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Saddle Stirrup etc.

Donor Name:
Dr. U S Army Charles C. Gray  Search this
Dr. Washington Matthews  Search this
Collector:
Dr. U S Army Charles C. Gray  Search this
Dr. Washington Matthews  Search this
Culture:
Sioux  Search this
: Yankton Dakota  Search this
Sioux  Search this
: Yanktonai Dakota  Search this
Object Type:
Saddle
Place:
Not Given, Upper Missouri River, Dakota Territory, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1868
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
001281
USNM Number:
E6328-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8470586
Additional Online Media:

Carlos Montezuma lantern slide collection relating to American Indians

Creator:
Montezuma, Carlos, 1866-1923  Search this
Names:
Phoenix Indian School  Search this
United States Indian School (Carlisle, Pa.)  Search this
Photographer:
Brady, Mathew B., approximately 1823-1896  Search this
Choate, J. N. (John N.), 1848-1902  Search this
Gentile, Carlo, 1835-1893  Search this
Prando, Peter Paul Father  Search this
Sarony, Napoleon, 1821-1896  Search this
Extent:
171 lantern slides
Culture:
Dakota Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Apache Indians  Search this
Crow Indians  Search this
Maricopa Indians  Search this
Paiute Indians  Search this
Shoshoni Indians  Search this
Ute Indians  Search this
Yavapai Indians  Search this
Tohono O'Odham Indians  Search this
Mohave Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Navajo Indians  Search this
Cheyenne Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Lantern slides
Place:
Montezuma Castle National Monument (Ariz.)
Casa Grande (Ariz.)
Date:
circa 1871-1913
Scope and Contents note:
The collection includes hand-colored glass lantern slides collected by Dr. Carlos Montezuma and used for his lectures on American Indian rights. Many of the photographs are portraits, some made at Ft. McDowell and Fort Apache. Other images show schools, reservations, dwellings, Charles Dickens (a Yavapai store owner), Montezuma's Castle, Casa Grande, and scenic views. A special series includes photographs made during a 1913 hunting and sightseeing trip that he organized, probably including photographs made by Montezuma's guests, John T. McCutcheon and Charles B. Gibson.

Some of the images were made by Charles (Carlos) Gentile, the photographer and benefactor of Montezuma in his early years. There are also several by Father Peter Paulus Prando and John N. Choate, and one portrait each by Napoleon Sarony and Matthew Brady. Otherwise, the photographers are unidentified.
Biographical/Historical note:
Carlos Montezuma (1866-1923, also called Wassaja) was an American Indian activist and physician. He was a Yavapai Indian, though he often identified himself erroneously as Apache. He was captured by Pima Indians at a young age and sold in 1871 to Italian-immigrant and pioneer photographer Carlo (or Charles) Gentile, who adopted the child and took him to New York. Montezuma graduated from the University of Illinois (1884) and received his MD from the Chicago Medical College (1889). He developed a friendship with Richard Henry Pratt, head of the Carlisle Indian School, and took a post as reservation physician for the Bureau of Indian Services. During this time he developed an opposition to BIA policies and became an American Indian advocate, speaking out against reservations. He gave numerous lectures on American Indians at institutions around the United States, helped organize the Society of American Indians, and published a personal newsletter entitled Wassaja (1916-1922). In 1896, Montezuma established a medical practice in Chicago. He died in Arizona in 1923.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 73
Varying Form of Title:
Carlos Montezuma-Doris Collester Collection of Lantern Slides
General note:
The handwriting on the slides has been identified as that of Dr. Carlos Montezuma by John Larner, the editor of Montezumaʹs papers. Information in this catalog record has been taken from Cesare Marino, Solving the Mystery: The Carlos Montezuma-Doris Collester Collection of Lantern Slides in the NAA : Report of Background Research and Interview with Mrs. Doris Collester, Donor of the Carlos Montezuma Collection of Hand-tinted Lantern Slides to the Smithsonian Institution, conducted in Williamstown, West Virginia, August 2013.
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Correspondence from Montezuma is held in the National Anthropological Archives in the records of the Bureau of American Ethnology.
Carlos Montezuma's papers are held in the Newberry Library, Roger and Julie Baskes Department of Special Collections; Arizona State University Libraries, Charles Trumbull Hayden Library; and University of Arizona Libraries, Special Collections.
See others in:
Carlos Montezuma lantern slide collection relating to Arizona Indians, circa 1871-1913
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Dwellings  Search this
Citation:
Photo lot 73, Carlos Montezuma lantern slide collection relating to Arizona Indians, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.73
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-73
Additional Online Media:

George V. Allen photograph collection of American Indians and the American frontier

