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Aleš Hrdlička papers

Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Correspondent:
American Association of Physical Anthropologists  Search this
Names:
American Journal of Physical Anthropology  Search this
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hyde Exploring Expedition (1902-1903)  Search this
Institute of Population  Search this
International Congress of Americanists  Search this
Panama-California Exposition (1915 : San Diego, Calif.)  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. Department of Anthropology. Division of Physical Anthropology  Search this
Extent:
206.71 Linear feet (294 boxes, 138 folders, 9 rolled items, and 4 folios)
Culture:
Indians of North America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Saint Lawrence Island (Alaska) -- Archaeology
Australia
Alaska -- Archaeology
Mexico -- anthropology
Florida -- Archaeology
Egypt -- Archaeology
Czechoslovakia
Peru -- physical anthropology
Kodiak Island (Alaska)
Date:
1875-1966
bulk 1903-1943
Summary:
The papers of Aleš Hrdlička, curator in the Division of Physical Anthropology, Department of Anthropology, United States National Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, offer considerable insight into the development of physical anthropology in the first half of this century. The papers include honors bestowed on Hrdlička, autobiographical notes, correspondence with many of the leading anthropologists of the day, anthropometric and osteometric measurements and observations (forming most of the collection), extensive photographs of Hrdlička's field work, manuscripts, research materials, and "My Journeys" (essentially a diary Hrdlička kept of his field work). In addition, there is material of a personal nature. The papers date from 1875 to 1966, but the bulk of the materials date from 1903 to 1943, the time of Hrdlička's career at the USNM.
Scope and Contents:
This collection is comprised of both professional and personal materials. The professional material includes honors bestowed on Hrdlička, autobiographical notes, correspondence with many of the leading anthropologists of the day, anthropometric and osteometric measurements and observations (forming most of the collection), extensive photographs of Hrdlička's field work, manuscripts, research materials, and "My Journeys" (essentially a diary Hrdlička kept of his field work). The personal material primarily consists of correspondence with his first wife (Marie Dieudonnée Strickler) and other family members, but there are also financial records. The papers date from 1875 to 1966, but the bulk of the materials date from 1903 to 1943, the time of Hrdlička's career at the United States National Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Hrdlička investigated all major questions confronting physical anthropologists of his day (the fossil record of early humans, the arrival of humans in the Americas, human variation, and evolution) and made valuable contributions in all these areas. Hrdlička's interests in the establishment of physical anthropology as a distinct and important field, the welfare of the Czech people, early hominids, and variation within the human species are all documented in the collection as are the services he performed for various United States government agencies. He pursued field studies in many different parts of the world, but there are relatively few field notes as such among his papers. There is instead the edited journal "My Journeys," photographs, and physical anthropological forms. There is also relatively little material on his administrative involvement in the USNM. There is no material from Hrdlička's time at the Pathological Institution of the New York State Hospitals; after he resigned, fire destroyed the anthropological records Hrdlička collected as a member of the staff. There are materials in the collection which contradict, or at least complicate, many long-held criticisms of Hrdlička, particularly claims that he was racist and opposed feminist ideas. The collection contains materials of interest to genetic research, including anthropometric measurements, hair clippings and fingerprints.

There are a few items in the collection which are dated earlier than the collection's date span. These are publication dates, and the folders containing the items have been dated accordingly, but they have not affected the dates of the series or collection. There are also a few items which are dated after Hrdlička's death. These dates reflect the fact that the collection was added to by the Department of Physical Anthropology after Hrdlička's death and have been taken into account when formulating dates for the series and collection.

Please note that the language and terminology used in this collection reflects the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 37 series:

(1) Miscellaneous Personal Papers, 1875-1940

(2) Early Personal Correspondence, 1883-1919

(3) Correspondence, 1885-1953

(4) News Clippings and Printed Matter, 1893-1953

(5) Financial Papers, 1910-1943

(6) Journeys to the Southwestern United States and Mexican Indians, 1898-1919

(7) Journeys to the Dakota, Chippewa, Kickapoo, and Shawnee, 1916-1917

(8) Florida Survey, 1918, 1918-1927

(9) Alaska Archeological Expeditions, 1912-1938 (bulk 1926-1938)

(10) Panama-California Exposition Expeditions, 1912-1914

(11) Journey to Egypt, Europe, and Russia, 1908-1909

(12) Journey to South America, 1910, 1910-1912

(13) Journey to the Far East, 1920, 1900-1930

(14) Journey to Australia, Java, India, South Africa, and Europe, 1924-1925

(15) Anthropometric Measurements of Indians Taken at the United States National Museum, 1904-1905, most undated

(16) Bone Studies, 1893-1929, most undated

(17) Old Americans, 1914-1930

(18) Children Who Run on All Fours, 1928-1936

(19) Early Man Studies, 1906-1930

(20) European Ethnic History, 1908-1938

(21) Miscellaneous Research Notes, 1887-1930

(22) Manuscripts of Writings, 1901-1944, most undated

(23) Writings by Other Authors, 1877-1942

(24) Anthropometry, undated

(25) "From My Journeys", 1898-1938

(26) -- American Journal of Physical Anthropology -- , 1918-1931

(27) American Association of Physical Anthropologists, 1924-1931

(28) International Congress of Americanists, 1900-1928

(29) Institute of Population, 1942

(30) Department of Anthropology, 1914-1943

(31) Lecture Notes, 1920-1932

(32) Maps and Charts, 1900-1932

(33) Miscellany, 1895-1954

(34) Index Cards, 1899-1948

(35) Bibliographic Index, undated

(36) Physical Anthropology Folios, undated

(37) Photographs, 1887-1944
Biographical Note:
Aleš Hrdlička was born in Bohemia in 1869 and came to America when he was thirteen. As a young man, he was trained in medicine at New York's Eclectic Medical College and the New York Homeopathic Medical College, receiving degrees from each. His first professional work was as a private practitioner, but he gave that up in 1894 when he joined the staff of the New York State Hospital for the Insane at Middletown. There, in addition to other duties, he began studies of the physical characteristics of inmates. This set in motion developments that would eventually lead him to become one of the world's most prominent anthropologists who has sometimes been referred to as "the founder of physical anthropology in America."

In 1896, in preparation for a research appointment with the Department of Anthropology in the Pathological Institute of the New York State Hospitals, Hrdlička went to Paris and studied with Leon Manouvrier. After his return to America, he worked for a short period with the Pathological Institute and came into contact with G.S. Huntington of the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York. Hrdlička arranged and studied Huntington's large collection of skeletal material, thus gaining knowledge of a well-documented collection representing largely normal persons of European ancestry. He came to the attention of Frederic Ward Putnam, of the American Museum of Natural History, who arranged for his first anthropological field studies.

It was thus that Hrdlička became a member of the Hyde Expeditions to the American Southwest and northern Mexico. In 1898, he traveled to Mexico with Carl Lumholtz to study the Tarahumaras, Huichols, and neighboring tribes. In subsequent years, he returned to Mexico and the Southwest alone and studied physical characteristics and medical conditions of several American Indian tribes. With this experience and examinations of the Trenton and Lansing skeletal material for Putnam, Hrdlička came fully into the world of anthropology. In 1903, he was appointed head of the newly formed Division of Physical Anthropology in the United States National Museum.

