Co.

The papers include three of Knaths's personal diaries (1916-1919, 1948) and a diary written by F.A. Mehler in 1890. Additional writings include lecture notes from classes that Knaths both attended and taught; 22 notebooks that explore his interest in articulating a color and compositional theory of painting; loose notes on various artists, projects, and facets of painting; several of his completed essays on art, including "Decorative Material" and "Pictorial Analysis;" and a draft of his unpublished manuscript "Ornament and Glory." Writings by others include 15 lecture transcripts from courses taught by Hans Hofmann during the 1930s, Knaths's translations of essays by Piet Mondrian, Kazimir Malevitch, and Carl Einstein, and a biographical essay on Karl Knaths by Paul Mocsanyi.

Printed materials in the collection include clippings, exhibition catalogs, and programs related to Knaths's one-man exhibitions and group shows, and the books Syracuse University Centennial Collection of Art (1970) and Karl Knaths: Five Decades of Painting (1973).

The bulk of the collection consists of 132 sketchbooks and additional artwork. Sketchbooks date from the 1920s to the 1970s and document Knaths's early figurative and landscape studies and later explorations of cubist style and compositional experiments with color, line, and form. Additional artwork includes numerous color charts and diagrams that Knaths kept to inform his painting color palette; outlines of compositional works on both graphed and regular paper; loose pencil sketches and pastels of figures, landscapes, and compositional experiments; and finished paintings and prints.
Arrangement note:
The collection is arranged as 6 series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, circa 1950s-1971 (Box 1, 8; 6 folders)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1923-1971 (Box 1; .5 linear feet)

Series 3: Writings, 1890, 1916-1968 (Boxes 1-3, 8, OV 14, OV 19; 2 linear feet)

Series 4: Printed Material, circa 1920s-1973 (Box 3, OV 19; 10 folders)

Series 5: Sketchbooks, circa 1920s-1970s (Boxes 3-6, 9-13; 4.5 linear feet)

Series 6: Artwork, circa 1920s-1970s (Box 6, 13, OV 15-18, OV 20-22; 1.8 linear feet)
Biographical/Historical note:
Karl Knaths (1891-1971), born Otto G. Knaths, lived and worked in Provincetown, Massachusetts and was known for his cubist style of painting.

Knaths was born in Eau Claire, Wisconsin and studied at the Art Institute of Chicago in his early twenties. The 1913 Armory Show provided his first major encounter with modernist art styles and the works of Paul Cezanne and Vincent Van Gogh. In 1919, Knaths moved to Provincetown and began to explore cubist perspectives in his own work, which drew much of its inspiration from the fishing culture and landscapes of his Cape Cod environs. Intellectually curious and drawn to art theory, Knaths recorded his thoughts on composition rules, color classifications, and the potential intersections between music, space, and color theory in notebooks, notes, and sketchbooks throughout his career.

The patronage of art collector Duncan Phillips led to Knaths's first one-man show at the Phillips Collection in 1929. The following year, he landed a solo show at New York's Daniel Gallery. Knaths joined the Works Progress Administration in 1934 and painted murals and other works for a year and a half. From 1938 to 1950, he also taught painting and art theory during a six week course held at the Phillips Art School, and was a guest lecturer at Black Mountain College, North Carolina (1944) and the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture in Maine (1948). From 1945 to 1971, he was represented by the art gallery Paul Rosenberg and Co. Knaths died in 1971 in his home in Provincetown, at the age of 80.
Related Archival Materials note:
The Archives of American Art holds one oral history interview with Karl Knaths conducted by Dorothy Seckler in 1962; a transcript of a 1968 lecture delivered by Knaths at the Provincetown Art Association in Provincetown, Massachusetts; and a 1955 video recording documenting Knaths's Cape Cod influenced artwork, directed by Jack Calderwood.
Separated Materials:
The Archives of American Art also holds material lent for microfilming (reel D81) including one sketchbook. Lent materials were returned to the lender and are not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
In 1962, Karl Knaths lent the Archives of American Art a sketchbook and a selection of papers for microfilming. Upon Knath's death in 1972, these papers, excluding the sketchbook, along with additional materials, were willed to the Archives. His executor, Kenneth Desmarais, donated additional material from Knaths's estate in 1977 and 1980.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.
Rights:
The Karl Knaths papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Painting -- Study and teaching  Search this
Painting -- Technique  Search this
Cubism  Search this
Painters -- Massachusetts -- Cape Cod  Search this
Art -- Technique  Search this
Color in art  Search this
Art -- Study and teaching  Search this
Genre/Form:
Diaries
Sketchbooks
Paintings
Manuscripts
Prints
Sketches
Transcripts
Citation:
Karl Knaths papers, 1890-1973, bulk 1922-1971. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.knatkarp
See more items in:
Karl Knaths papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-knatkarp
Additional Online Media:

Walt Kuhn Family papers and Armory Show records

Creator:
Kuhn, Walt, 1877-1949  Search this
Names:
Armory Show (1913: New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Association of American Painters and Sculptors (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
International Exhibition of Modern Art  Search this
Kit Kat Club (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Penguin Club (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Davies, Arthur B. (Arthur Bowen), 1862-1928  Search this
Kuhn, Brenda, 1911-  Search this
Kuhn, Vera, d. 1961  Search this
Oldfield, Otis, 1890-1969  Search this
Pach, Walter, 1883-1958  Search this
Quinn, John, 1870-1924  Search this
Sheeler, Charles, 1883-1965  Search this
Photographer:
Rainford, Percy  Search this
Weston, Edward, 1886-1958  Search this
Extent:
31 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Drawings
Diaries
Scrapbooks
Sound recordings
Date:
1859-1984
bulk 1900-1949
Summary:
The Walt Kuhn Family papers and Armory Show records measure 31 linear feet and date from 1859 to 1984, with the bulk of material dating from 1900 to 1949. Papers contain records of the legendary Armory Show of 1913, also known as the International Exhibition of Modern Art, which introduced modern European painting and sculpture to the American public. Papers also contain records of the Association of American Painters and Sculptors (AAPS), the artist-run organization that mounted the Armory Show; records of the New York artists' clubs the Kit Kat Club (founded 1881) and the Penguin Club (founded 1917); and the personal and family papers of New York artist Walt Kuhn (1877-1949), one of the primary organizers of the Armory Show.
Scope and Contents note:
The Walt Kuhn Family papers and Armory Show records measure 31 linear feet and date from 1859 to 1984, with the bulk of material dating from 1900 to 1949. Papers contain records of the legendary Armory Show of 1913, also known as the International Exhibition of Modern Art, which introduced modern European painting and sculpture to the American public. Papers also contain records of the Association of American Painters and Sculptors (AAPS), the artist-run organization that mounted the Armory Show; records of the New York artists' clubs the Kit Kat Club (founded 1881) and the Penguin Club (founded 1917); and the personal and family papers of New York artist Walt Kuhn (1877-1949), one of the primary organizers of the Armory Show.

As Secretary for the AAPS, Kuhn retained the bulk of existing records of that organization and of the Armory Show. Minutes and correspondence make up most of the AAPS records (Series 2), as well as documents related to John Quinn's legal brief against a tariff on imported works of living artists. Armory Show Records (Series 1) include personal letters, voluminous business correspondence, a record book, miscellaneous notes, inventories and shipping records, two large scrapbooks, printed materials, a small number of photographs, and retrospective accounts of the show. The printed materials and photographs in Kit Kat Club and Penguin Club Records reflect Kuhn's deep involvement in those clubs.

The Walt Kuhn Family Papers (Series 4) contain records of his artwork, career, travels, personal and professional associations, family members, and work in vaudeville, film, and interior design. Notable among the family papers are illustrated letters and other cartoons; sketches, drawings, watercolors, and prints; candid letters from Walt to Vera Kuhn discussing art scene politics and personalities in New York, Paris, Chicago, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Florida, and the Midwest; general correspondence with artists, dealers, collectors, journalists, writers, models, and fans; notes in index card files containing biographical anecdotes of the Kuhns' many contacts; provenance files that document the origin and fate of Kuhn's paintings, sculptures, and prints; papers relating to Kuhn's exhibitions and his relationships with the Marie Harriman Gallery and Durand-Ruel Gallery; and photographs and drawings depicting Kuhn's early years in Munich, Germany and Fort Lee, New Jersey; trips to Nova Scotia, New England, the Western United States, and Europe; New York and summer studios, among other subjects.
Arrangement:
This collection has been arranged into 4 series, with multiple subseries in Series 1 and 4.