Collector:
Allen, George V.  Search this
Names:
Albuquerque Indian School  Search this
Castillo de San Marcos (Saint Augustine, Fla.)  Search this
Chilocco Indian School  Search this
Geological Survey (U.S.)  Search this
Haskell Indian Nations University  Search this
United States Indian School (Carlisle, Pa.)  Search this
Yankton Mission (Yankton Indian Reservation, S.D.)  Search this
American Horse, 1840-1908  Search this
Big Bow Chief  Search this
Bogy, Lewis V. (Lewis Vital), 1813-1877  Search this
Cushing, Frank Hamilton, 1857-1900  Search this
Harding, Warren G. (Warren Gamaliel), 1865-1923  Search this
Hough, Walter, 1859-1935  Search this
Iron Bull (Crow Indian chief)  Search this
Kelly, Luther S. (Luther Sage), 1849-1928  Search this
Mató-Tópe, Mandan chief, d. 1837  Search this
Mix, Charles E.  Search this
Monroe, Mark, 1930-  Search this
Moran, John, 1831-1903  Search this
Ouray  Search this
Red Cloud, 1822-1909  Search this
Red Dog (Oglala chief)  Search this
Red Shirt, 1845?-1925  Search this
Reilly, John James, 1838-1894  Search this
Reynolds, Joseph Jones, 1822-1899  Search this
Sitting Bull, 1831-1890  Search this
Spotted Tail, 1823-1881  Search this
Stevenson, Matilda Coxe, 1850-1915  Search this
Two Guns White Calf Blackfoot  Search this
Photographer:
Alvord, Kellogg, & Campbell  Search this
Bailey & Whitesides  Search this
Bailey, Dix, & Mead  Search this
Bennett & Brown  Search this
Black Hills View Company  Search this
Brooks Photo  Search this
Brubaker and Whitesides  Search this
C. Duhem & Bro.  Search this
Calfee & Catlin  Search this
Caswell & Davy  Search this
Copelin & Son  Search this
Cosand & Mosser  Search this
Cunningham & Co. (1880-1889)  Search this
D.D. Merrill, Randall & Co.  Search this
E. & H.T. Anthony (Firm)  Search this
Eaton, of Ralston, Oklahoma  Search this
Griffith & Griffith  Search this
Gurnsey & Illingworth  Search this
Hamilton and Hoyt  Search this
Hamilton and Kodylek  Search this
Hansard & Carden  Search this
Henry L. Shepard & Co.  Search this
Ingersoll View Company  Search this
J.J. Reilly & Co.  Search this
Judd and McLeish  Search this
Keystone View Company  Search this
Kilburn Brothers  Search this
Lawrence & Houseworth  Search this
M.S. Mepham & Bro.  Search this
Martin's Gallery  Search this
Montgomery Ward.  Search this
Ramsour & Pennel  Search this
Reed & McKenney  Search this
Rodocker & Blanchard  Search this
Savage & Ottinger  Search this
Thomas Houseworth & Co.  Search this
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Universal Photo Art Co.  Search this
Whitney & Zimmerman  Search this
Wittick & Bliss  Search this
Wittick & Russell  Search this
Young & Chase  Search this
Barker, George, 1844-1894  Search this
Barry, D. F. (David Francis), 1854-1934  Search this
Batchelder, B. P. (Benjamin Pierce), 1826-1891  Search this
Bates, Edw. (Edward)  Search this
Beaman, Edward O.  Search this
Bell, C. M. (Charles Milton), approximately 1849-1893  Search this
Bell, William, 1830-1910  Search this
Benecke, Robert  Search this
Bennett, H. H. (Henry Hamilton), 1843-1908  Search this
Bierstadt, Charles, 1819-1903  Search this
Blessing, S. T.  Search this
Blosser, J. A.  Search this
Bonine, Elias A., 1843-1916  Search this
Brockham, William (of Morris, Minnesota)  Search this
Brown, William Henry, 1844-1886  Search this
Brubaker, C. B.  Search this
Buehman, Henry, 1851-1912  Search this
Calfee, H. B. (Henry Bird), 1848-1912  Search this
Carbutt, John, 1832-1905  Search this
Carter, C. W., 1832-1918  Search this
Chamberlain, W. G. (William Gunnison)  Search this
Chase, D. B. (Dana B.)  Search this
Childs, B. F. (Brainard F.), ca. 1841-1921  Search this
Choate, J. N. (John N.), 1848-1902  Search this
Clark, George A. (George Alfred), 1936-  Search this
Climo, John Saunders  Search this
Cobb, William Henry, 1859-1909  Search this
Conklin, E (Enoch)  Search this
Cozzens, Samuel Woodworth, 1834-1878  Search this
Croft, Thomas  Search this
Cross, W. R. (William R.)  Search this
Currier, Frank, fl. 1890-1909  Search this
Curtis, Edward S., 1868-1952  Search this
Curtis, George E., 1830-1910  Search this
Cushing, W. H., fl. 1870-1889  Search this
Davis, S., fl. 1860-1880  Search this
Doremus, John P., 1827-1890  Search this
Eaton, E. L. (Edric L.), b. ca. 1836  Search this
Ebell, Adrian J. (Adrian John), 1840-1877  Search this
Eisenmann, Charles, b. 1850  Search this
Flanders, Dudley P.  Search this
Forsyth, N. A. (Norman A.), 1869-1949  Search this
Fouch, John H., 1849-1933  Search this
Gardner, Alexander, 1821-1882  Search this
Godkin, William R.  Search this
Goodell, Abner Cheney, 1831-1914  Search this
Graves, C. H. (Carleton H.), d. 1943  Search this
Gurnsey, B. H. (Byron H.), 1833-1880  Search this
Hamilton, J. H. (James H.)  Search this
Hart, Alfred A., 1816-1908  Search this
Hawkins, B.A.  Search this
Haynes, F. Jay (Frank Jay), 1853-1921  Search this
Hazeltine, M. M. (Martin Mason), 1827-1903  Search this
Heister, H. T., (Henry T.), -1895  Search this
Heller, Louis Herman, ca. 1839-1929  Search this
Heston, Wat  Search this
Hillers, John K., 1843-1925  Search this
Hook, W. E. (William Edward), 1833-1908  Search this
Huffman, L. A. (Laton Alton), 1854-1931  Search this
Illingworth, W. H. (William H.), 1842-1893  Search this
Immke, Henry W.  Search this
Ingalls, George W., 1838-1920  Search this
Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942  Search this
Jacoby, W. H. (William H.), 1841-1905  Search this
Jarvis, J. F. (John F.), b. 1850  Search this
Johnson, W.S.  Search this
Kirkland, Geo. W. (George W.)  Search this
Knight, J. Lee  Search this
Landon, S. C. (Seth C.), b. 1825  Search this
Leonard & Martin  Search this
Line, A. A.  Search this
Little, H.N.  Search this
Marshall, William I. (William Isaac), 1840-1906  Search this
Martin, Alex (Alexander), 1841-1929  Search this
Maude, F. H. (Frederic Hamer)  Search this
Maynard, Hannah, 1834-1918  Search this
Maynard, Richard, 1832-1907  Search this
McIntyre, A. C. (Alexander Carson)  Search this
Meddaugh, J. E.  Search this
Mellen, Geo. E. (George Egbert), b. 1854  Search this
Mepham, Michael S.  Search this
Mitchell, Daniel S.  Search this
Morrow, Stanley J.  Search this
Muybridge, Eadweard, 1830-1904  Search this
Newcomb, C. H.  Search this
Nims, F.A.  Search this
O'Sullivan, Timothy H., 1840-1882  Search this
Palmer, A. A.  Search this
Parker, Joseph C.  Search this
Pierron, Geo. (George), b. 1816  Search this
Pollock, Charles, 1832-1910  Search this
Powers, F. F.  Search this
Raitt, T.G.  Search this
Randall, A. F. (A. Frank)  Search this
Rau, William Herman, 1855-1920  Search this
Rinehart, F. A. (Frank A.)  Search this
Rodocker, D. (David)  Search this
Rothrock, George H.  Search this
Rudy, W. Ira  Search this
Russell, Andrew J.  Search this
Rutter, Thomas H., 1837-1925  Search this
Savage, C. R. (Charles Roscoe), 1832-1909  Search this
Seaver, C. (Charles)  Search this
Sedgwick, S. J. (Stephen James)  Search this
Shipler, James William, 1849-1937  Search this
Soule, John P.  Search this
Stoddard, Seneca Ray, 1844-1917  Search this
Taber, I. W. (Isaiah West), 1830-1912  Search this
Thorne, G.W.  Search this
Thurlow, J., 1831-1878  Search this
Towne, Bertram C.  Search this
Trager, George E.  Search this
Upton, B. F. (Benjamin Franklin)  Search this
Watkins, Carleton E., 1829-1916  Search this
Weitfle, Charles, 1836-1921  Search this
Wendt, Julius M.  Search this
Whitney, Joel E. (Joel Emmons), 1822-1886  Search this
Williscraft, W.H.  Search this
Wittick, Ben, 1845-1903  Search this
Woodburn, J. R.  Search this
Zimmerman, Charles A., 1844-1909  Search this
Publisher:
Beal's Gallery  Search this
Continent Stereoscopic Company  Search this
Florida Club (Cooperative)  Search this
Union View Company  Search this
Webster & Albee  Search this
Smith, O. C.  Search this
Extent:
67 lantern slides
26 Negatives (glass)
10 Negatives (nitrate)
6 autochromes (photographs)
50 Stereographs (circa 50 printed stereographs, halftone and color halftone)
1,000 Stereographs (circa, albumen and silver gelatin (some tinted))
239 Prints (circa 239 mounted and unmounted prints, albumen (including cartes de visite, imperial cards, cabinet cards, and one tinted print) and silver gelatin (some modern copies))
96 Prints (Album :, silver gelatin)
21 Postcards (silver gelatin, collotype, color halftone, and halftone)
Culture:
Puyallup Indians  Search this
Diegueño Indians  Search this
Ojibwa Indians  Search this
Tohono O'Odham Indians  Search this
Kalispel Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Taos Indians  Search this
Nootka Indians  Search this
Kickapoo Indians  Search this
Laguna Indians  Search this
Pueblo Indians  Search this
Winnebago Indians  Search this
Havasupai Indians  Search this
Assiniboine Indians  Search this
Isleta Indians  Search this
Mohave Indians  Search this
Miwok Indians  Search this
Kwakiutl Indians  Search this
Arctic peoples  Search this
Pima Indians  Search this
Maricopa Indians  Search this
Iroquois Indians  Search this
Hopi Indians  Search this
Modoc Indians  Search this
Zuni Indians  Search this
Nez Percé Indians  Search this
Washo Indians  Search this
Gros Ventre Indians (Montana)  Search this
Tonkawa Indians  Search this
Navajo Indians  Search this
Yavapai Indians  Search this
Ute Indians  Search this
Sauk Indians  Search this
Pawnee Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Bannock Indians  Search this
Shoshoni Indians  Search this
Cochiti Indians  Search this
Omaha Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northwest Coast of North America  Search this
Choctaw Indians  Search this
Dakota Indians  Search this
Eskimos  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Cheyenne Indians  Search this
Mandan Indians  Search this
Arikara Indians  Search this
Tlingit Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Haida Indians  Search this
Cree Indians  Search this
Crow Indians  Search this
Acoma Indians  Search this
Quapaw Indians  Search this
Osage Indians  Search this
Apache Indians  Search this
Kansa Indians  Search this
Umatilla Indians  Search this
Shawnee Indians  Search this
Fox Indians  Search this
Pomo Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southern States  Search this
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Paiute Indians  Search this
Seminole Indians  Search this
Micmac Indians  Search this
Comanche Indians  Search this
Potawatomi Indians  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Lantern slides
Negatives
Autochromes (photographs)
Stereographs
Prints
Postcards
Place:
Custer Battlefield (Montana)
Date:
circa 1860-1935
Scope and Contents note:
Photographs relating to American Indian or frontier themes, including portraits, expedition photographs, landscapes, and other images of dwellings, transportation, totem poles, ceremonies, infants and children in cradleboards, camps and towns, hunting and fishing, wild west shows, food preparation, funeral customs, the US Army and army posts, cliff dwellings, and grave mounds and excavations. The collection also includes images of prisoners at Fort Marion in 1875, Sioux Indians involved in the Great Sioux Uprising in Minnesota, the Fort Laramie Peace Commission of 1868, Sitting Bull and his followers after the Battle of the Little Bighorn, and the aftermath of the Wounded Knee Massacre in 1890.

There are studio portraits of well-known Indians, including American Horse, Big Bow, Four Bears, Iron Bull, Ouray, Red Cloud, Red Dog, Red Shirt, Sitting Bull, Spotted Tail, Three Bears, and Two Guns White Calf. Depicted delegations include a Sauk and Fox meeting in Washington, DC, with Lewis V. Bogy and Charles E. Mix in 1867; Kiowas and Cheyennes at the White House in 1863; and Dakotas and Crows who visited President Warren G. Harding in 1921. Images of schools show Worcester Academy in Vinita, Oklahoma; Chilocco Indian School; Carlisle Indian Industrial School; Haskell Instittue, and Albuquerque Indian School.

Some photographs relate to the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, 1876; World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, 1893; Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis, 1903; and Centennial Exposition of the Baltimore and Ohio Railraod, 1876. Expedition photographs show the Crook expedition of 1876, the Sanderson expedition to the Custer Battlefield in 1877, the Wheeler Survey of the 1870s, Powell's surveys of the Rocky Mountain region during the 1860s and 1870s, and the Hayden Surveys.

Outstanding single views include the party of Zuni Indians led to the sea by Frank Hamilton Cushing; Episcopal Church Rectory and School Building, Yankton Agency; Matilda Coxe Stevenson and a companion taking a photographs of a Zuni ceremony; John Moran sketching at Acoma; Ben H. Gurnsey's studio with Indian patrons; Quapaw Mission; baptism of a group of Paiutes at Coeur d'Alene Mission; court-martial commission involved in the trial of Colonel Joseph J. Reynolds, 1877; President Harding at Sitka, Alaska; Walter Hough at Hopi in 1902; and Mrs. Jesse Walter Fewkes at Hopi in 1897.
Biographical/Historical note:
George V. Allen was an attorney in Lawrence, Kansas and an early member of the National Stereoscope Association. Between the 1950s and 1980s, Allen collected an extensive collection of photographs of the American West, mostly in stereographs, but also including cartes-de-visite and other styles of mounted prints, photogravures, lantern slides, autochromes, and glass negatives.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 90-1
See others in:
George V. Allen photograph collection of American Indians and the American frontier, circa 1860-1935
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Camps  Search this
Child care  Search this
Rites and ceremonies  Search this
Totem poles  Search this
Cookery  Search this
Wild west shows  Search this
Fishing  Search this
Hunting  Search this
Salish Indians  Search this
Transportation  Search this
Dwellings  Search this
Funeral rites and ceremonies  Search this
Wounded Knee Massacre, S.D., 1890  Search this
Citation:
Photo Lot 90-1, George V. Allen photograph collection of American Indians and the American frontier, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.90-1
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-90-1

Child on horseback

Collection Creator:
Lehner, Frank  Search this
Seiling, J.  Search this
Braithwaite, Charles Henry  Search this
Extent:
1 Photographic print
Container:
Photo-folder 1
Culture:
Sioux  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Photographic prints
Date:
1890
Scope and Contents:
Photographic print of an unidentified child on horseback. Photographed at Buffalo Bill's Wild West show.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archive Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; 1890; Frank Lehner photographs of Buffalo Bill's Wild West show, NMAI.AC.147; National Museum of the American Indian Archive Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.147, Item P10191
See more items in:
Frank Lehner photographs of Buffalo Bill's Wild West show
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-147-ref3