While in his position at the Smithsonian, Hrdlička returned to the Southwest for studies of Pima and Apache children in 1905 and, in the following year, traveled to Florida to examine allegedly ancient remains of man. In 1908, he worked among a number of Indian tribes, including the Menominee, Oglala Dakota, Quinailt, Hupa, and Mohave, in a study of tuberculosis among them. In 1909, he traveled to Egypt with an expedition of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York in order to study living Egyptians and to examine remains of Egypt's past population. The following year took him to Argentina, Peru, and Mexico. In the first of these, he again examined allegedly ancient remains of man. In Peru, he made a large collection of skeletal material near Trujillo, at Pachamac, and in the Chicama Valley.

From 1912-1914, Hrdlicka undertook a physical anthropological exhibit for the Panama-California Exposition in San Diego and, for this, traveled to eastern Siberia, Mongolia, Peru, and Florida. He also examined fossil remains of man in Europe and directed field work of other anthropologists in South and East Africa, St. Lawrence Island in Alaska, the Philippines, eastern Siberia, and the Ukraine. In 1915, for the Department of Justice, he assessed the racial makeup of Chippewas on the Leech Lake and White Earth reservations in Minnesota and also studied Dakota Indians. In 1917, his field work was directed toward white American families with longtime residence in the United States. In 1918, he carried out a survey of ancient sites in eastern Florida for the Bureau of American Ethnology. In 1920, he traveled to Hawaii, Japan, Korea, and Manchuria in connection with an appointment to lecture at the Peking Union Medical College. As director of the American School for Prehistoric Studies in France, he again studied fossil remains of man in Europe in 1922 and 1923. In 1925, he carried out work in India, Ceylon, Java, Australia, South Africa, and Europe. In 1927, he was again in Europe to deliver the Huxley Memorial Lecture before the Royal Anthropological Society in Great Britain. Between 1929 and 1938, he traveled frequently to Alaska to carry on an anthropological survey. In 1939, he traveled to Russia and Siberia.

Beginning with much of the skeletal collection of the Army Medical Museum, which had been transferred to the Smithsonian in 1898 before he was appointed there, Hrdlička amassed a bone collection that included, among many other specimens, the Huntington collection, casts of fossil remains of man, and a large and diverse North American collection. He also gathered a large collection of human brains. Over three hundred publications resulted from his study of this material, his field work, and his study of specimens in other museums. In addition, he was involved in many other activities. For United States government agencies, he provided services ranging from examinations of human remains for law enforcement officials to providing information and opinions concerning national origins and traits that were needed to interpret laws and form foreign policy. During World War II, he also advised government officials on policies to be pursued with certain national groups following the war.

In 1918, Hrdlička founded the American Journal of Physical Anthropology and remained its editor until 1942. In 1928, he was the major force behind the organization of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists and served as its president from 1928 to 1932. He was also president of the Anthropological Society of Washington in 1907, the American Anthroplogical Association from 1925 to 1927, and the Washington Academy of Sciences from 1928 to 1929. He was chairman of Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1918 and secretary of the Committee on Anthropology of the National Research Council in 1917. In addition, Hrdlička was a member of the American Philosophical Society and the National Academy of Sciences. He represented the Smithsonian at several international gatherings of scholars, including meetings of the International Congress of Americanists.

Chronology

1869 March 29 -- Alois Ferdinand Hrdlička (Aleš Hrdlička) born in Humpolec, Bohemia

1882 September -- Emigrated to New York City

1888 -- While stricken with typhoid, met M. Rosenbleuth, a physician who arranged for Hrdlička to enroll at the Eclectic Medical College of New York City

1892 -- Enrolled in the New York Homeopathic Medical College and Hospital Published first article, "Scheme of Examination (Medical)," Publications of the Eclectic Medical College Graduated first in his class from the Eclectic Medical College

1894 -- Graduated first from his class from the Homeopathic Medical College Became research intern at the State Homeopathic Hospital for the Insane in Middletown, New York, where he began his studies in physical anthropology Passed state board examination (allopathic)

1895 -- Joined staff of the Pathological Institute of the New York State Hospitals as associate in anthropology

1896 -- Studied anthropology under Leon Manouvrier in Paris

1896 August 6 -- Married Marie Stickler (Dieudonnée)

1898 March-July(?) -- Accompanied Carl Lumholtz on his expedition to northern Mexico, sponsored by the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), and visited the Tarahumara, Huichol, and Tepecan Indians

1899 Spring -- Resigned from the Pathological Institute to take charge of physical and medical anthropological research on the Hyde Expeditions of the AMNH to the southwestern United States

1899 August -- Hyde expedition for the AMNH to Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, to excavate the site of Pueblo Bonito and to conduct somatological surveys among the Indians; visited Grand Gulch caves in southern Utah; included visits to the Navahos and southern Utes

1900 -- Hyde expedition for the AMNH to New Mexico, Arizona, and southern Colorado to conduct somatological surveys among the Indians; included visits to the Apaches, Yumas, and Pueblo Indians

1902 January-September -- Hyde expeditions for AMNH to southwestern Arizona, New Mexico, and northern Mexico to conduct somatological surveys; included visits to the Tepecanos, Papagos, Opatas, Pimas, Yaquis, Mayos, Huichols, Otomis, Tepehuanes, Maricopas, Yumas, Yavapais, Paiutes, Walapais, and Havasupais

1902 October-December -- Hyde expedition for the AMNH to Mexico for Hrdlička to complete his somatological investigations; included visits to the Tepehuanes, Coras, Huichols, "Nahuas," "Aztecs," and Tarascans

1903 May 1 -- Became assistant curator in charge of the new Division of Physical Anthropology, Department of Anthropology, at the United States National Museum, Smithsonian Institution

1905 -- Expedition under the auspices of the Bureau of American Ethnology to Arizona and New Mexico to complete the observations on the tribes of this region; Hrdlička especially studied Apache and Pima Indian children

1906 February -- Expedition to western Florida to investigate remains of alleged ancient man

1907 -- President of the Anthropological Society of Washington

1908 -- Expedition to Indian schools and reservations in Wisconsin, Washington, California, Arizona, and South Dakota to study tuberculosis for a report to the International Congress of Tuberculosis

1908 December - 1909 May -- Traveled to Egypt, Greece, Turkey, Hungary, Bohemia, Russia, Poland, and Germany to examine human skeletal remains from an excavation in Egypt by the Metropolitan Museum of Art and to study peoples of the Near East

1910 March 28 -- Promoted to curator in the Division of Physical Anthropology

1910 April-September -- Attended the 17th International Congress of Americanists in Buenos Aires and Mexico City Traveled to Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Mexico, and Panama

1912 -- Planned and directed seven expeditions for the physical anthropology exhibit at the Panama-California Exposition held at San Diego in 1915; expeditions included Hrdlička to Siberia and Mongolia and later to Peru; Riley D. Moore to St. Lawrence Island, Alaska; Philip Newton to the Philippine Islands; Vojtech Suk to Africa; Stanislaw Poniatowski to eastern Siberia; Kazimir Stolyhwo to the Birusa caves in Siberia and to the Ukraine; and Jindřich Matiegka to Bohemia

1912 May-Summer -- Traveled to London to attend 18th International Congress of Americanists Traveled to Siberia and Mongolia for the Panama-California Exposition