Series 1: Armory Show Records, 1912-1963 (Boxes 1-2, 27-31, 56, OV 36; 3.6 linear feet)

Series 2: Association of American Painters and Sculptors (AAPS) Records, 1911-1914, undated (Box 3; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 3: Kit Kat Club and Penguin Club Records, 1909-1923, undated (Box 3, 32, 56, OVs 37-38; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 4: Walt Kuhn Family Papers, 1859-1984, undated (Box 3-26, 32-35, 56-57, OVs 39-55, 58; 26.7 linear feet)

In general, documents are arranged chronologically, alphabetically, or by type of material. Copy negatives and copy prints made from documents in this collection have been filed separately from originals, in a folder marked "copy." Duplicates of original records made or obtained by the Kuhns have been filed separately as well.

Existing envelopes are filed in front of correspondence and enclosures directly after. Correspondence in the Armory Show Records and AAPS Records is arranged alphabetically, and correspondents are listed in the box inventory following series descriptions below.
Biographical/Historical note:
Walt Kuhn (1877-1949) was an etcher, lithographer, and watercolorist, as well as being a teacher, an advisor to art collectors, an organizer, and a promoter of modern art. He played a key role in the art scene of New York City in the early 20th century, and was among the small group that organized the infamous Armory Show of 1913, officially known as the International Exhibition of Modern Art, held at the 69th Regiment Armory building in New York City. After the Armory Show, Kuhn went on to a distinguished career as a painter. He was best known for his sober oil portraits of show people, clowns, acrobats, and circus performers, but was equally prolific in landscapes, still lifes, and figure and genre drawings.

Walt Kuhn was born in Brooklyn, NY in 1877. After a brief career as a bicycle shop owner in downtown Brooklyn, Kuhn traveled West in 1899 to San Francisco, CA and earned his living as a cartoonist for newspapers such as Wasp. After two years in California, he moved back East and then on to Europe to pursue further art training. He briefly attended the Académie Colarossi studio in Paris, but quickly moved to Munich where he joined the class of Heinrich von Zügel in the Royal Academy.

Kuhn returned to New York City in 1904 and took up an active role in the art scene there, participating in the Salmagundi Club and the Kit Kat Club, teaching at the New York School of Art, and cartooning for Life, Judge, Puck, and other publications. In 1910, he participated in an exhibition of Independent Artists on 35th St. with Robert Henri and met artist Arthur B. Davies.

In 1911, when the National Academy of Design opened their annual exhibition, Kuhn, Henry Fitch Taylor, Elmer MacRae, and Jerome Myers were exhibiting at Clara Potter Davidge's Madison Gallery. To these four young artists, the Academy exhibition was typically lackluster, and the attention it received was unwarranted. Sensing that they were not alone in their attitude, they decided to organize. They invited a dozen other artists to join them, thus forming the Association of American Painters and Sculptors (AAPS). The group elected Kuhn Secretary and Arthur B. Davies President, and with the help of attorney and art collector John Quinn, they incorporated and began raising funds for an independent exhibition the following year.

In September of 1912, at Davies' suggestion, Kuhn traveled to Cologne, Germany to view the Sonderbund Internationale Kunst-Austellung. There he saw presented, in overwhelming volume, the work of his European contemporaries and their modern antecedents, the post-impressionists. He immediately began selecting and securing artwork for the upcoming AAPS exhibition. Kuhn traveled through Germany, Holland, France, and England, visiting private collectors, dealers, and artists. In Paris, Kuhn was joined by Davies and American artist and art agent Walter Pach. Kuhn and Davies sailed for New York in November, leaving the details of European arrangements to Pach.

The resulting Armory Show exhibition opened in New York in February 1913, and a selection of the foreign works traveled to Chicago and Boston in March and April. It included approximately 1300 American and European works of art, arranged in the exhibition space to advance the notion that the roots of modernism could be seen in the works of the old masters, from which the dramatically new art of living artists had evolved. Savvy and sensational publicity, combined with strategic word-of-mouth, resulted in attendance figures over 200,000 and over $44 thousand in sales. The Armory Show had demonstrated that modern art had a place in the public taste, that there was a market for it and legitimate critical support as well.