MS 4558 Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers

Creator:
La Flesche, Francis, 1857-1932  Search this
Fletcher, Alice C. (Alice Cunningham), 1838-1923  Search this
Correspondent:
La Flesche family  Search this
Aldrich, Charles F.  Search this
Alexander, Hartley B.  Search this
Allen, James T.  Search this
Andrews, Gleorge L.  Search this
Armstrong, S.C.  Search this
Ashley, Robert H.  Search this
Atkins, John D.C.  Search this
Boas, Franz, 1858-1942  Search this
Bowditch, Charles P. (Charles Pickering), 1842-1921  Search this
Brinton, Daniel G. (Daniel Garrison), 1837-1899  Search this
Brown, George LeRoy  Search this
Burlin, Natalie Curtis, 1875-1921  Search this
Cadman, Charles Wakefield, 1881-1946  Search this
Copley, John T.  Search this
Dall, William Healey, 1845-1927  Search this
Dawes, E.S.  Search this
Densmore, Frances, 1867-1957  Search this
Dixon, Roland Burrage, 1875-1934  Search this
Dorsey, James Owen, 1848-1895  Search this
Dunbar, John Brown, 1841-1914  Search this
Ellinwood, F.F.  Search this
Farabee, William Curtis, 1865-1925  Search this
Farley, Caryl E.  Search this
Farley, Rosalie La Flesche  Search this
Farwell, Arthur  Search this
Fellowes, R.S.  Search this
Fewkes, Jesse Walter, 1850-1930  Search this
Fillmore, John Comfort, 1843-1898  Search this
Fillmore, L.H.  Search this
Fillmore, Thomas Hill  Search this
Freire-Marreco, Barbara W. (Barbara Whitchurch), 1879-1967  Search this
Gay, E. Jane  Search this
Griffith, Elmer C.  Search this
Guthrie, William Norman  Search this
Hale, Horatio, 1817-1896  Search this
Hall, C.C.  Search this
Hall, Charles Lemon, 1847-1940  Search this
Hearst, Phoebe Apperson, 1842-1919  Search this
Heth, H.  Search this
Hewett, Edgar L. (Edgar Lee), 1865-1946  Search this
Hewitt, J. N. B. (John Napoleon Brinton), 1859-1937  Search this
Hodge, Frederick Webb, 1864-1956  Search this
Holmes, William Henry, 1846-1933  Search this
Hough, Walter, 1859-1935  Search this
Jackson, Sheldon  Search this
Johnston, Catherine M.  Search this
Kincaid, William  Search this
La Flesche, Joseph  Search this
Lummis, Charles Fletcher, 1859-1928  Search this
MacCurdy, George Grant, 1863-1947  Search this
Mason, Otis T., 1838-1908  Search this
Matthews, Washington, 1843-1905  Search this
McBeth, Kate C., 1832-1915  Search this
McBeth, Sue L., -1893  Search this
McCown, S.M.  Search this
McGee, W J, 1853-1912  Search this
McGuire, Joseph D. (Joseph Deakins), 1842-1916  Search this
Mead, Frances K.  Search this
Merriam, C. Hart (Clinton Hart), 1855-1942  Search this
Merrick, Fannie  Search this
Merrick, Jessie  Search this
Moon, Karl  Search this
Moore, Homer  Search this
Morgan, Caroline S.  Search this
Morgan, John T.  Search this
Murie, James R.  Search this
Myers, John L.  Search this
Nuttal, Maria Magdalena  Search this
Pepper, George H. (George Hubbard), 1873-1924  Search this
Petter, W.H.  Search this
Pettigrew, Frederick W., 1850-1901  Search this
Picotte, Susan La Flesche  Search this
Pratt, Richard Henry, 1840-1924  Search this
Price, Hiram  Search this
Proctor, Edna Dean, 1829-1923  Search this
Putnam, F. W. (Frederic Ward), 1839-1915  Search this
Quinn, Daniel  Search this
Robertson, Alice M.  Search this
Rogers, Emily F.  Search this
Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917  Search this
Seymour, Thomas Day  Search this
Spofford, Ainsworth Rand, 1825-1908  Search this
St. Cyr, Julia  Search this
Starr, Frederick  Search this
Stuart, James  Search this
Talbot, Emily  Search this
Teller, W.J.  Search this
Thaw, William  Search this
Tozzer, Alfred M. (Alfred Marston), 1877-1954  Search this
Wallaschek, Richard  Search this
Westcott, Edith  Search this
Wilkinson, G.W.  Search this
Wilkinson, Hattie M.  Search this
Willoughby, Charles Clark  Search this
Names:
Carr, Lucien, 1829-1915  Search this
Radin, Paul, 1883-1959  Search this
Extent:
19 Linear feet (50 boxes)
Culture:
Arapaho Indians  Search this
Dakota Indians  Search this
Zuni Indians  Search this
Ponca Indians  Search this
Quechua  Search this
Quapaw Indians  Search this
Winnebago Indians  Search this
Mexicans  Search this
Wichita Indians  Search this
Zapotec  Search this
Creek Indians  Search this
Apache Indians  Search this
Cherokee, Eastern  Search this
Hopi  Search this
Indians of North America -- California  Search this
Hitchiti  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Cheyenne Indians  Search this
Caddo Indians  Search this
Cherokee Indians  Search this
Biloxi Indians  Search this
Omaha  Search this
Omaha Indians  Search this
Osage Indians  Search this
Oto Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Juaneño Indians  Search this
Pawnee Indians  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Place:
Alaska
Date:
1873-1939
Summary:
These papers reflect the professional lives of Alice Cunningham Fletcher (1838-1923), an ethnologist with the Peabody Museum of Harvard and collaborator with the Bureau of American Ethnology, and Francis La Flesche (1856-1923), an anthropologist with the Bureau of American Ethnology. Due to the close professional and personal relationship of Fletcher and La Flesche, their papers have been arranged jointly. The papers cover the period from 1874 to 1939. Included in the collection is correspondence, personal diaries, lectures, field notes and other ethnographic papers, drafts, musical transcriptions, publications by various authors, maps and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
These papers reflect the professional lives of Alice Cunningham Fletcher (1838-1923), an ethnologist with the Peabody Museum of Harvard University and collaborator with the Bureau of American Ethnology, and Francis La Flesche (1856-1923), an anthropologist with the Bureau of American Ethnology. Due to the close professional and personal relationship of Fletcher and La Flesche, their papers have been arranged jointly. The papers cover the period from 1874 to 1939. Included in the collection is correspondence, personal diaries, lectures, field notes and other ethnographic papers, drafts, musical transcriptions, publications by various authors, maps and photographs.

The papers have been divided into three general categories: the papers of Alice Cunningham Fletcher, the papers of Francis La Flesche, and the ethnographic research of Fletcher and La Flesche. The first two categories represent personal and professional materials of Fletcher and La Flesche. The third section holds the majority of the ethnographic material in the collection.

Of primary concern are Fletcher and La Flesche's ethnological investigations conducted among the Plains Indians, particularly the Omaha and Osage. Fletcher's Pawnee field research and her allotment work for the Bureau of Indian Affairs among the Omaha, Nez Perce, and Winnebago are represented in the collection. A substantial portion of the ethnographic material reflects Fletcher and La Flesche's studies of Native American music. Much of the correspondence in the papers of Fletcher and La Flesche is rich with information about the situation of Omaha peoples in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

Also included in the collection are documents related to Fletcher's work with the Archaeological Institute of America and the School for American Archaeology. Additionally, substantial amounts of Fletcher's early anthropological and historical research are found among her correspondence, lectures, anthropological notes, and early field diaries. La Flesche's literary efforts are also generously represented.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into the following 3 series: 1) Alice Cunningham Fletcher papers, 1873-1925; 2) Francis La Flesche papers, 1881-1930; 3) Papers relating to the anthropological research of Alice Fletcher and Francis La Flesche, 1877-1939.

Series 1: Alice Cunningham Fletcher papers is divided into the following 10 subseries: 1.1) Incoming correspondence, 1874-1923 (bulk 1882-1923); 1.2) Outgoing correspondence, 1873-1921; 1.3) Correspondence on specific subjects, 1881-1925; 1.4) Correspondence between Fletcher and La Flesche, 1895-1922; 1.5) Publications, 1882-1920; 1.6) Organizational records, 1904-1921; 1.7) General anthropological notes, undated; 1.8) Lectures, circa 1878-1910; 1.9) Diaries, 1881-1922; 1.10) Biography and memorabilia, 1878-1925.

Series 2: Francis La Flesche papers is divided into the following 6 subseries: 2.11) General correspondence, 1890-1929; 2.12) Correspondence on specific subjects, 1881-1930; 2.13) Publications, 1900-1927; 2.14) Literary efforts, undated; 2.15) Personal diaries, 1883-1924; 2.16) Biography and memorabilia, 1886-1930.

Series 3: Papers relating to the anthropological research of Alice Fletcher and Francis La Flesche is divided into the following 12 subseries: 3.17) Alaska, 1886-1887; 3.18) Earth lodges, 1882, 1898-1899; 3.19) Music, 1888-1918; 3.20) Nez Perce, 1889-1909; 3.21) Omaha, 1882-1922; 3.22) Osage, 1896-1939; 3.23) Pawnee, 1897-1910; 3.24) Pipes, undated; 3.25) Sioux, 1877-1896; 3.26) Other tribes, 1882-1922; 3.27) Publications collected, 1884-1905, undated; 3.28) Photographs, undated.
Biographical / Historical:
Alice Cunningham Fletcher (1838-1923) was an ethnologist with the Peabody Museum of Harvard and collaborator with the Bureau of American Ethnology. Francis La Flesche (1856-1923) was an anthropologist with the Bureau of American Ethnology.

Chronology of the Life of Alice Cunningham Fletcher

1838 March 15 -- Born in Havana, Cuba

1873-1876 -- Secretary, American Association for Advancement of Women

1879 -- Informal student of anthropology, Peabody Museum, Harvard University

1881 -- Field trip to Omaha and Rosebud Agencies

1882 -- Assistant in ethnology, Peabody Museum, Harvard University

1882 -- Helped secure land in severalty to Omaha Indians

1882-1883 -- Begins collaboration with Francis La Flesche on the Peabody Museum's collection of Omaha and Sioux artifacts

1883-1884 -- Special Agent, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Omaha Agency

1886 -- Bureau of Education investigation of Alaskan native education

1887-1888 -- Special Disbursing Agent, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Winnebago Agency

1889-1892 -- Special Agent for allotment, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Nez Perce Agency

1890-1899 -- President, Women's Anthropological Society of America

1891-1923 -- Mary Copley Thaw Fellow, Peabody Museum, Harvard University

1892-1893 -- Department of Interior consultant, World's Columbian Exposition

1896 -- Vice-President, Section H, American Association for the Advancement of Science

1897 -- Collaborator, Bureau of American Ethnology

1899-1916 -- Editorial board, American Anthropologist

1900 -- Published Indian Story and Song from North America

1901-1902 -- Advisory committee, Anthropology Department, University of California at Berkeley

1903 -- President, Anthropological Society of Washington

1904 -- Published The Hako: A Pawnee Ceremony with James Murie

1904 -- Member, ethnology section, Louisiana Purchase Exposition

1905 -- President, American Folk-lore Society

1908-1913 -- Chair, Managing Committee of School of American Archaeology

1911 -- Honorary Vice-President, Section H, British Association for Advancement of Science

1911 -- Published The Omaha Tribe with Francis La Flesche

1913 -- Chair Emeritus, Managing Committee of School of American Archaeology

1915 -- Published Indian Games and Dances with Native Songs Arranged from American Indian Ceremonials and Sports

1923 April 6 -- Died in Washington, D.C.

Chronology of the Life of Francis La Flesche

1857 December 25 -- Born on Omaha Reservation near Macy, Nebraska

1879 -- Lecture tour, Ponca chief Standing Bear

1881 -- Interpreter, Senate Committee on Indian Affairs

1881-1910 -- Clerk, Bureau of Indian Affairs

1891 -- Informally adopted as Fletcher's son

1892 -- LL.B., National University Law School

1893 -- LL.M., National University Law School

1900 -- Published The Middle Five: Indian Boys at School

1906-1908 -- Marriage to Rosa Bourassa

1910-1929 -- Ethnologist, Bureau of American Ethnology

1911 -- Published The Omaha Tribe with Alice Fletcher

1921 -- Published The Osage Tribe, Part One

1922 -- Member, National Academy of Sciences

1922-1923 -- President, Anthropological Society of Washington

1925 -- Published The Osage Tribe, Part Two

1926 -- Honorary Doctor of Letters, University of Nebraska

1928 -- Published The Osage Tribe, Part Three

1932 -- Published Dictionary of the Osage Language

1932 September 5 -- Died in Thurston County, Nebraska

1939 -- Posthumous publication of War Ceremony and Peace Ceremony of the Osage Indians
Related Materials:
Additional material related to the professional work of Fletcher and La Flesche in the National Anthropological Archives may be found among the correspondence of the Bureau of American Ethnology (BAE) and the records of the Anthropological Society of Washington.