1912 September -- Traveled to Geneva for the 14th International Congress of Prehistoric Anthropology and Archaeology

1913 January-April -- Expedition to Peru as part the effort for the Panama-California Exposition

1914 November 18 - 1915 January 18 -- Attended Panama-California Exposition

1915 May -- Research for the Department of Justice at the White Earth and Leech Lake reservations in Minnesota to determine non-Indian mixture among Chippewas

1915 December -- Served as General Secretary for the 19th International Congress of Americanists held in Washington

1916 Fall -- Traveled to Florida to examine remains of supposed ancient man

1917 March-July -- Served as Secretary on the Committee on Anthropology of the National Research Council

1917 Summer -- "Old American" research at Yale University, Harvard University, and the University of Virginia and in Tennessee

1917 August -- Sponsored by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, traveled to Oklahoma to visit the Shawnee Agency in eastern Oklahoma and the Kickapoo Indians in McCloud to search for adequate samples of pure blood Indians

1918 -- Elected to the American Philosophical Society Served as Chairman of Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science Founded the American Journal of Physical Anthropology and became its long-time editor Surveyed prehistoric sites on the southwest coast of Florida

1918 October 8 -- Death of his wife Marie

1920 -- Anthropometry published by the Wistar Institute Elected an honorary fellow of the Royal Anthropological Society of Great Britain

1920 Summer -- Married Mina (Vilemina) Mansfield

1920 January-May -- Visited Japan, Korea, Manchuria, northern China, Mongolia, and Hawaii Lectured at Peking Union Medical College in China

1920 Fall -- Visited Minnesota Chippewa (at the White Earth Reservation?) to help the Department of Justice setter the question of mixed and pure bloods among the Chippewa

1921 -- Elected to the National Academy of Sciences

1922 -- Visited Spain, France, Germany, Moravia, and England Awarded honorary Sc.D. degree from the University of Prague Chairman of the American delegation to the 20th International Congress of Americanists in Rio de Janiero

1923 -- Served three and one-half months as Director of the American School in France for Prehistoric Studies Visited England, Holland, Belgium, France, Germany, Bohemia, Austria, Croatia, and Italy

1925 -- The Old Americans published by Williams and Wilkins Co.

1925 March-October -- Traveled to Australia, Java, India, South Africa, and Europe on a trip sponsored by the Buffalo [New York] Society of Natural Science to obtain cranial measurements of Australian aborigines and Tasmanians, to investigate the Rhodesian Man site in South Africa, to survey the field of early man, and to collect data to support his hypothesis about the peopling of the Earth

1925-1926 -- President of the American Anthropological Association

1926 -- Awarded honorary Sc.D. degree from University of Brno and D.Nat.Sc. degree from Brunn University

1926 May-September -- First fieldwork in Alaska: reconnaissance down the Yukon River to its mouth, around the Bering Sea and through the Bering Strait along the Alaskan coast to Point Barrow

1927 -- Received Huxley Memorial Medal and gave Huxley Lecture on "the Neanderthal Phase of Man" before the Royal Anthropological Society of Great Britain

1928 -- Helped found the American Association of Physical Anthropologists (AAPA)

1928-1929 -- President of the Washington Academy of Sciences

1928-1932 -- Served as first president of the AAPA

1929 -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Yukon River from Tanana to its mouth, to St. Lawrence and the Diomede Islands, to Cape Prince of Wales, up to Point Barrow and back to Unalaska Awarded honorary Sc.D. degree from Charles University, Prague

1930 -- Published The Skeletal Remains of Early Man, Vol. 83 Smithsonian Miscellaneous collections Published "Anthropological Survey in Alaska," Forty-sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, pp. 21-374

1930 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Kuskokwim River from Bethel down river to Apogak and up river to Stony River

1931 -- Children Who Run on All Fours published by McGraw-Hill Book Co.

1931 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) point site, trial excavations at Chief's Point and other sites, and a survey of Kodiak Island

1932 -- Kober Foundation lecturer of Georgetown University

1932 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site, trial excavations at Chief's Point and other sites, and a survey of Kodiak Island

1934 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site and surveyed Cooks Inlet sites and the mainland opposite the Our Point site

1935 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site

1936 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site and surveyed the Dutch Harbor caves, some of the Aleutian Islands, and the mummy cave on Kagamil Island

1937 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Aleutian Islands and Commander Islands

1938 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Aleutian Islands, Dutch Harbor caves, and Commander Islands

1939 April 4 -- Testimonial dinner given by the American Association of Physical Anthropologists in honor of his 70th birthday

1939 April-June -- Recuperated in London hospital after suffering a coronary occlusion

1942 March 31 -- Retired from curatorship at United States National Museum, becoming an associate in anthropology

1942 December -- Resigned as editor of the American Journal of Physical Anthropology

1943 -- Alaska Diary published by Cattell Press

1943 September 5 -- Died of heart attack

1944 -- Anthropology of Kodiak Island published by Wistar Institute

1945 -- The Aleutian and Commander Islands and Their Inhabitants published by Wistar Institute

1969 -- Tenth Anthropological Congress of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences dedicated to Hrdlička in the 100th anniversary year of his birth

Selected Bibliography

1908 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Physiological and Medical Observations Among the Indians of Southwestern United States and Northern Mexico. Bulletin 34, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1908.

1912 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Early Man in South America. Bulletin 52, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1912.

1919 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Physical Anthropology: Its Scope and Aims. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1919.

1920 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Anthropometry. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1920.

1925 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. The Old Americans. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins Co., 1925.

1930 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. The Skeletal Remains of Early Man. Vol. 83, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. City of Washington: The Smithsonian Institution, 1930. Hrdlička, Aleš. Anthropological Survey in Alaska. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1930.

1931 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Children Who Run on All Fours, and Other Animal-like Behaviors in the Human Child. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1931.

1943 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Alaska Diary, 1926-1931. Lancaster, PA: The Jacques Cattell Press, 1943.

1944 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Anthropology of Kodiak Island. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1944.

1945 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. The Aleutian and Commander Islands and Their Inhabitants. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1945.
Related Materials:
Additional material in the National Anthropological Archives relating to Aleš Hrdlička can be found in the papers of William Louis Abbott, Henry Bascom Collins, Herbert William Krieger, and Frank Spencer; records of the American Anthropological Association, Bureau of American Ethnology, Department of Anthropology of the United States National Museum (National Museum of Natural History), Science Service, Anthropological Society of Washington, and the United States Army Medical Museum (anatomical section, records relating to specimens transferred to the Smithsonian Institution); and glass negatives of Indians collected by the Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution illustrations.

Additional related photographs can be found in Photo Lot 8, Division of Physical Anthropology collection; Photo Lot 9, Photographs of Indians for the Panama-California Exposition, San Diego; Photo Lot 24, Bureau of American Ethnology, United States National Museum photographs of American Indians; Photo Lot 70, Department of Anthropology portrait file; Photo Lot 78, Miscellaneous negatives; Photo Lot 97, Division of Ethnology collection ("USNM" Collection); Photo Lot 73-26B, Aleš Hrdlička photographs relating to the Panama-California Exhibition; Photo Lot 73-26G, Miscellany; Photo Lot 77-48, Group portraits of International Congress; Photo Lot 79-38, Division of World Archeology collection; Photo Lot 83-41, Division of Physical Anthropology collection of photographs of human bones; and Photo Lot 92-46, Anthropology lantern slides.