During the first World War, Kuhn stayed in NY and was active in the Kit Kat Club, an artists' club founded in 1881, which provided its members with collective studio space, live models, exhibitions, and an annual costume ball. In 1917, Kuhn founded another group called the Penguin Club, which had similar objectives to the Kit Kat Club, but with Kuhn himself as the gatekeeper. In addition to exhibitions and costume balls, the Penguin Club held summer outings and stag dinners, and maintained collective studio and exhibition space on East 15th Street in Manhattan. Its members included Americans and European artists displaced by the war in Europe. In the 1920s, Kuhn expanded a few sketches he had written for Penguin Balls into full-blown vaudeville productions, some of which were incorporated into larger musical revues such as The Merry Go Round and The 49ers and traveled around the country. Kuhn's theater work continued until 1928, and his fascination with show business continued to influence him throughout his life.

In the 1920s and 1930s, Kuhn gradually achieved recognition for his artwork, with sales to private collectors and dealers including Edith Halpert, Merritt Cutler, Lillie Bliss, John Quinn, and Marie Harriman. Kuhn also promoted other young painters whose work he liked, including Otis Oldfield, Lily Emmet Cushing, John Laurent, Frank di Gioia, and the self-taught Vermont artist Patsy Santo. Sometimes artists would contact him by mail, asking for lessons or advice. His lengthy letters to students offer coaching in technique and subject matter, as well as in the overall problem of success in art.

In 1929, Kuhn moved into the 18th St. studio that he would keep until the end of his life. He kept a rack of costumes in the studio, mostly made by Vera Kuhn, and his models, many of them stage and circus performers, would come and sit for Kuhn's portraits. The same year his painting The White Clown was exhibited at the newly established Museum of Modern Art in New York, bringing intense publicity and sales interest. Around this time, Kuhn began to receive the support of collector Duncan Phillips and curator Juliana Force of the Whitney Museum of American Art, both of whom made purchases and consistently exhibited his work.

Marie Norton Whitney Harriman, second wife of railroad magnate and diplomat W. Averell Harriman, shared a professional liaison with Kuhn that would take many forms and last until his death. Soon after the success of The White Clown, Kuhn established a relationship with the Marie Harriman Gallery, where he participated in group and solo shows during the height of his career. Kuhn also traveled with the Harrimans to Europe in 1931, where the three visited important private collections and acquired many valuable modern paintings for the Harrimans. Their collection, so heavily influenced by Kuhn's ideas about art, would eventually go to the National Gallery of Art.

Kuhn was an artist who understood the art business and never shied away from it. For Kuhn, promoting the ideas and practitioners of a certain brand of modernism was an expression of both aesthetic ideology and pragmatic self-interest. His contribution to the public discourse on modernism situated his own work at the heart of art history and the marketplace. Regardless of his motivations, he was indisputably a key player at a pivotal time in American art, when academic art was riotoulsy overturned to make way for modernism. His paintings are now held in major museum collections around the country, where most of them arrived with bequests from the collectors Kuhn had cultivated so carefully in his lifetime.

Sources consulted for this biography include The Story of the Armory Show (1988) by Milton W. Brown, Walt Kuhn, Painter: His Life and Work (1978) by Philip Rhys Adams, and "Walt Kuhn" by Frank Getlein, in the 1967 catalog of the Kennedy Galleries, Inc.
Related Archival Materials note:
The Archives of American Art holds the papers of Walter Pach, the European representative of the Armory Show.
Provenance:
The Walt Kuhn Family papers and Armory Show records were loaned for microfilming and later donated to the Archives of American Art by Walt Kuhn's daughter Brenda Kuhn in several installments between 1962 and 1979. An additional accession of letters, photographs, and an artifact was purchased by the Archives in 2000. Another addition was donated by Terry DeLapp, Kuhn's dealer, in 2015.
Restrictions:
This collection is open for research. Access to original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.