Sound recordings made by Fletcher and La Flesche can be found at the Library of Congress. The National Archives Records Administration hold the Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), including those relating to allotments in severalty for the Nez Perce by Alice Fletcher. The Nebraska Historical Society has diaries, letters and clippings regarding the La Flesche family, including correspondence of Francis La Flesche and Fletcher. The Radcliffe College Archives holds a manuscript account of Alice Fletcher's four summers with the Nez Perce (1889-1892). Correspondence between Fletcher and F. W. Putnam is also located at the Peabody Museum Archives of Harvard University.
Separated Materials:
Ethnographic photographs from the collection have been catalogued by tribe in Photo Lot 24.

Glass plate negatives from the collection have been catalogued by tribe in the BAE glass negatives collection (Negative Numbers 4439-4515).
Provenance:
The papers of Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche have been received from an undocumented number of sources. Portions of Fletcher's ethnographic papers were donated to the archives by Mrs. G. David Pearlman in memory of her husband in 1959.
Restrictions:
The Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers are open for research.

Access to the Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Pipes -- American Indian  Search this
Earth houses  Search this
Music -- American Indian  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 4558 Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4558
See more items in:
MS 4558 Alice Cunningham Fletcher and Francis La Flesche papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4558
Additional Online Media:

Ruth Landes papers

Correspondent:
Mead, Margaret, 1901-1978  Search this
Boas, Franz, 1858-1942  Search this
Wallis, Ruth Sawtell, 1895-1978  Search this
Wagley, Charles, 1913-1991  Search this
Lopez, Salvador  Search this
Little, Kenneth  Search this
Wilson, Maggie  Search this
Whitecloud, Thomas St. Germain  Search this
Henry, Jules, 1904-1969  Search this
Hellman, Ellen  Search this
Haugen, Einar  Search this
Gough, Kathleen  Search this
Lewis, Oscar  Search this
Kaberry, Phyllis Mary, 1910-  Search this
Imes, Elmer Samuel, 1883-1941  Search this
Strong, William Duncan, 1899-1962  Search this
Steyn, Anna F.  Search this
Spier, Leslie, 1893-1961  Search this
Stefansson, Vilhjalmur, 1879-1962  Search this
Solecki, Ralph S.  Search this
Sparta, Francisco  Search this
Rubin, Joan  Search this
Rubin, Vera  Search this
Rodnick, David  Search this
Rogers, Edward S.  Search this
Ritzenthaler, Robert E. (Robert Eugene), 1911-1980  Search this
Roberts, Robert W.  Search this
Ramo, Arthur  Search this
Richards, Audrey  Search this
Preston, Richard J.  Search this
Verger, Pierre  Search this
Vennum, Thomas  Search this
Topash, Mary  Search this
Topash, Joe  Search this
Teskey, Lynn  Search this
Taylor, Beryl  Search this
Tanner, Helen Hornbeck  Search this
Densmore, Frances, 1867-1957  Search this
Quain, Buell H. (Buell Halvor), 1912-1939  Search this
Dunning, William  Search this
Douglas, William A.  Search this
Eggan, Fred, 1906-1991  Search this
Edmondson, Munro S.  Search this
Black, Mary B.  Search this
Benedict, Ruth, 1887-1948  Search this
Domengeaux, James  Search this
Feldman, Albert G.  Search this
Feder, Norman  Search this
Gacs, Ute  Search this
Franklin, John Hope  Search this
Ewers, John C. (John Canfield), 1909-1997  Search this
Erickson, Vincent O.  Search this
Falk, Minna R.  Search this
Faitlovitch, V.  Search this
Alberto Torres, Heloisa  Search this
Buck, Pearl  Search this
Bruce, Harold E.  Search this
Borri, Rina  Search this
Boggs, Stephen Taylor  Search this
Arensberg, Conrad M. (Conrad Maynadier), 1910-1997  Search this
Baldus, Herbert  Search this
Barnouw, Victor  Search this
Bateson, Mary Catherine  Search this
Lurie, Nancy Oestreich  Search this
Malherbe, E.G.  Search this
Marks, Eli S.  Search this
Masha, Louise  Search this
Maslow, Will  Search this
Masquat, Joseph M.  Search this
Mayer, Kurt B.  Search this
McWilliams, Carey  Search this
Bunche, Ralph J.  Search this
Carneiro, Edison  Search this
Chilver, E. M.  Search this
Chilver, Richard  Search this
Clifton, James A.  Search this
Colson, Elizabeth F.  Search this
Daveron, Alexander  Search this
Lowenfeld, Margaret, 1890-1973  Search this
Officer, James E.  Search this
Odum, Howard W.  Search this
Park, Alice  Search this
Paredes, Anthony  Search this
Paton, Alan  Search this
Park, George  Search this
Prado, Idabel do  Search this
Peschel, Keewaydinoquay M.  Search this
Merwe, Hendrik W. van der  Search this
Murphy, Robert Francis  Search this
Messing, Simon D.  Search this
Neumann, Anita  Search this
Nef, Evelyn Stefansson  Search this
Nocktonick, Louise  Search this
Neumann, Walter  Search this
Creator:
Landes, Ruth, 1908-1991  Search this
Names:
Columbia University Research in Contemporary Cultures  Search this
Committee on Fair Employment Practices  Search this
Fisk University  Search this
Johnson, Charles S.  Search this
Landes, Ruth, 1908-1991  Search this
Park, Robert E.  Search this
Extent:
26.5 Linear feet ((63 document boxes and 1 oversized box))
Culture:
Ojibwa Indians  Search this
African American  Search this
Potowatomi  Search this
Santee Indians  Search this
African  Search this
Acadians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Jews -- American  Search this
Chippewa  Search this
Latinos -- California  Search this
Brazilians  Search this
Basques  Search this
American Indians  Search this
Dakota -- Santee  Search this
Afro-Brazilians  Search this
Africans  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Place:
Quebec -- bilingualism
United Kingdom -- colored immigration
South Africa
Date:
1928-1992
Summary:
Most of Ruth Landes's papers relate directly or indirectly to Landes's American Indian research, her work in Brazil, and her study of bilingualism. There is also a considerable amount of material that relates to her experiences (sometimes fictionalized) at Fisk University. There is only small amount of material related to her other interests. Her collection also has material of and relating to the Brazilian folklorist and journalist Edison Carneiro. There is also noteworthy material concerning Herbert Baldus, Ruth Benedict, Elmer C. Imes, Charles S. Johnson, and Robert E. Park. There is a large amount of printed and processed materials in the collection, mainly in the form of newspaper clippings and a collection of scholarly papers.
Scope and Contents:
This collection is mainly comprised of the professional papers of Ruth Schlossberg Landes. Included are correspondence, journals, published and unpublished manuscripts of writings, research materials including field notes and reading notes, photographs, drawings, scholarly papers and publications by other scholars, and clippings from newspapers and periodicals.

Landes's field research on Candomblé in Brazil is well-represented in this collection, consisting of her field journals, writings, and photographs. Also present are Maggie Wilson's stories that were the basis for Landes's The Ojibwa Woman. Unfortunately, Landes was unable to locate her journals for her early research with the Ojibwa/Chippewa, Potawatomi, and Dakota. There are, however, field photographs of the Ojibwa/Chippewa and Potawatomi in the collection. There is also a great deal of her research on groups, especially minorities, in multilingual states with particular focus on the French of Quebec, Basques of Spain and the United States, Boers and Blacks of South Africa, the several socio-linguistic groups of Switzerland, and Acadians (Cajuns) of Louisiana. In the collection are several drafts of her unpublished manuscript on bilingualism, "Tongues that Defy the State." There is also a small amount of material about Black Jews of New York and considerable material about Landes's experience among African Americans when she taught briefly at Fisk University, including her unpublished manuscript "Now, at Athens," containing fictional and autobiographical accounts of her time at Fisk.

Reflections of other facets of Landes's professional activities are also included. Some materials concern her teaching activities, and there is also documentation of her work with the Fair Employment Practices Commission (a federal government agency during the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt) and a similar private organization which immediately succeeded the FEPA; Gunnar Myrdal's research into the plight of African Americans ("The Negro in America"); the Research in Contemporary Cultures project at Columbia University; and the American Jewish Congress.

Among Landes's correspondents are Ruth Benedict, Franz Boas, Margaret Mead, Ralph Bunche, Herbert Baldus, Edison Carneiro, Sally Chilver, Frances Densmore, Sol Tax, Elmer S. Imes, Charles S. Johnson, Robert E. Park, and Hendrik W. van der Merwe.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into 6 series: (1) Correspondence, 1931-1991; (2) Research Materials, circa 1930s-1990; (3) Writings, circa 1930s-1990; (4) Teaching Materials, 1935-1975, undated; (5) Biographical and Personal Files, 1928-1988; (6) Graphic Materials, 1933-1978, undated
Biographical Note:
Ruth Schlossberg Landes was born on October 8, 1908 in New York City. Her father was Joseph Schlossberg, an activist in the Yiddish labor socialist community and one of the founders of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. She studied sociology at New York University (B.A. 1928) and social work at the New York School of Social Work, Columbia University (M.S.W. 1929). While in graduate school, Landes studied Black Jews in Harlem for her master's thesis, a topic that developed her interests in anthropology.

After graduating in 1929, she worked as a social worker in Harlem and married Victor Landes, a medical student and son of family friends. Their marriage ended after two years when she enrolled in the doctoral program in anthropology at Columbia against her husband's wishes. She kept his surname due to the stigma of being a divorced woman.