Related films can be found in the Human Studies Film Archive under the accession numbers HSFA 1982.2.1, 1982.2.2, 1986.12.1, and 2015.13.1.

Hrdlička's extensive collection of reprints is maintained in the Division of Physical Anthropology.

Frank Spencer's doctoral dissertation "Aleš Hrdlička, M.D., 1869-1943: A Chronicle of the Life and Work of an American Physical Anthropologist" (1979) is the only book length biography of Hrdlička. The Frank Spencer papers, 1836-1999, are available at the NAA and contain original correspondence between Hrdlička and his first wife, Marie Strickler; his childhood report card from 1869; copies of family photos obtained from Lucy Miller, Hrdlička's niece; and an audio recording of Hrdlička speaking at Wistar Institute.

Further material may be found in the Smithsonian Institution Archives.
Provenance:
Hrdlička bequeathed his papers to the Smithsonian Institution. The Division of Physical Anthropology maintained them until they were deposited in the National Anthropological Archives in the 1960s. Some papers have come into the collection since then, most recently in 2018. These new accretions came to the collection through Donald Ortner, David Hunt, T. Dale Stewart, the Department of Anthropology, and the University of Alaska.
Restrictions:
The Aleš Hrdlička papers are open for research.

Access to the Aleš Hrdlička papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Human evolution  Search this
Physical anthropology  Search this
Children -- Physical anthropology  Search this
anthropometry  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Fossil hominids  Search this
Citation:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1974-31
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1974-31
Online Media:

Reymert, Martin L.

Collection Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Container:
Box 56
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1934-1935
Scope and Contents:
With the letter of March 23, 1934 is a manuscript of Hrdlička's talk "The Mooseheart Colony: A rare opportunity for anthropological child studies."
Collection Restrictions:
The Aleš Hrdlička papers are open for research.

Access to the Aleš Hrdlička papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička papers
Aleš Hrdlička papers / Series 3: Correspondence
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1974-31-ref1385

"The Eskimo child"

Collection Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Container:
Box 100
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
The Aleš Hrdlička papers are open for research.

Access to the Aleš Hrdlička papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička papers
Aleš Hrdlička papers / Series 9: Alaska Archeological Expeditions / Anthropological survey in Alaska:
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1974-31-ref2264

Panama-California Exposition Expeditions

Collection Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Extent:
2.08 Linear feet
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1912-1914
Scope and Contents:
This series includes photographs (many portraits), correspondence, anthropometric measurements, notes, and adding machine tapes associated with the physical anthropology exhibit at the 1915 Panama-California Exposition at San Diego, California, which Hrdlička was asked to prepare in 1912. Hrdlička envisioned a three-pronged approach: a comparative study of the native child; photographs, casts, and measurements of the races of man; and skeletal remains of man. With a $30,000 grant, he hired two sculptors to make busts and arranged for expeditions to obtain desired information and materials. Hrdlička went on two: to Siberia and Mongolia in 1912 and to Peru in 1913 to study American Indian pathology. Other trips were made by Riley D. Moore to St. Lawrence Island, Alaska, to study the Eskimo; Philip Newton to the Philippine Islands to study the Negrito; Vojtech Suk (also known as A. Schück) to Africa; Jindřich Matiegka to Bohemia to search for Neolithic crania; Kazimir Stolyhwo to the Birusa caves in Siberia and to the Ukraine to search for early man; and Stanislaw Poniatowski to eastern Siberia. Suk worked in South Africa and then moved to East Africa (Kenya). Before he completed his work there, the British interned him as an enemy alien. This series contains materials from both of Hrdlička's expeditions, Newton's expedition, and Suk's expedition, but contains no materials from Moore's, Matiegka's, Stolyhwo's, or Poniatowski's expeditions.
Related Materials:
Additional papers on this series can be found in Series 3: Correspondence, "Panama-California Expositon, San Diego" (including details of Hrdlička's plans for the exhibits), and under the names of the people who did research for the exposition. There are also letters from one of the sculptors in "Mička, Frank". The materials from Riley D. Moore's expedition to Alaska can be found in Series 9: Alaska Archeological Expeditions.
Collection Restrictions:
The Aleš Hrdlička papers are open for research.

Access to the Aleš Hrdlička papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1974-31, Series 10
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1974-31-ref2286

Children Who Run on All Fours

Collection Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Extent:
1.25 Linear feet
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1928-1936
Scope and Contents:
This series includes drafts of Hrdlička's book, Children Who Run on All Fours, and illustrations, data, correspondence, news clippings, and photographs associated with the book. Hrdlička had begun noting the phenomenon of quadrapedal locomotion in the human child during his first trip to Mexico. Hrdlička assumed this was atavistic behavior harking back to times when our prehuman ancestors used this type of progression. Hrdlička published the results of his studies as Children Who Run on All Fours in 1931.
Collection Restrictions:
The Aleš Hrdlička papers are open for research.

Access to the Aleš Hrdlička papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1974-31, Series 18
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Aleš Hrdlička papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
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ead_component:sova-naa-1974-31-ref2840

Child Development, Soceity for Research in

Collection Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Container:
Box 18
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1933-1938
Scope and Contents:
Includes lecture of November 3(?), 1934.
Collection Restrictions:
The Aleš Hrdlička papers are open for research.

Access to the Aleš Hrdlička papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
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Collection Citation:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
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Aleš Hrdlička papers
Aleš Hrdlička papers / Series 3: Correspondence
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1974-31-ref302

"The Mooseheart Colony: A Rare Opportunity for Anthropological Child Studies"

Collection Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Container:
Box 148
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
The Aleš Hrdlička papers are open for research.

Access to the Aleš Hrdlička papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
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Aleš Hrdlička papers
Aleš Hrdlička papers / Series 22: Manuscripts of Writings / Undated:
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1974-31-ref3640

1902 trip to Mexico

Collection Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Container:
Box 291
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1902
Scope and Contents:
Includes prints of Huichols, Nicolas Leon and family, and Mrs. Vincenti and child.
Collection Restrictions:
The Aleš Hrdlička papers are open for research.

Access to the Aleš Hrdlička papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
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Aleš Hrdlička papers
Aleš Hrdlička papers / Series 37: Photographs / Southwestern United States and northern Mexico:
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1974-31-ref4155

Ft. Yukon, portraits, 070206.00-070215.00 and 090708.01-090709.05

Collection Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Container:
Box 247
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1926-1938
Scope and Contents:
Includes a list of identified people, some of whom are in the folder "Portraits, unidentified, 070235.00-070245.00". Includes portraits of John Crookshank(?), Moses Peter, Fred Saul, Egypt, Mary (child), Margaret, Sarah Enoca, Paul Sullivan, John Nukoen, Herb Peter, Phil Peter, Joseph Nitso, Estas Loola (Chief Esaias), Will Salmon, Hanna Moses, Lena Dick George, Sarah Shandelad, John Sam, Peter Wilda, Mrs. Burke and son and nurse, Peter, Tom Marie and Bill Wholecheese, and Hero Peter.
Collection Restrictions:
The Aleš Hrdlička papers are open for research.