Researchers interested in accessing audiovisual recordings in this collection must use access copies. Contact References Services for more information.
Rights:
The Archives of American Art makes its archival collections available for non-commercial, educational and personal use unless restricted by copyright and/or donor restrictions, including but not limited to access and publication restrictions. AAA makes no representations concerning such rights and restrictions and it is the user's responsibility to determine whether rights or restrictions exist and to obtain any necessary permission to access, use, reproduce and publish the collections. Please refer to the Smithsonian's Terms of Use for additional information.
Occupation:
Etchers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Watercolorists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Lithographers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Topic:
Art -- Societies, etc. -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
New York school of art  Search this
Modernism (Art)  Search this
Genre/Form:
Drawings
Diaries
Scrapbooks
Sound recordings
Citation:
Walt Kuhn Family papers and Armory Show records, 1859-1984. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.kuhnwalt
See more items in:
Walt Kuhn Family papers and Armory Show records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-kuhnwalt
Additional Online Media:

Electrical Review, Dec. 4, 1891

Measurements:
overall: 13 1/4 in x 8 3/4 in x 3/8 in; 33.655 cm x 22.225 cm x .9525 cm
Object Name:
Journal
Date made:
December 4, 1891
Credit Line:
Gift of Noah S. Amstutz
ID Number:
EM.005519
Catalog number:
5519
Accession number:
28757
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Electricity
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1196370
Additional Online Media:

diary

Measurements:
overall: 1 1/8 in x 8 1/2 in x 12 7/8 in; 2.8575 cm x 21.59 cm x 32.7025 cm
Object Name:
diary
ID Number:
CL.298910.02
Catalog number:
298910.02
Accession number:
298910
See more items in:
Cultural and Community Life: Ethnic
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1903817
Additional Online Media:

Day by Day, Llewellyn Roane

User:
Roane, Mary Llewellyn  Search this
Maker:
Samuel Ward  Search this
Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
leather (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 14.7 cm x 9 cm x 2.3 cm; 5 25/32 in x 3 17/32 in x 29/32 in
Object Name:
diary
Date made:
1918
Related event:
World War I  Search this
Credit Line:
Gift of Helen L. Moore
ID Number:
2017.0194.02
Catalog number:
2017.0194.02
Accession number:
2017.0194
See more items in:
Medicine and Science: Medicine
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1898757
Additional Online Media:

Diary, Shimomura family diary, 1953

Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
ink (overall material)
metal (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 1 1/2 in x 9 in x 6 1/2 in; 3.81 cm x 22.86 cm x 16.51 cm
Object Name:
Diary
diary
Associated Place:
United States: Washington, King
Japan: Nagasaki, Nagasaki
Date made:
1950s
Subject:
Japanese-American  Search this
Related event:
Cold War  Search this
Credit Line:
Gift of Roger Shimomura
ID Number:
2016.3086.216
Nonaccession number:
2016.3086
Catalog number:
2016.3086.216
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Armed Forces History, Japanese American
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1812268

Diary, Shimomura family diary, 1950s

Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
ink (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 1/2 in x 5 1/2 in x 4 1/2 in; 1.27 cm x 13.97 cm x 11.43 cm
Object Name:
Diary
diary
Associated Place:
United States: Washington, King
Japan: Nagasaki, Nagasaki
Subject:
Japanese-American  Search this
Related event:
Cold War  Search this
Credit Line:
Gift of Roger Shimomura
ID Number:
2016.3086.219
Nonaccession number:
2016.3086
Catalog number:
2016.3086.219
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Armed Forces History, Japanese American
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1812286

Mining Journal

Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
leather (overall material)
ink (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 9 3/4 in x 8 in x 1 5/16 in; 24.765 cm x 20.32 cm x 3.33375 cm
Object Name:
journal
mining journal
Date made:
1897
ID Number:
2016.0140.01
Catalog number:
2016.0140.01
Accession number:
2016.0140
See more items in:
Work and Industry: Mining
Work
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1807146
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Additional Online Media:

Toku Shimomura's diary, 1913

Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
cardboard (overall material)
ink (overall material)
pencil (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 7 5/8 in x 5 1/4 in x 1 in; 19.3675 cm x 13.335 cm x 2.54 cm
Object Name:
diary
Date made:
1913
Associated Date:
1913
Credit Line:
Gift of Roger Shimomura
ID Number:
2014.0233.01
Accession number:
2014.0233
Catalog number:
2014.0233.01
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Armed Forces History, Japanese American
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1807256

Toku Shimomura's diary, 1914

Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
cardboard (overall material)
ink (overall material)
pencil (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 7 1/2 in x 5 1/4 in x 1 in; 19.05 cm x 13.335 cm x 2.54 cm
Object Name:
diary
Date made:
1914
Credit Line:
Gift of Roger Shimomura
ID Number:
2014.0233.02
Accession number:
2014.0233
Catalog number:
2014.0233.02
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Armed Forces History, Japanese American
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1807270