At Columbia, Landes studied under Franz Boas and Ruth Benedict, her main advisor. Under the guidance of Benedict, Landes moved away from further study of African Americans to focus on Native American communities. Upon Benedict's suggestion, Landes studied the social organization of the Ojibwa in Manitou Rapids in Ontario from 1932 to 1936 for her Ph.D. fieldwork. Her dissertation, Ojibwa Sociology, was published in 1937. Landes also contributed "The Ojibwa of Canada" in Cooperation and Competition among Primitive Peoples (1937), a volume edited by Margaret Mead. In 1938, Landes published Ojibwa Women (1938), a book written in collaboration with Maggie Wilson, an Ojibwa interpreter and informant.

In addition to studying the Ojibwa in Ontario, Landes also conducted fieldwork with the Chippewa of Red Lake, Minnesota in 1933, working closely with shaman or midé Will Rogers. Her book, Ojibwa Religion and the Midéwiwin (1968) was based largely on her research with Rogers and Maggie Wilson. In 1935 and 1936, she undertook fieldwork with the Santee Dakota in Minnesota and the Potawatomi in Kansas. Like Ojibwa Religion and the Midéwiwin, her books on the Santee Dakota and Potawatomi were not published until several years later—The Mystic Lake Sioux: Sociology of the Mdewakantonwan Sioux was published in 1968 while The Prairie Potawatomi was published in 1970. In between her field research in the 1930s and the publication of The Prairie Potawatomi, Landes returned to Kansas to study the Potawatomi in the 1950s and 1960s.

Landes's plan to continue her studies with the Potawatomi in 1937 changed when Benedict invited her to join a team of researchers from Columbia University in Brazil. Landes was to conduct research on Afro-Brazilians in Bahia, Brazil, while Walter Lipkind, Buell Quain, and Charles Wagley studied indigenous people in the Amazons. To prepare for her research, Landes was at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee in 1937 and 1938 to consult with Robert Park and Donald Pierson and to use the university's library collections of African and African American materials. During that time, Landes also held a teaching position at Fisk and lived in the non-segregated women's residence on campus. Landes later wrote "Now, at Athens," an unpublished memoir containing fictional and true accounts of her experiences at Fisk.

From 1938 to 1939, Landes conducted fieldwork on the role of Afro-Brazilian women and homosexuals in the Candomblé religion in Bahia, Brazil. Unable to move freely by herself in Brazil as a single woman, Landes was accompanied by Edison Carneiro, a Bahian journalist and folklorist. With Carneiro as her companion, Landes was allowed access to rituals and people that would have been closed off to her otherwise. Due to her association with Carneiro, a member of the Brazilian Communist Party, Landes was suspected of being a communist and was forced to leave Bahia early. Publications from her research in Brazil include "A Cult Matriarchate and Male Homosexuality" (1940) and City of Women (1947). She returned to Brazil in 1966 to study the effects of urban development in Rio de Janeiro. In 1967, a Portuguese translation of City of Women was published, a project that Carneiro had commissioned as the first director of the Ministry of Education and Culture's Special National Agency for the Protection of Folklore.

Landes returned to New York in 1939, working briefly as a researcher for Gunnar Myrdal's study of African Americans. Unable to obtain a permanent position at a university, she worked in several other short term positions throughout most of her career. During World War II, Landes was a research director for the Office of the Coordinator for Inter-American Affairs (1941) and consultant for President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Fair Employment Practices Committee on African American and Mexican American cases (1941-44). In 1945, Landes directed a program created by Pearl S. Buck and a group of interdenominational clergy to analyze pending New York anti-discrimination legislation. She moved to California the following year to work for the Los Angeles Metropolitan Welfare Council on a study of race and youth gangs. After her contract ended, she moved back to New York and was hired as a contract researcher for the American Jewish Congress (1948-50). She also participated in Columbia University's Research in Contemporary Cultures (1949-51), studying Jewish families. She coauthored with Mark Zborowski, "Hypothesis concerning the Eastern European Jewish Family." From 1951 to 1952, Landes spent a year in London, funded by a Fulbright fellowship to study colored colonial immigrants and race relations in Great Britain.

After her fellowship ended, Landes returned to the United States and held short term appointments at several universities. She taught at the William Alanson White Psychiatric Institution in New York (1953-54), the New School for Social Research in New York (1953-55), University of Kansas (1957, 1964), University of Southern California (1957-62), Columbia University (1963), Los Angeles State College (1963), and Tulane University (1964). At Claremont Graduate School, Landes helped to develop and direct the Claremont Anthropology and Education Program (1959-62).

It was not until 1965 that Landes obtained a permanent faculty position at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario; she was recruited for the position by Richard Slobodin. Due to Ontario's age retirement law, Landes was forced to retire in 1973 at the age of 65. She continued to teach part-time until 1977, when she became professor emerita.

Landes passed away at the age of 82 on February 11, 1991.

Sources Consulted

Cole, Sally. 2003. Ruth Landes: A Life in Anthropology. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.

Chronology

1908 October 8 -- Born Ruth Schlossberg in New York City

1928 -- B.A. in sociology, New York University

1929 -- M.S.W., New York School of Social Work, Columbia University

1929-1931 -- Social worker in Harlem Married to Victor Landes

1929-1934 -- Studied Black Jews in Harlem

1931 -- Began graduate work in anthropology at Columbia University

1932-1936 -- Studied the Ojibwa in Ontario and Minnesota (in field periodically)

1933-1940 -- Research Fellow, Columbia University

1935 Summer-Fall -- Studied the Santee Sioux (Dakota) in Minnesota

1935-1936 -- Studied the Potawatomi in Kansas

1935 -- Ph.D., Columbia University

1937 -- Instructor, Brooklyn College

1937-1938 -- Instructor, Fisk University

1938-1939 -- Studied Afro-Brazilians and Candomblé in Brazil, especially at Bahia

1939 -- Researcher on Gunnar Myrdal's study, "The Negro in America"

1941 -- Research Director, Office of Inter American Affairs, Washington, D.C.

1941-1945 -- Representative for Negro and Mexican American Affairs, Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC), President Franklin D. Roosevelt Administration

1944 -- Interim Director, Committee Against Racial Discrimination, New York

1946-1947 -- Researcher, study of Mexican American youth, gangs, and families, Los Angeles Metropolitan Council

1948-1951 -- Researcher, American Jewish Congress, New York

1949-1951 -- Research consultant, study on Jewish families in New York for Research in Contemporary Cultures Project, Columbia University

1951-1952 -- Fulbright Scholar, to study colored colonial immigration into Great Britain

1953-1954 -- Lecturer, William Alanson White Psychiatric Institution, New York

1953-1955 -- Lecturer, New School for Social Research, New York

1956-1957 -- Married to Ignacio Lutero Lopez

1957 Summer -- Visiting Professor, University of Kansas

1957-1958 -- Visiting Professor, University of Southern California

1957-1965 -- Consultant, California agencies (Department of Social Work, Bureau of Mental Hygiene, Department of Education, Public Health Department) and San Francisco Police Department

1958-1959 -- Director, Geriatrics Program, Los Angeles City Health Department

1959-1962 -- Visiting Professor and Director of Anthropology and Education Program, Claremont Graduate School

1962 -- Extension Lecturer, University of California, Los Angeles and University of California, Berkeley

1963 -- Extension Lecturer, Columbia University Extension Lecturer, Los Angeles State College

1963-1965 -- Consultant, International Business Machines (IBM)

1964 January-June -- Visiting Professor, Tulane University

1964 Summer -- Field work with Potawatomi in Kansas Professor, University of Kansas

1965-1975 -- Professor at McMaster University

1966 -- Studied urban development in Rio de Janeiro

1968-1975 -- Studied bilingualism and biculturalism in Spain, Switzerland, South Africa, United States, and Canada (in Spain and the United States concentrated on Basques)

1975 -- Became part-time faculty member at McMaster University

1977 -- Professor Emerita, McMaster University

1978 -- Award of Merit from the University of Wisconsin, Green Bay

1991 February 11 -- Died in Hamilton, Ontario

1991 -- Establishment of the Ruth Landes Memorial Research Fund at Research Institute for the Study of Man (RISM)
Related Materials:
Correspondence from Ruth Landes can be found in the William Duncan Strong Papers, the Leonard Bloomfield Papers, and MS 7369. The Ruth Bunzel Papers contains a copy of a grant application by Landes.
Provenance:
These papers were donated to the National Anthropological Archives by Ruth Landes in 1991.
Restrictions:
The Ruth Landes papers are open for research. The nitrate negatives in this collection have been separated from the collection and stored offsite. Access to nitrate negatives is restricted due to preservation concerns.

Access to the Ruth Landes papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Midéwiwin  Search this
Bilingualism  Search this
Aging  Search this
Candomblé (Religion)  Search this
Citation:
Ruth Landes papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1991-04
See more items in:
Ruth Landes papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1991-04
Additional Online Media:

Bureau of American Ethnology collection of stereographs relating to American Indians