Access to the Aleš Hrdlička papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
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Aleš Hrdlička papers
Aleš Hrdlička papers / Series 37: Photographs / Alaska Field Views:
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1974-31-ref4251

Kuskokwim

Collection Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Container:
Box 259
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
after 1929
Scope and Contents:
Includes portraits of Mrs. Heron, school children, Mike Akiachon, Vasili, Czaska (Hoolitna) and Willie, William Kwishluk, people from Good News Bay, Bethel inhabitants (school children, a nurse with a reinder herder, Miss Martin's government school children, and children in a Moravian orphanage), a grandmother and child at Quigillingok, people at Moose Creek camp, people at Akiak-Tuluksak, Mizak and others at Napagayashak, people from Lower Kuskokwim, Tommy from Okagamute, Sachar and Pete from Oogavik, Daniel and Big Charley from Tundra, and people at Kushluk. Includes views of Bethel, Dr. L.M.Waugh's boat (1936), Kokak fish camp, graveyard near Apogak, Yukon-Kuskokwim portage, Lomahovik burials, Akiachok graveyard, Eskimo camp, Bogus Creek village, and Crow village site.
Collection Restrictions:
The Aleš Hrdlička papers are open for research.

Access to the Aleš Hrdlička papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Collection Citation:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
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Aleš Hrdlička papers
Aleš Hrdlička papers / Series 37: Photographs / Alaska Field Views:
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-naa-1974-31-ref4319

Correspondence

Collection Creator:
Waugh, Coulton, 1896-1973  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1838-1885
Scope and Contents:
Found are scattered letters from artists, family and arts organizations. Correspondents include George Childs, James Claghorn, Lydia Cope, F. O. C. Darley, Theodore Duclère, John Francis, Henry Reed, the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, and the 1850 and 1877 International Expositions.
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Collection Rights:
The Coulton Waugh and Waugh Family papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Coulton Waugh and Waugh Family papers, 1751-1974, bulk 1838-1974. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.waugwaug, Subseries 3.2
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Coulton Waugh and Waugh Family papers
Coulton Waugh and Waugh Family papers / Series 3: Samuel Bell Waugh papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-waugwaug-ref140

Childe Hassam

Collection Creator:
Washburn Gallery (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Container:
Box 20, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1977-1990
Collection Restrictions:
The collection is ACCESS RESTRICTED; use requires written permission. Contact Reference Services for more information.

Access to original papers, with permission, requires an appointment.
Collection Citation:
Washburn Gallery records, 1906-2017, bulk 1971-2010. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
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Washburn Gallery records
Washburn Gallery records / Series 3: Artist Files
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-washbgall-ref422

George Leslie Stout papers

Creator:
Stout, George L. (George Leslie)  Search this
Names:
Allied Forces. Supreme Headquarters. Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives Section  Search this
Fogg Art Museum  Search this
Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum  Search this
Worcester Art Museum  Search this
Correspondent:
Buck, Richard D.  Search this
Constable, W. G. (William George), 1887-1976  Search this
Gardner, G. Peabody (George Peabody)  Search this
Hall, Ardelia Ripley  Search this
Howe, Thomas Carr, 1904-1994  Search this
Ivins, William Mills, 1881-1961  Search this
Marceau, Henri, 1896-1969  Search this
Moore, Lamont  Search this
Sachs, Paul J. (Paul Joseph), 1878-1965  Search this
Sizer, Theodore, 1892-1967  Search this
Warner, Langdon (1881-1955)  Search this
Extent:
6 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Sketches
Sketchbooks
Date:
1897-1978
1855
Summary:
The papers of conservator and museum director George Leslie Stout measure 6 linear feet and date from 1855, 1897-1978. Stout was head of the conservation department at Harvard University's Fogg Art Museum, director of the Worcester Art Museum and Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in Massachusetts, and a member of the Monuments, Fine Art and Archives (MFAA) Section of the U.S. Army during World War II. The bulk of the collection consists of correspondence with family, friends, colleagues and professional associations. There are letters from fellow Monuments Men who served in the MFAA section such as Thomas Carr Howe, Ardelia Hall, Lamont Moore, Theodore Sizer, Langdon Warner and several other prominent arts administrators. The papers also contain biographical materials, writings, sketches and one sketchbook, military records, printed materials, and photographs.
Scope and Contents:
The papers of conservator and museum director George Leslie Stout measure 6 linear feet and date from 1855, 1897-1978. Stout was head of the conservation department at Harvard University's Fogg Art Museum, director of the Worcester Art Museum and Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in Massachusetts, and a member of the Monuments, Fine Art and Archives (MFAA) Section of the U.S. Army during World War II. The bulk of the collection consists of correspondence with family, friends, colleagues and professional associations. There are letters from fellow Monuments Men who served in the MFAA section such as Thomas Carr Howe, Ardelia Hall, Lamont Moore, Theodore Sizer, Langdon Warner and several other prominent arts administrators. The papers also contain biographical materials, writings, sketches and one sketchbook, military records, printed materials, and photographs.

Biographical materials include college and graduate school transcripts, various certificates, four small appointment books and passports.

Correspondence is between George Leslie Stout and family, friends, colleagues, professional associations and fellow Monuments Men. Family correspondence is with Stout's immediate and extended family, the bulk of which is from Stout to his wife Margaret and his son Thomas. Correspondents in the Monuments Men correspondence include Thomas Carr Howe, Ardelia Hall, Lamont Moore, Theodore Sizer, Langdon Warner, and many others. There is also substantial correspondence with friends and professional colleagues in the museum and art world, such as Walter Beck, Richard D. Buck, William George Constable, Earl of Crawford, George Peabody Gardner, Jr., William Ivins, Jr., Henri Marceau, and Paul Sachs, among many others.

Writings by Stout consist of typescript drafts and published articles, speeches, and miscellaneous notes. Most of the writings concern art conservation and the speeches are memorials for two of Stout's colleagues. Notes consists of drafts for the texts of holiday cards Stout designed, biographical notes, and images and captions for The Care of Pictures. There are also three conference papers on art conservation written by other people.

Subject files document Stout's conservation projects as a consultant for museums, universities, galleries and other organizations. Also found in this series are documents relating to Stout's work after retiring from the Isabella Gardner Museum and his membership or participation in various arts programs and organizations.

A separate series contains files relating to Stout's World War II service in the Monuments, Fine Arts & Archives (MFAA) Section. Found here are official military records, publications by Monuments Men, and a few scattered photographs. Military records include directives, reports, certificates and a bronze star medal. There are articles and books written by various Monuments Men such as Langdon Warner, Lincoln Kirstein and Theodore Sizer. There are also scattered photographs, only two of which depict tout (including one group photograph with Lamont Moore, Walker Hancock and other Monuments Men.) There are also 12 negatives with 4 prints depicting La Gleize Church and the town of Ambleve, Belgium in 1945.

Personal business records include assorted legal and estate papers as well as financial papers such as receipts, travel expenses and donations.

Printed materials consists of news clippings, bulletins, brochures, press releases, conference papers, and magazine and journal articles, most of it related to art conservation.

Artwork includes pencil and ink drawings and sketches, mostly of travel scenes, people, and animals. There is one sketchbook of the human figure. Many sketches were loosely grouped together by Stout with titles such as "Pool Doodles" or "Park and Zoo." The is also one caricature of Eric Brown by Murray Pease.

The papers include photographs and negatives, mostly personal photographs of friends, family, relatives and colleagues. There are also photographs of art conservation conferences and travel photographs. Additional scattered photographs are located in the series containing the Monuments Men files.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged as 9 series.