Toku Shimomura's diary, 1917

Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
cardboard (overall material)
ink (overall material)
pencil (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 7 1/2 in x 5 1/4 in x 7/8 in; 19.05 cm x 13.335 cm x 2.2225 cm
Object Name:
diary
Date made:
1917
Credit Line:
Gift of Roger Shimomura
ID Number:
2014.0233.03
Accession number:
2014.0233
Catalog number:
2014.0233.03
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Armed Forces History, Japanese American
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1807285

Toku Shimomura's diary, 1919

Physical Description:
paper (overall material)
cardboard (overall material)
ink (overall material)
pencil (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 7 1/2 in x 5 1/4 in x 3/4 in; 19.05 cm x 13.335 cm x 1.905 cm
Object Name:
diary
Date made:
1919
Credit Line:
Gift of Roger Shimomura
ID Number:
2014.0233.04
Accession number:
2014.0023
Catalog number:
2014.0023.04
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Armed Forces History, Japanese American
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1807322

diary, Toku Shimomura's diary, 1920

Physical Description:
ink (overall material)
pencil (overall material)
paper (overall material)
cardboard (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 7 1/2 in x 5 1/4 in x 3/4 in; 19.05 cm x 13.335 cm x 1.905 cm
Object Name:
diary
Date made:
1920
Credit Line:
Gift of Roger Shimomura
ID Number:
2014.0233.05
Accession number:
2014.0233
Catalog number:
2014.0233.05
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Armed Forces History, Japanese American
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1807328

diary, Toku Shimomura's diary,1922-1923

Physical Description:
ink (overall material)
pencil (overall material)
paper (overall material)
cardboard (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 7 1/2 in x 5 1/4 in x 3/4 in; 19.05 cm x 13.335 cm x 1.905 cm
Object Name:
diary
Date made:
1923
1922, 1923
Credit Line:
Gift of Roger Shimomura
ID Number:
2014.0233.06
Accession number:
2014.0233
Catalog number:
2014.0233.06
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Armed Forces History, Japanese American
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1807345

diary, Toku Shimomura's diary, 1925

Physical Description:
ink (overall material)
pencil (overall material)
paper (overall material)
cardboard (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 7 5/8 in x 5 1/4 in x 1 in; 19.3675 cm x 13.335 cm x 2.54 cm
Object Name:
diary
Date made:
1925
Credit Line:
Gift of Roger Shimomura
ID Number:
2014.0233.07
Accession number:
2014.0233
Catalog number:
2014.0233.07
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Armed Forces History, Japanese American
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1807356

Toku Shimomura's diary, 1926

Physical Description:
ink (overall material)
pencil (overall material)
paper (overall material)
cardboard (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 7 5/8 in x 5 1/4 in x 1 in; 19.3675 cm x 13.335 cm x 2.54 cm
Object Name:
diary
Date made:
1926
Credit Line:
Gift of Roger Shimomura
ID Number:
2014.0233.08
Accession number:
2014.0233
Catalog number:
2014.0233.08
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Armed Forces History, Japanese American
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1807357

Toku Shimomura's diary, 1927

Physical Description:
ink (overall material)
pencil (overall material)
paper (overall material)
cardboard (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 7 5/8 in x 5 1/4 in x 1 in; 19.3675 cm x 13.335 cm x 2.54 cm
Object Name:
diary
Date made:
1927
Credit Line:
Gift of Roger Shimomura
ID Number:
2014.0233.09
Accession number:
2014.0233
Catalog number:
2014.0233.09
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Armed Forces History, Japanese American
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1807358

Toku Shimomura's diary, 1928

Physical Description:
pencil (overall material)
paper (overall material)
ink (overall material)
Measurements:
overall: 7 5/8 in x 5 1/4 in x 5/8 in; 19.3675 cm x 13.335 cm x 1.5875 cm
Object Name:
diary
Date made:
1928
Credit Line:
Gift of Roger Shimomura
ID Number:
2014.0233.10
Accession number:
2014.0233
Catalog number:
2014.0233.10
See more items in:
Political and Military History: Armed Forces History, Japanese American
Data Source:
National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmah_1807437

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