Collector:
Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology  Search this
Photographer:
Bennett & Brown  Search this
Caswell & Davy  Search this
Continent Stereoscopic Company  Search this
E. & H.T. Anthony (Firm)  Search this
J. Gurney & Son  Search this
Whitney & Zimmerman  Search this
Barker, George, 1844-1894  Search this
Bennett, H. H. (Henry Hamilton), 1843-1908  Search this
Brown, William Henry, 1844-1886  Search this
Childs, B. F. (Brainard F.), ca. 1841-1921  Search this
Cross, W. R. (William R.)  Search this
Doerr, H. A. (Henry A.), 1826-1885  Search this
Haynes, F. Jay (Frank Jay), 1853-1921  Search this
Heister, H. T., (Henry T.), -1895  Search this
Hillers, John K., 1843-1925  Search this
Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942  Search this
Jarvis, J. F. (John F.), b. 1850  Search this
Morrow, Stanley J.  Search this
Payne, H. T.  Search this
Robinson, H. N.  Search this
Savage, C. R. (Charles Roscoe), 1832-1909  Search this
Singley, B. L. (Benjamin Lloyd)  Search this
Soule, John P.  Search this
Whitney, Joel E. (Joel Emmons), 1822-1886  Search this
Wittick, Ben, 1845-1903  Search this
Publisher:
Florida Club (Cooperative)  Search this
Keystone View Company  Search this
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Brubaker, C. B.  Search this
Names:
Curly, approximately 1856-1923  Search this
Red Cloud, 1822-1909  Search this
Sitting Bull, 1831-1890  Search this
Extent:
70 Stereographs (circa, albumen)
Culture:
Arctic peoples  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Ojibwa Indians -- depicted  Search this
Seneca Indians -- depicted  Search this
Mandan Indians -- depicted  Search this
Oglala Indians -- depicted  Search this
Southern Paiute Indians -- depicted  Search this
Tewa Indians -- depicted  Search this
Shoshoni Indians -- depicted  Search this
Sisseton Indians -- depicted  Search this
Winnebago Indians -- depicted  Search this
Tuscarora Indians -- depicted  Search this
Ute Indians -- depicted  Search this
Eskimos  Search this
Hopi Indians -- depicted  Search this
Isleta Indians -- depicted  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Kiowa Indians -- depicted  Search this
Laguna Indians -- depicted  Search this
Arikara Indians -- depicted  Search this
Cheyenne Indians -- depicted  Search this
Dakota Indians -- depicted  Search this
Hidatsa Indians -- depicted  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Stereographs
Photographs
Date:
late 19th century-early 20th century
Scope and Contents note:
Stereographs documenting American Indians and their built and natural environments, including studio portraits and depictions of camps and dwellings, graves, infants in cradleboards, and pottery. Specific images portray Sitting Bull's camp at Fort Randall, Curly at the Custer monument, and a Southern Plains delegation at the White House Conservatory. Photographed tribes include the Winnebago, Tuscarora, Tesuque, Seneca, San Juan, Pecos, Ojibwa, Oglala, Ute, Kaibab, Sisseton, Arikara, Mandan, Hopi, Shoshoni, Isleta, and Laguna Indians, as well as natives of Alaska and Labrador. Frequently commissioned by railroad companies, the photographs were published by a variety of firms including E. & H. T. Anthony & Company, George Barker, H. H. Bennett, Bennett & Brown, W. Henry Brown, Caswell & Davy, Childs Art Gallery, B. B. Brubaker, Continent Stereo Company, W. R. Cross, H. A. Doerr, J. Gurney & Son, Haynes, H. T. Hiester, John K. Hillers, William H. Jackson, J. F. Jarvis, Keystone View Company, B. L. Singley, S. J. Morrow, H. T. Payne, H. N. Robinson, C. R. Savage, John P. Soule, Underwood & Underwood, Whitney's Gallery, Whitney & Zimmerman, and Ben Wittick.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 140
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional photographs by these photographers can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in additional collections of stereographs relating to American Indians (MS 4551 and Photo Lot 90-1)
See others in:
Bureau of American Ethnology collection of stereographs relating to American Indians, late 19th century-early 20th century
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Dwellings  Search this
Cradleboards  Search this
Pottery  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo lot 140, Bureau of American Ethnology collection of stereographs relating to American Indians, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.140
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-140

George Eastman House copies of photographs of American Indians

Collector:
George Eastman House  Search this
Photographer:
Alvord, Kellogg, & Campbell  Search this
Bell & Bro. (Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Boorne & May  Search this
Boyd and Braas  Search this
Caswell & Davy  Search this
Central Pacific Railroad Company  Search this
Continent Stereoscopic Company  Search this
E. & H.T. Anthony (Firm)  Search this
Henry L. Shepard & Co.  Search this
Ingersoll View Company  Search this
Keystone View Company  Search this
Kilburn Brothers  Search this
Liberty Brand Stereo Views  Search this
Littleton View Co.  Search this
Lovejoy & Foster  Search this
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Whitney & Zimmerman  Search this
Wilson & Havens  Search this
Woodward Stereoscopic Company, of Rochester, New York  Search this
Barker, George, 1844-1894  Search this
Beaman, Edward O.  Search this
Bennett, G. C., 1846-1915  Search this
Bennett, H. H. (Henry Hamilton), 1843-1908  Search this
Bierstadt, Charles, 1819-1903  Search this
Bonine, Elias A., 1843-1916  Search this
Brown, William Henry, 1844-1886  Search this
Brubaker, Christian B. (of Marquette, Michigan)  Search this
Buehman, Henry, 1851-1912  Search this
Chamberlain, W. G. (William Gunnison)  Search this
Chase, D. B. (Dana B.)  Search this
Childs, B. F. (Brainard F.), ca. 1841-1921  Search this
Conklin, E (Enoch)  Search this
Cross, W. R. (William R.)  Search this
Goff, O. S. (Orlando Scott), 1843-1917  Search this
Harris, George H.  Search this
Haynes, F. Jay (Frank Jay), 1853-1921  Search this
Ingersoll, T. W. (Truman Ward), 1862-1922  Search this
Jackson, William Henry, 1843-1942  Search this
Jacoby, W. H. (William H.), 1841-1905  Search this
Jarvis, J. F. (John F.), b. 1850  Search this
Jones, James  Search this
Kent, J. H.  Search this
Lingley, B. L.  Search this
Morrow, Stanley J.  Search this
Muybridge, Eadweard, 1830-1904  Search this
O'Sullivan, Timothy H., 1840-1882  Search this
Pratt, D. C.  Search this
Rinehart, F. A. (Frank A.)  Search this
Savage, C. R. (Charles Roscoe), 1832-1909  Search this
Smillie, T. W. (Thomas William), 1843-1917  Search this
Upton, B. F. (Benjamin Franklin)  Search this
Watkins, Carleton E., 1829-1916  Search this
Zimmerman, Charles A., 1844-1909  Search this
Depicted:
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Douglass, Frederick, 1817?-1895  Search this
Logan, John Alexander, 1826-1886  Search this
Names:
Barnard, George N., 1819-1902  Search this
Publisher:
Forsyth, N. A. (Norman A.), 1869-1949  Search this
Extent:
248 Negatives (circa, 35mm)
248 copy prints (circa)
Culture:
Kiowa Indians -- depicted  Search this
Cheyenne Indians -- depicted  Search this
Tuscarora Indians -- depicted  Search this
Sarsi Indians -- depicted  Search this
Hunkpapa Indians -- depicted  Search this
Ojibwa Indians -- depicted  Search this
Winnebago Indians -- depicted  Search this
Taos Indians -- depicted  Search this
Duwamish Indians -- depicted  Search this
Kickapoo Indians -- depicted  Search this
Modoc Indians -- depicted  Search this
Apache Indians -- depicted  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Ute Indians -- depicted  Search this
Hopi Indians -- depicted  Search this
Zuni Indians -- depicted  Search this
Arapaho Indians -- depicted  Search this
Comanche Indians -- depicted  Search this
Sihasapa Indians -- depicted  Search this
Paiute Indians -- depicted  Search this
Indians of North America -- Plateau  Search this
Chiricahua Indians -- depicted  Search this
Navajo Indians -- depicted  Search this
Dakota Indians -- depicted  Search this
Indians of North America -- Southwest, New  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northwest Coast of North America  Search this
Indians of North America -- Subarctic  Search this
Indians of North America -- Northeast  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Basin  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Negatives
Copy prints
Place:
Yosemite National Park (Calif.)
Washington (D.C.)
Florida
Yellowstone National Park
Colorado
Date:
mid-19th - early 20th century
Scope and Contents note:
Copies of photogaphs selected from the George Eastman House collection by Bureau of American Ethnology archivist Margaret Blaker in 1962. Many of the photographs are individual or group portraits of American Indians and some highlight pottery, baskets, and cradleboards. There are also images of American Indian dwellings, including tipis and hogans; pueblos; dances; and an encampment during the Modoc War and Plains Indian prisoners at Fort Marion, Florida (1870s).

Expedition photos in the collection were made on T. O. Selfridgeʹs Darien Expedition (1870-1871), the Wheeler surveys (1871-1874), and the Hayden Geological Survey (1871). The collection also includes portraits of Frederick Douglass, Sitting Bull, and John A. Logan; and images from Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show; Company F of New York's 140th Volunteer Infantry; and the Smithsonian in Washington, DC.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot R79
Reproduction Note:
Copy negatives made by George Eastman House, 1962.
Copy prints made by the Smithsonian, 1962-1963.
Location of Other Archival Materials:
The National Anthropological Archives holds vintage prints for many of the photographs copied in this collection, including in Photo lot 4501, Photo Lot 4605, and Photo Lot 90-1.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
The images were acquired for reference purposes and cannot be reproduced. Copies may be obtained from George Eastman House, International Museum of Photography and Film.
Topic:
Pottery  Search this
Dwellings  Search this
Soldiers -- depicted  Search this
Baskets  Search this
Dance  Search this
Citation:
Photo lot R79, George Eastman House copies of photographs of American Indians, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.R79
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-r79

Photographs taken at Standing Rock Reservation, 1927 and 1932 and one Mandan photograph

Photographer:
Fisher, Clyde  Search this
Names:
Black Horse  Search this
Crow Man  Search this
Fisher, Clyde  Search this
Floating Cloud  Search this
Frosted, Tom  Search this
Gray Dog  Search this
Grey Whirlwind  Search this
Little Soldier  Search this
Long Chase Mrs.  Search this
Mossman, E. D. Supt  Search this
Seton, Ernest Thompson, 1860-1946  Search this
White Bear (Hopi)  Search this
White Bear (Hopi)  Search this
Zahn, Frank  Search this
Culture:
Dakota Indians  Search this
Mandan Indians  Search this
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Catalog Number 4722: Dakota "Supt. E. D. Mossman at Standing Rock" Agency building Photographer: Clyde Fisher Date: 1927. Clyde Fisher and Frank Zahn examining concretions along Cannon-ball River" Clyde Fisher 1927. "Sitting Bull's Grave, Fort Yates, N. D." Clyde Fisher 1927. "Ernest Thompson Seton at Sitting Bull's grave, Fort Yates, N. D." Clyde Fisher 1927. "Grey Whirlwind Taking to Ernest Thompson Seton by sign-language. Standing Rock" Clyde Fisher 1927 BAE Copy Negative Number 43,196. "Sioux Women Dancing, Standing Rock" Clyde Fisher 1927. "William Zahn and his woman, Floating Cloud, Solen, N. D." Clyde Fisher 1927. "White Bear (Tom Frosted) at Standing Rock" Clyde Fisher 1927. "Clyde Fisher and Frank Zahn at Sitting Bull's grave, Fort Yates, N. D." Clyde Fisher 1932. "Little Soldier, Sioux, survivor of the Custer Battle, Standing Rock" Clyde Fisher 1932 BAE Copy Negative Number 45,877. "Sioux Woman and child at Standing Rock" Clyde Fisher 1932. "Mrs Long Chase, daughter of Afraid-of-Bear, Standing Rock" Clyde Fisher 1932. "The daughters of Clyde Fisher at The Standing Rock" Clyde Fisher 1932. Left to right: Black Horse, White Bear, Crow Man, Gray Dog. Standing Rock Reservation, Fort Yates, North Dakota Clyde Fisher 1932. "Replica of Mandan Earthlodge on Capitol-grounds, Bismark, N. D" Clyde Fisher.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 4722
Local Note:
Filed: original prints, by tribe.
Topic:
Photographs  Search this
Mandan Indians  Search this
Habitations and other structures -- earthlodge  Search this
Language and languages -- Documentation  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 4722, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4722
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4722

Dakota agency personnel (including Indian Police), students, and views of Agency buildings, from various Dakota agencies and Carlisle Indian School