Series 1: Biographical Materials, circa 1919-1977 (0.1 linear feet; Box 1)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1922-1978 (2.5 linear feet; Box 1-3, OV 8)

Series 3: Writings, 1927-1978 (0.5 linear feet; Box 3-4)

Series 4: Subject Files, 1918, 1943-1978 (1 linear feet; Box 4, OV 8-9)

Series 5: Monuments, Fine Arts & Archives Section Files, 1918, 1942-1955, 1972-1975 (0.5 linear feet; Box 5)

Series 6: Personal Business Records, 1938-1978 (0.1 linear feet; Box 5)

Series 7: Printed Materials, 1926-1977 (0.8 linear feet; Box 5-6, OV 9)

Series 8: Sketchbooks, circa 1924-circa 1938, 1970-1977 (0.1 linear feet; Box 6)

Series 9: Photographic Materials, circa 1855, 1897-1978 (0.2 linear feet; Box 6-7)
Biographical / Historical:
George Leslie Stout (1897-1978) was a museum director and prominent art conservator in Massachusetts. Stout was head of the conservation department at Harvard University's Fogg Art Museum, and director of the Worcester Art Museum and Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Massachusetts. During World War II, Stout served in the U.S. Army Monuments, Fine Art and Archives (MFAA) and played a leading role in the protection, location, and recovery of art work stolen by the Nazis.

Born in Winterset, Iowa in 1897, George Leslie Stout was the oldest of six children and attended Winterset High School and served in the U.S. army during World War I. Following the war, Stout studied at the State University of Iowa, received his B.A. in 1921, worked for a few years, and married Margaret Hayes in 1924 with whom he had two sons, Robert and Thomas. He attended Harvard graduate school in 1926 and graduated with a Master of Art in 1929. Stout began working as a lecturer and conservator at Harvard's Fogg Art Museum, later becoming the head of the conservation department in 1933, a position he held until 1947.

During World War II, Stout re-enlisted in the U.S. Navy, having served in the reserves since World War I. Stout was one of the first members of the Monuments, Fine Arts & Archives (MFAA) Section of the U.S. army. He was appointed to the MFAA Section for the Twelfth Army Group in 1944 and was one of the first Monuments Men to arrive at Normandy, France. He was later appointed Lieutenant Commander of the MFAA Section. Many of the Monuments Men's stolen art recovery achievements were directed by George Leslie Stout. Stout supervised the inventory and removal of looted art hidden by the Nazis in the salt mines of Merkers and Ransbach in Thuringia, Germany. Stout oversaw the organization, packing, and shipping of several thousand objects including paintings by Rubens and Goya, along with precious antiquities. At the Altaussee salt mines in Austria, he was in charge of the unit that recovered a large cache of stolen artwork that included Michelangelo's Madonna and Child and the Ghent Altarpiece or The Adoration of the Mystic Lamb by Hubert and Jan van Eyck. There, he also worked very closely with fellow Monuments Men Thomas Carr Howe. Stout went on to locate and recover looted artwork in other repositories in Germany, France, and the Netherlands. He maintained a relationship with many of his fellow Monuments Men after the war.

Stout left Europe in the latter half of 1945, then went to Japan where he served as the Chief of the Arts and Monuments Division at Headquarters of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, Tokyo until the middle of 1946. After the war Stout received the Bronze Star and the Army Commendation Medal for his army service and work as a Monuments Man in Europe.

Stout resumed his position as the head of the conservation department at the Fogg Art Museum when he returned to America. In 1947 he became the director of the Worcester Art Museum in Massachusetts where he stayed until 1955, when he became the director of the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in Boston where he worked until his retirement in 1970. Stout wrote numerous articles about art conservation and wrote two books: Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopaedia (1942), co-authored with Harvard colleage R. J. Gettens, and Care of Pictures (1948). Stout died in Menlo Park, California in 1978 and was widely recognized as a distinguished art conservator.
Related Materials:
Also found in the Archives of American Art is an oral history interview with George Stout conducted by Paul Karlstrom in 1978.
Separated Materials:
The Archives of Art also holds material lent for microfilming (reel 1378) including four diaries that describe Stout's experiences surveying war-caused damages in France, Germany, and Japan, and the recovery of Nazi impounded art works. Contained in the diaries are several letters, memos, personal documents, printed matter, and a photograph of U.S. military personnel and others viewing an art exhibit. Lent materials were returned to the lender and are not described in the collection container inventory.
Provenance:
George Leslie Stout donated his papers to the Archives of American Art in 1978. In that same year, Robert Stout, son of George Leslie Stout, loaned four diaries to the Archives of American Art for microfilming.
Restrictions:
The George Leslie Stout papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Museum directors -- United States  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Art and the war  Search this
Art -- Conservation and restoration  Search this
Conservators -- California  Search this
Arts administrators  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Sketches
Sketchbooks
Citation:
George Leslie Stout papers, 1855, 1897-1978. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.stougeor
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George Leslie Stout papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-stougeor
Online Media:

Photographs of John Storrs as a Child

Collection Creator:
Storrs, John Henry Bradley, 1885-1956  Search this
Container:
Box 14, Folder 41
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1885-1900
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment. Glass plate negatives are housed separately and closed to researchers.
Collection Rights:
The John Henry Bradley Storrs papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
John Henry Bradley Storrs papers, 1890-2007, bulk 1900-1956. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
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John Henry Bradley Storrs papers
John Henry Bradley Storrs papers / Series 7: Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-storjohn-ref295

Photographs of John Storrs as a Child, Duplicates and Negatives

Collection Creator:
Storrs, John Henry Bradley, 1885-1956  Search this
Extent:
(Not scanned)
Container:
Box 15, Folder 1
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
circa 1885-1900
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment. Glass plate negatives are housed separately and closed to researchers.
Collection Rights:
The John Henry Bradley Storrs papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
John Henry Bradley Storrs papers, 1890-2007, bulk 1900-1956. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
John Henry Bradley Storrs papers
John Henry Bradley Storrs papers / Series 7: Photographs
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-storjohn-ref296

John Storrs Correspondence

Collection Creator:
Storrs, John Henry Bradley, 1885-1956  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1900-1956
Scope and Contents:
John Storrs' extensive correspondence spans over fifty years and documents his personal and professional life. There are extensive letters to his wife Marguerite Storrs, including love letters written before they were married and letters written to her during his visits to the United States. Letters written by Marguerite to John are located series 2.2. John Storrs' love letters to other women, including Yolande de Manziarly, are found within his general correspondence.

General correspondence primarily consists of Storrs' correspondence with friends, colleagues, art critics and historians, patrons, art organizations, and galleries. Where they exist, Storrs' drafts of outgoing letters are interfiled with letters he received in a chronological arrangement. Storrs was friends with many artists, architects, performers, and writers in both the US and Europe. Among the artists he corresponded with are Berenice Abbott, Hendrick Andersen, George Biddle, Jerome Blum, Arthur Bock, Louis Bouche, Georges Braque, Alexander Calder, Walter Cole, Arthur Davies, Jessica Dismorr, Katherine Dreier, Marcel Duchamp, Leo Friedlander, Marsden Hartley, Jean Helion, Gertrude Lambert, Fernand Leger, Jacques Lipchitz, Man Ray, Richard Recchia, Edwin Scott, Charles Sheeler, Joseph Stella, Maurice Sterne, Alfred Stieglitz, Leopold Survage, Jacques Villon, and William and Marguerite Zorach. Other notable correspondents include architects Edward Bennett, Paul Phillippe Cret, R. Buckminster Fuller, and Alfonso Iannelli; writers and publishers Sherwood Anderson, Louise Bryant, William Bullitt, Max Eastman, Jane Heap, Paul Scott Mowrer, and Gertrude Stein; art critics Phyllis Ackerman, Frank Crowninshield, and Maurice Raynal; art patrons Arthur Aldis, Mildred Bliss, and Charles Worcester; friend and curator Alice Roullier; and dancer Maud Allan. A portion of the general correspondence is in French.

A small amount of correspondence with galleries, museums, and curators concerns exhibitions and sales of Storrs' artwork. Also found is correspondence concerning his participation in art organizations. Researchers should note a portion of Storrs' business correspondence, especially regarding his major sculpture commissions and his dealings with Downtown Gallery, are found in Series 3: Personal Business Records.

See Appendix for a list of correspondents from Series 2.1.
Appendix: Correspondents from Series 2.1:
Abbott, Berenice, 1921, 1922, undated

Ackerman, Phyllis, 1924, 1925, 1926, 1927, 1928, undated

Adams, Cyrus H., 1944

Adler, Alfred, 1926

Adler, David, 1939, 1945

Adrien, Rouet, 1924

Alby, Leony, undated

Aldis, Arthur T., 1922, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1926, undated

Aldis, Graham, 1934

Allan, Maud, 1907, 1913, 1925, 1928, undated

American Art Association, 1926, undated

American Art Bronze Foundry, 1935, 1936

American Designers Gallery, Inc., 1928

American Express Company, 1907, 1933

American Hospital of Paris, 1913

American Library in Paris, 1945, 1946, 1947

American Red Cross, 1918

American Union of Decorative Artists and Craftsmen, 1928, 1929

American University Union in Europe, 1923

American Women's Club of Paris, inc., 1932, undated

Andersen, Mrs. A. O., 1928

Andersen, Hendrick, 1912, 1913, 1914, 1918

Anderson, Margaret, 1924

Anderson, Sherwood, 1917, 1925, undated

Antheil, George, 1924, 1926, 1927

A.O. Smith Coporation, 1934

Apex Smelting Co., 1930

Arden, Elizabeth, 1935, 1936, undated

Arens, Egmont, 1919, 1920, 1921

Arnhem, Edward, 1925

Art Institute of Chicago, 1920, 1921, 1922, 1925, 1927, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1933, 1934, 1935, 1939, 1940, 1945

Artists and Writers Dinner Club, 1934

Arts Club of Chicago, 1920, 1922, 1927, 1928, 1932, 1934, 1937

Artwork, 1924

Ateliers D'Art du Clos De Joye, 1955

B., Simone, 1924, 1926, 1928, undated

Babcock, Ella, 1912, undated

Babcock, James L., 1904, 1905, 1906, 1907, 1908, 1909, 1910, undated

Bailey, C. Foster, 1928

Ballard, George S., 1935

Barbarin, Georges, 1942

Barbier, H., 1925

Barbusse, Leevri, 1919

Barrett, Ida C., 1939

Bartholomew, Marshall, 1937

Bartlett, Paul W., 1914

Beach, John & Lucy, 1909, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1914, 1916, 1918, 1919, 1923, 1925, 1926, 1945, undated

Benard, Maddy, undated

Benington, Walter, 1918

Benjamin, Elizabeth, undated

Bennett, Edward H., 1934, 1935, 1937, 1938, 1940, 1944, 1945, 1948, 1951

Berger, Paul, 1920

Berlin Photographic Company, 1915

Biddle, George, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1946, undated

Biddle, Katherine Garrison, 1928

Jane Biddle, 1925, 1926

Birdsall, Lucy Storrs, 1950, undated

Birnbaum, Martin, 1916

Blanquet-Pernot, Mrs., 1928

Bliss, Mildred, 1929, 1948, undated

Blinstrub, Ben, 1937, 1945

Blum, Frank, 1929

Blum, Jerome, 1907, undated

Bock, Arthur, 1906

Bon, Jacques, 1923

Booz, Helen, 1946, 1947, undated

Bonney, M. Therese, 1926

Bosley, Frederick A., 1907, 1909, undated

Bouche, G. Louis (Folsom Galleries), 1920, 1921, undated

Boulenger, Jacques, 1942

Boyce, Sydney, 1911

Boyd, Jim, 1906

Bragdon, Marston S., 1914

Brandt, Edgar, 1926

Braque, G., 1939, 1955

Breck, George W., 1907

Bretano's, 1913

Brewster, Kate Lancaster, 1929, undated

Brewster, Walter, 1928

Brooklyn Museums, 1930, 1934

Brorby, Melvin, 1924

Brown, A. Spenser, 1907, 1912, 1913, 1914, undated

Brown, Slater, 1921

Brummer, Joseph, 1928, 1929, 1930

Bryant, Louise, 1917, 1918, 1920, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1929, 1930, undated