Photographer:
Choate, John N., of Carlisle, Pennsylvania  Search this
Anderson, J. A.  Search this
Creator:
Northwestern Photographic Company  Search this
Names:
Anderson, W. W.  Search this
Berht, Stella  Search this
Black Bear, Carrie  Search this
Bordeaux ?, Martha  Search this
Calls Horse Looking  Search this
Cleveland, William Joshua, 1845-1910  Search this
Dion ?, Mose  Search this
Flood, Thomas  Search this
Four Horn, Charlotte  Search this
Galiego, Louisa  Search this
Gallagher, H. D. Col  Search this
Good Nation, Laura  Search this
Hand, Emma  Search this
High Hawk ?  Search this
Horse Looking, Irene  Search this
Iron Eagle Feather  Search this
Jackson, Sheldon  Search this
Little Bull  Search this
Low, Adelia  Search this
McChesney, Charles E.  Search this
McLaughlin, James Major  Search this
Pratt, Richard Henry, 1840-1924  Search this
Shields, John  Search this
Side ? Bear, Esther  Search this
Spence, L. F. Agent  Search this
Standing Bear, Victoria  Search this
Townsend, Harvey  Search this
Two Dogs, Isabella  Search this
Wells, Mark  Search this
White Bear, Rosa  Search this
White Birch, Katie  Search this
White Horse  Search this
White Thunder, Rosa  Search this
Wilson, Susan  Search this
Wright, John V. Judge  Search this
Extent:
44 mounted prints
Culture:
Indians of North America -- Great Plains  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Mounted prints
Date:
undated
Scope and Contents:
Photographs of Carlisle by J. N. Choate, three Rosebud Agency photographs by J. A. Anderson, the rest unidentified as to photographer. The photographs probably date between 1880 and 1895.
Catalog Number 4574: Letter of 3/21/58 from Richard A. Pohrt (donor): "...eleven photographs from the Indian School at Carlisle. Pa. These I am certain were all taken by J. N. Choates [Choate], a photographer who had a studio at 21 West Main St., Carlisle, Pa." (1) Carlisle Indian School "The dining hall, Indian Training School" (Original Number 45) Photographer: J. H. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (2) Carlisle Indian School "Sheldon Jackson, John Shields and Harvey Townsend, Pueblos." (Original Number 70) J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (3) Carlisle Indian School "Pine Ridge Boys" (Original Number 155) (caption written by hand) J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (4) Carlisle Indian School "After School; Indian Training School, Carlisle, Pa." (written by hand). (Original Number 163) J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (5) Carlisle Indian School Group of students, presumably of Carlisle School. Labeled on back (by hand) as follows: "No. 1 White Horse Little Bull "No. 2 Calls Horse Looking "No. 3 Brule Iron Eagle Feather "No 4 Stella Berht "No. 5 Rosa White Thunder "No 6 Irene Horse Looking "No 7 Laura Good Nation Compliments of Capt. Pratt, E." J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (?) (6) Carlisle Indian School Group of girls, presumably students at Carlisle School. Labled by hand as follows; left to right, row 1 (kneeling) Emma Hand, Rosa White Bear (dead), Isabella Two Dogs, Louisa Galiego (Pine Ridge). Row 2, (sitting) Carrie Black Bear, Susan Wilson (S sister [?]), Charlotte Four Horn, Esther Side [?] Bear. Row 3 (standing) Katie White Birch, Adelia Low, Victoria Standing Bear, Martha Bordeaux [?], Mose Dion [?]. J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (?). (7) Carlisle Indian School Group of boys, presumably students at Carlisle School. J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (?). (8) "Girl's Quarters, Carlisle Barracks" [Choate Broadside, No 78?] J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (?). (9) "School Rooms, Carlisle Barracks." [Choate broadside, No. 80 ?].
Catalog Number 4574: (10) Carlisle Indian School "Cap't Pratt's House and Chapel." [Choate broadside, No. 82 ?] Captain Pratt near steps. J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (11) Carlisle Indian School (?) "Band of Indian Boys at the Government School, Washington, D. C." ("Popular Series"). Stereoscopic view. Probably copy of Choate No. 76, erroneously labeled. [See Choate broadside, B.A.E. Catalog Number 4241.] J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa (?) (See R. A. Pohrt correspondence, 9/24/59). (12) Tribe: Dakota (Oglalla ?) "High Hawk." Resembles closely the man identified as High Hawk in Signal Corps Photograph at National Archives (No. 101549). Only slight resemblance to S. I. Negative 42,827. He must have been considerably older when the latter was taken if they are the same person. J. N. Choate, Carlisle, Pa. (13) Dakota:Agency Personnel, various agencies Seated left to right: Reverend William J. Cleveland (Episcopal missionary and sometime agent at Rosebud-- See Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 5, page 20 for biography), Captain Richard Henry Pratt (Chairman), and Judge John V. Wright of Tennessee, -- the three composed the 2nd commission to the Sioux, 1888. (For account of the commission see Eastman, "Pratt, the Redman's Moses," University of Oklahoma Press, 1935). (Identified from BAE Negative Number "Portraits 13-b"). No date, but because of the 3 main figures, suggests ca. 1888. Standing. left to right: , (appears third from left in S. I. Negative 43,563-- identified more clearly in original prints of same group National Archives-- N. A. Numbers 86-1, 86-2, 87), Col. H. D. Gallagher, Agent Pine Ridge (same ident. source), Major W. W. Anderson, agent at Crow Creek and Lower Brule; for a Mark Wells see Negative 3307-c, Dr C. E. McChesney, agent at Cheyenne River Agency (Number 14, in row 5.), Major James McLaughlin, Agent Standing Rock Reservation, Col. L. F. Spence, Agent Rosebud Agency (identified from S. I. Negative 43,563). No date, but because of the 3 main figures, suggests ca. 1888.
Catalog Number 4574: (14) Dakota: Agency Personnel Seated: Col. L. F. Spence, Agent at Rosebud, (identified from S. I. Negative 43,563) Standing: unidentified, but compare with 4574: (28), below. (15) Dakota: Pine Ridge Agency Labeled in pencil, "Agent's Dwelling, Pine Ridge Agency, D. T." (Verified by numerous views of the Agency in the National Archives). Two Indian Policemen on porch. Water tower behind house. (16) Dakota: Pine Ridge Agency ? Distant view of Agency, almost certainly Pine Ridge (compare with original prints catalog Number 4464. "Pine Ridge Agency from the North in 1891"). Print marked in pencil, "Fort Niobrara, Nebraska Territory"-- erroneous ? Northwestern Photographic Co, Chadron, Nebraska (17) Dakota: Rosebud Agency "No. 4 St Francis' Mission, Rosebud Agency, S. D., West Side." Church and school, one wing in process of being built. Print not marked. Received in package marked by donor, "J. A. Anderson." (18) Dakota: Rosebud Agency "No 7. Birds-eye view of St Francis Mission. Rosebud Agency, S. D." Print not marked. Received in package marked by donor,"J. A. Anderson." (19) Dakota: Rosebud Agency "No 8. Fathers and Brothers of St Francis Mission. Rosebud Agency, S. D." J. A. Anderson, Rosebud Agency, S. D. (20) Dakota: Rosebud Agency View of Rosebud Agency, and garden, from the South (if 17 above correct). Must have been taken prior to the Anderson photograph, since the new wing is not in evidence. (Identified from 17 and 18.) (21) Dakota: Rosebud Agency Nuns with large group of students in school uniforms, (St Francis Mission, Rosebud Agency ?) Little white girl in front row looks like one in 4574: (32) below, and possibly same as in 4574: (31).
Catalog Number 4574 (22) Dakota: Rosebud Agency "View at Rosebud Agency. May 8th 1892." This series of "row" houses corresponds, perhaps, to ones in J. A. Anderson's Among the Sioux, "A typical Indian Agency" (BAE temporary 77). Note "Police Station " sign. 1892. (23) Dakota: Rosebud Agency Agent's house, Rosebud Agency (identified from Negative Number 43,791-B). Standing in front, left to right: , , Col. L. F. Spence, Agent (identified from S, I, Negative 43,563 and National Archives' prints of same group), , , . (24) Boy on horse in front of agent's dwelling, Rosebud Agency. (House, and thus agency, identified from S. I. Negative 43,791-B and others). (25) Dakota: Rosebud Agency Group of Indian Police, civilian men, women, and children around flag pole in front of agent's house (identified from S. I. Negative 43,791-B), Rosebud Agency. Reverend William J. Cleveland (with whiskers and derby) in back row, 2nd to right of flagpole. (Indentified from BAE Negative Number "Portraits 13-b.") (26) Dakota: Rosebud Agency Distant view of agent's dwelling and unidentified home and/or school to the left of it. Copy in negative catalog made from another original print. See Negative Number 43,791-C.
Catalog Number 4574: (27) Dakota: Rosebud Agency Unidentified home and/or school to left of agent's dwelling (see 4574:(26) above, then 43,791-B), large group of men in front of building. Possibly Reverend William J. Cleveland, (note whiskers) on porch, 3rd from right. (28) Dakota: Rosebud Agency (?) Agency personnel (?), including Indian police. 4th from left, front row: Col. L. F. Spence, Agent at Rosebud (identified from S. I. Negative 43,563). 5th from left, front row: same as man on right in 4574: (14) (?). 2nd from left, 2nd row: same as man on left in 4574: (14) (?). 2nd from right, 2nd row: Thomas Flood, Interpreter (identified from S. I. Negative 43,563). Indentification as Rosebud Agency rests primarily upon the presence of Spence. See Negative Number 45,793-B. (29) Dakota: Rosebud Agency (?) Large building, with chapel, set in open area. Built 1885 (date on front gable). In front are 5 women (one on horse) 3 children, three men; Rev. William J. Cleveland at extreme left (identified from BAE Negative Number "Portraits" 13-b). May be Saint Mary's Mission Boarding School for Sioux Boys and Girls, 12 miles from Rosebud Agency, on Antelope Creek, Dakota Territory, for the following reasons: 1. The building is a self-contained unit--including a chapel--and there are no other buildings in view. 2. The building is dated 1885. Pilling, in Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 5, 1887 states that Cleveland had at that time been principal of Saint Mary's for 2 years, which fits neatly with the 1885 date. (30) Dakota: Rosebud Agency (?) Side view of same building as in 4574: (29). Several women and children in foreground. Reverend William J. Cleveland holding horses (identified from BAE Negative Number "Portraits" 13-b), and one other man. See 4574:(29) above.
Catalog Number 4574: The following photographs (4574: (31-39)), along with a group of similar photographs in the National Archives, seem to establish a consistent pattern in the location and structure of agency school facilities. In general, the schools were small frame buildings, apparently widely scattered over the agencies, each with a small frame house for the teaching couple and family. (31) Dakota: Agency Unidentified Frame school (?) building. In foreground, group of students with teachers (man and woman--and their little girl ?), and Indian police. (32) Dakota: Agency Unidentified Group of students with teachers (man and woman--and their child) in front of frame school (?) house. Also an Indian Policeman. (33) Dakota: Agency unidentified Group of students with teachers (man and woman) and Indian Police in front of frame school (?) house. White man on right appears to be identical with the first man on left in S. I. Negative 43,563, Sioux delegation to Washington, 1888. (34) Dakota: Agency unidentified Group of students with teachers (man and woman) in front of frame school (?) house. Also an Indian Policeman. (35) Dakota: Agency unidentified Frame school (?) building. In foreground a group of students with teacher(s). (36) Dakota: Agency unidentified Frame school (?) with group of students and teacher in the foreground. The teacher is the same as in 4574:(36), as are many of the pupils. (37) Dakota: Agency unidentified Teachers (and their child) with group of students in front of frame school building. (See 4574: (38) for identity as school.) (38) Dakota: Agency unidentified School building (and teachers' dwelling ?) with man, woman, and child (same ones as in 4574: (37) above) in front, and two Indian men at side. 2 duplicate prints.
Catalog Number 4574: (39) Dakota: Agency unidentified Teacher's dwelling-schoolhouse complex with one or two scattered cabins in the foreground. Follows what appears to be the typical pattern of small, widely scattered schools. (40) Dakota: Agency unidentified Frame building. Function ? Odd door on back and man standing in doorway suggest this might be an exterior view of 4574: (41). (41) Dakota: Agency Unidentified Pine Ridge (?) or Rosebud (?) Slaughter house (?), interior view, with three men, one an Indian. One man looks like Col. H. D. Gallagher, Pine Ridge Agent. But the print was among a group of views mainly from Rosebud Agency. (42) Dakota: Agency Unidentified Large group of uniformed Indian Police on horseback in front of frame buildings. Agency might be: 1. Standing Rock ? Man front row, left looks like Red Tomahawk. 2. Pine Ridge ? But the men aren't posed in same area of agency where other PR Police pictures were taken. Also the men in this picture have more uniform uniforms than are shown in PR pictures. (See Original Prints, "temporary" Number 29, and Catalog Number 4544: (59, 60).) 3. Rosebud ? (43) Dakota: Agency Unidentified Indian Police, same uniform, same agency, same building, as 4574: (42). Also additional evidence for identifying Agency as Standing Rock: compare officers to those in BAE Negative Number 3711-e. See Negative Number 45,793. (44) Dakota Badlands scenery. "In general it seems to resemble the badlands of southwestern South Dakota not far distant from Pine Ridge and Rosebud Reservations."--Information from John C. Ewers, 4/5/60.
Biographical / Historical:
Pohrt states, "I believe they were taken about 1890. Some are identified and many are not, but I have reason to believe that the majority were taken on the Rosebud and Pine Ridge Reservations in South Dakota. They are of school children, Indian Police, Agency buildings, etc." See correspondence in Smithsonian Institution-Bureau of American Ethnology files.
Local Numbers:
NAA MS 4574
Local Note:
Filed: Original Prints: Carlisle Indian School; Dakota.
Topic:
Photographs  Search this
Dakota Indians  Search this
Federal-Indian relations -- Agencies  Search this
Education -- Carlisle Indian School  Search this
Sioux  Search this
Citation:
Manuscript 4574, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.MS4574
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-ms4574

Cradleboard cover part/fragment

Culture/People:
Sioux  Search this
Previous owner:
Abel E. Brooks (A.E. Brooks), Non-Indian, 1833-1917  Search this
Object Name:
Cradleboard cover part/fragment
Media/Materials:
Hide, porcupine quills
Techniques:
Quilled (lane stitched)
Object Type:
Transportation Items: Baby carriers
Place:
North Dakota or South Dakota; USA (inferred)
Date created:
1850-1880
Catalog Number:
1/1105
Barcode:
011105.000
See related items:
Sioux
Transportation Items: Baby carriers
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_11931
Additional Online Media:

Cradleboard cover part/fragment

Culture/People:
Sioux  Search this
Previous owner:
Abel E. Brooks (A.E. Brooks), Non-Indian, 1833-1917  Search this
Object Name:
Cradleboard cover part/fragment
Media/Materials:
Hide, glass bead/beads
Techniques:
Lazy/lane stitch beadwork
Object Type:
Transportation Items: Baby carriers
Place:
North Dakota or South Dakota; USA (inferred)
Date created:
1850-1880
Catalog Number:
1/1106
Barcode:
011106.000
See related items:
Sioux
Transportation Items: Baby carriers
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_11932
Additional Online Media:

Child's moccasins

Culture/People:
Sioux  Search this
Previous owner:
Judge Nathan Bijur, Non-Indian, 1862-1930  Search this
Lilly Prochownick Bijur (Mrs. Nathan Bijur), Non-Indian, 1867-1944  Search this
Harry Bijur (Harry Ash Bijur), Non-Indian, 1887-1972  Search this
Madeline Bijur (Mrs. Harry Bijur), Non-Indian, 1901-1982  Search this
Seller:
Harry Bijur (Harry Ash Bijur), Non-Indian, 1887-1972  Search this
Madeline Bijur (Mrs. Harry Bijur), Non-Indian, 1901-1982  Search this
Object Name:
Child's moccasins
Media/Materials:
Hide, glass bead/beads, hide thong/babiche
Techniques:
Lazy/lane stitch beadwork
Object Type:
Clothing/Garments: Footwear
Place:
North Dakota or South Dakota; USA (inferred)
Catalog Number:
20/8758
Barcode:
208758.000
See related items:
Sioux
Clothing/Garments: Footwear
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_223011
Additional Online Media:

Baby carrier/Moss bag

Culture/People:
Sioux  Search this
Collector:
General Nelson A. Miles (Nelson Appleton Miles), Non-Indian, 1839-1925  Search this
Previous owner:
General Nelson A. Miles (Nelson Appleton Miles), Non-Indian, 1839-1925  Search this
Cecelia Miles Reber (Cecelia Sherman Miles/Mrs. Samuel K. Reber), Non-Indian, 1869-1952  Search this
Major General Sherman Miles, Non-Indian, 1882-1966  Search this
Donor:
Major General Sherman Miles, Non-Indian, 1882-1966  Search this
Honoree:
Cecelia Miles Reber (Cecelia Sherman Miles/Mrs. Samuel K. Reber), Non-Indian, 1869-1952  Search this
Object Name:
Baby carrier/Moss bag
Media/Materials:
Hide, glass bead/beads
Techniques:
Lazy/lane stitch beadwork
Object Type:
Transportation Items: Baby carriers
Place:
North Dakota or South Dakota; USA (inferred)
Catalog Number:
22/1708
Barcode:
221708.000
See related items:
Sioux
Transportation Items: Baby carriers
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_236566
Additional Online Media:

Cradleboard

Culture/People:
Sioux  Search this
Previous owner:
Erich Kohlberg, Non-Indian, 1886-1978  Search this
Object Name:
Cradleboard
Media/Materials:
Canvas, cotton cloth, glass bead/beads, wood
Techniques:
Carved, sewn, lazy/lane stitch beadwork, tied
Object Type:
Transportation Items: Baby carriers
Place:
South Dakota; USA
Catalog Number:
23/7038
Barcode:
237038.000
See related items:
Sioux
Transportation Items: Baby carriers
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_252373
Additional Online Media:

Child's moccasins

Culture/People:
Sioux  Search this
Previous owner:
Dr. Clemens F. Fulda, Non-Indian, 1846-1914  Search this
Seller:
Dr. Clemens F. Fulda, Non-Indian, 1846-1914  Search this
Object Name:
Child's moccasins
Media/Materials:
Hide, glass bead/beads, hide thong/babiche
Techniques:
Sewn, lazy/lane stitch beadwork
Dimensions:
15 x 6 x 6 cm
Object Type:
Clothing/Garments: Footwear
Place:
North Dakota or South Dakota; USA (inferred)
Date created:
circa 1890
Catalog Number:
2/9328
Barcode:
029328.000
See related items:
Sioux
Clothing/Garments: Footwear
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_31383
Additional Online Media:

Child's moccasins

Culture/People:
Sioux  Search this
Previous owner:
Joseph W. Keppler (Udo Keppler/Gyantwaka), Non-Indian, 1872-1956  Search this
Lender:
Joseph W. Keppler (Udo Keppler/Gyantwaka), Non-Indian, 1872-1956  Search this
Seller:
Joseph W. Keppler (Udo Keppler/Gyantwaka), Non-Indian, 1872-1956  Search this
Object Name:
Child's moccasins
Media/Materials:
Hide, glass bead/beads, hide thong/babiche
Techniques:
Lazy/lane stitch beadwork
Object Type:
Clothing/Garments: Footwear
Place:
North Dakota or South Dakota; USA (inferred)
Catalog Number:
6/324
Barcode:
060324.000
See related items:
Sioux
Clothing/Garments: Footwear
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_65203
Additional Online Media:

Shoe Fragment (Child's)

Site Name:
Porcupine Creek Site  Search this
Donor Name:
River Basin Survey  Search this
Collector:
River Basin Survey  Search this
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Length:
10.3cm
Culture:
Cheyenne  Search this
Sioux  Search this
: Yanktonai Dakota  Search this
Object Type:
Shoe
Place:
Sioux County, North Dakota, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1986-Sep-08
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
361274
USNM Number:
A506650-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8263017

Child's Glass Saucer

Site Name:
Porcupine Creek Site  Search this
Donor Name:
River Basin Survey  Search this
Collector:
River Basin Survey  Search this
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Unknown:
3.5cm
Culture:
Cheyenne  Search this
Sioux  Search this
: Yanktonai Dakota  Search this
Object Type:
Saucer
Place:
Sioux County, North Dakota, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1986-Sep-08
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
361274
USNM Number:
A506720-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8263088

Child's moccasins

Culture/People:
Sioux  Search this
Possible collector:
A. Margaret Capuder (Agnes Margaret Capuder), Non-Indian  Search this
Previous owner:
A. Margaret Capuder (Agnes Margaret Capuder), Non-Indian  Search this
Donor:
A. Margaret Capuder (Agnes Margaret Capuder), Non-Indian  Search this
Honoree:
Brian Capuder, Non-Indian  Search this
Larry Capuder, Jr., Non-Indian  Search this
Object Name:
Child's moccasins
Media/Materials:
Hide, cotton cloth, glass bead/beads, hide thong/babiche
Techniques:
Sewn, lazy/lane stitch beadwork
Dimensions:
10.5 x 13.5 x 7.5 cm
Object Type:
Clothing/Garments: Footwear
Place:
North Dakota or South Dakota; USA (inferred)
Date created:
1930-1950
Catalog Number:
25/4651
Barcode:
254651.000
See related items:
Sioux
Clothing/Garments: Footwear
Data Source:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:NMAI_270609
Additional Online Media:

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