Bucher, Jeanne, 1937, undated

Bulliet, C. J., 1949

Bullitt, Orville H., undated

Bullitt, William C., 1937, 1939, 1940, undated

Butcher, Fanny, 1931

Byrne, Barry, 1928, 1930

Caffery, Jefferson, 1944, 1945

Cahiers de L'Etoile, 1929

Calder, Alexander (Illustrated Letter), 1932, 1935

California Museum of Art, Palace of the Legion of Honor, 1923, 1924, 1933

Calton, Constance, 1948

Campbell, Elisa, undated

Carnegie Institute, 1938

Caro-Delvaille, Aline, 1923

Carpenter, Genevieve, 1928, 1929

Carpenter, Rue, 1927

Cartarin, A., 1924

Carter, Helen B., 1921, 1922

Cecile, Paul, 1929

Centre Immobilier et Forestier, 1923

Chambers, Christine, undated

Chandler, George M., 1921

Chapman, C., 1912, undated

Charles Fiore Nurseries, 1930

Charpentier, Jean, 1926

Chase Bank, 1946

Cheney, Sheldon (Theatre Arts Magazine), 1921

Chicago Academy of Fine Arts, 1933, 1934, 1935

Chicago Daily News, 1918

Chicago Sculptors Association, 1935, 1936

Chicago Society of Etchers, 1916, 1918

Child, Paul Cushing & Julia, 1929, 1950

Childs, Newell, 1940, 1945, undated

Christy, Bill, 1946

Chrysler, Walter P., 1939

Civil Affairs Office, Orleans, France, 1944

Clarke, Dora, undated

Cliff Dwellers, 1928

Cline, Jared, 1927, 1928

Clow, Isabelle, 1927, 1928

Cohalan, Daniel, 1930

Colbert, F. Overton, 1933

Cole, Timothy, 1917

Cole, Walter, 1907, 1908, 1909, 1910, 1911, 1912, 1919, undated

Coleville, Ruth, 1912

College of St. Scholastica, 1939

Combes Favard, Berthe des, 1921, undated

Compagnie Generale Transatlantique, 1916, 1923, 1927

Commission de la Renaissance d'Orleans, 1945

Consulate-General of the United States of America, 1914

Corcoran Gallery of Art, 1935

Coules, Edith V., 1926, undated

Cowles, Genevieve, 1927

Crane, Jacob, 1933

Creative Art, 1928

Cret, Paul Philippe & Marguerite, 1925, 1926, 1930, 1945, undated

Cross, Louise, 1932

Crowninshield, Frank, 1929

Cummings, Nathan, 1955, 1956

Cummings, Walter, undated

Cunningham, John, 1933, 1938, 1955

Cuttoli, Marie, undated

Dallies, Jeanne, 1917

Dashiell, Juliet A., 1905, 1906, 1907

Davies, Arthur, 1923

Davis, Garry, 1949

Dell, Floyd (The Liberator), undated

Department du Loiret, Republique Francaise, 1944

Deregnancourt, Alphonse, 1914, 1915, 1918

Devambez, 1918, 1919

Deville-Chabrol, Emma, undated

Diaz, Luis, 1936

Diaz de Recchia, Ana, 1911, 1913

Dismorr, Jessica, 1918

Doubleday Page & Company, 1920

Dougherty, Paul, 1925

Dreier, Ethel E., 1923, 1926

Dreier, Katherine (Societe Anonyme Inc.), 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1926, 1928, undated

Drury, Holden, 1953

Dubowsky, Henry, 1945

Duchamp, Marcel, 1927, undated

Dudensing Galleries, Inc., 1929

Duval, Jack H., 1907, 1918, undated

Duval, L. & L. Janier, 1916

Eastman, Max (The Liberator), 1918, 1919

Eckridge, Bob, undated

Eddy, Arthur J., 1916,undated

Editions Savoir Vivre, 1919

Eggimann, L. H., 1918

Elliott, Lucretia M., 1906

Embassy of the United States of America, Paris, 1940, 1945, 1946, 1947

Emmett, Beulah, 1937, undated

Enterprises Morlon & Fils, 1923

Espy, John, 1915

Ewing, Mary H., 1909

Ewing, Mary James, 1930

Ewing, W. A., 1916

Eyskens, A. Mary, 1909

Eyskens, Felix, 1912

Fagotat, G., 1922

Fairmount Park Art Association, 1933, 1948

Farre, William, 1922, 1923, 1925

Faucauld, Isabelle de Comtess, undated

Fauche, E., 1927

Fenton, P., 1943

Fio Rito, Madelyn, 1954, 1955

Fournier, F., 1932

Franks, Sara, 1909

Freelander, Ronald, 1945, 1946

Freneuse, Marie Louise Landry de, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1947, 1948

Freres, Brunschwig, 1925, 1927, 1928

Friedlander, Leo, 1936

Fry, Edith M., 1917, 1918

Fry, William E., 1909, 1921, 1923, undated

Fuller, R. Buckminster, 1929, 1930, 1932, undated

Galerie Briant-Robert, 1924

Galerie des feuillets d'art, 1919, 1920, undated

Galerie "L'Effort Moderne" (Leonce Rosenberg), 1919, 1924, 1926, 1928, 1930, 1931

Galerie Zak, 1925, 1934

General Alloys Company, 1935

Geret, Lucien, 1946, 1951

Germain, Mr. & Mrs., 1925

Gibson, Sidney, undated

Golejewski, General, 1945, 1946

Goodale, Hazel, 1906

Grafly, Charles & Martha, 1911

Graphic Institute of Lithography, 1937

Greeley, Martha, undated

Green, Gretchen, 1954

Gros, Gabriel, 1919

Grossman, Edward, undated

Gutheim, Frederick, 1946

H., Edna R., 1921, 1922

H. W. Croxton & Co., 1933

Hadley, Louise, 1937, 1940, undated

Haines, Grace (Mrs. L. Emerson Matter), 1906, 1907, 1908, 1909

Hammond, Madelyn, 1933

Hannen, Jos. H., 1909

Harrington, James (Jimmie), 1900, 1905, 1906, 1907, 1921, 1922, 1937

Hartley, Marsden, 1926, 1927, 1928, 1930, undated

Harvey, Fred, 1918

Heap, Jane, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1927, 1929, undated

Hecht, Zoltan, 1928

Heitkamp, Irving & Eleanor M., 1907, 1909, 1911, 1912, 1913, undated

Helion, Jean, 1937, 1938

Heyman, Katherine, undated

Hoeckner, Carl, 1921

Holabird, John A. (Holabird & Root), 1930

Holley, Bertha, 1913, undated

Holmes, Frederick, 1905, undated

Hoskins, W., 1930

Houfe, Eric, 1954

Houston, William, undated

Hoyt, Henry M. & Anne, 1911, 1912, 1918, 1920, 1921, undated

Hubert, M. de la Montaigne, 1933, 1935, 1936, undated

Hubert, Loyou, 1926

Huddleston, Sisley, 1924, 1927, 1929, 1930, undated

Hugon, Paul D., 1938

Hunt, Dorothy, undated

Iannelli, Alfonso, 1924, 1926, 1927, 1929

Industrial Fireproofing Corp., 1935

Jacques Seligmann & Co., Inc., 1934

Jaines, Louise, 1921

James, R. Howard, 1911, 1912, 1929, undated

Jaques, Bertha, 1917, 1918, 1919, 1920, 1921

Jenkins, Julia, 1905, undated

John H. Vanderpoel Art Association, 1939

Joy, Bill, 1922, 1923, undated

Junior League of Chicago, 1932, 1935

Kahn, Albert, 1934

Kayser, Jos., 1947

Kennedy, Herbert H., 1922, 1923, 1924, 1925

Kramer, Frank, 1905

Kunst Art Foundries, 1931

Lacomme, Risette, 1919, 1920, 1924, 1926, undated

Lafargue, Henry, 1925, 1926, 1927, 1928, 1931

Laing, Alice S., 1921

Lambert, Gertrude, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1914, 1917, 1929, undated

Laurens, E., 1911

La Verite, 1919

Lavolley, I.?, 1926, 1929, undated

Layrault?, 1923, 1924, 1925

Lazari, Paul, 1946

Le Bosse, R., 1938

Lecomte, Mr., 1928

Lecomte du Nouy, Mrs., 1948

Lecornu, G., 1927

Lee, G. Ambrose, 1905

Lee, Henry C., 1927

Lee, Robert M., 1931

Leger, Fernand, 1936, undated

Leight, Mrs. Edward, 1921, undated

Les Muses Francaises, 1920, 1921, 1922

Lewis, Elizabeth, 1935

Lewis, Helen, 1946, 1947, undated

Lipchitz, Jacques & Berthe, undated

Long, Mason, 1953

Loring?, Gustave, 1919

Loyson, 1913

Luntz, Charles, 1946

Lyons, Philip, 1929, 1932, undated

MacBurney, T. N., 1930

Magnin, A. de, 1918

Malye, T., 1927

Mannheimer, Frank, undated

Manziarly, Yolande de, 1923, 1925, 1926, 1927, 1928, 1929

Martre, Charles, 1927

Masclary, Bernard de, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1942, 1955, undated

Masclary, P. de, 1942

Marmet, L. J., 1906

Mazau, F., 1923

McClelland, Nancy, 1937

McCormick, Elsie Rockefeller, 1950

McCormick, Robert H., 1949

McIntyre, Margaret, 1924, 1926

McManus, Blanche, 1918

Medallic Art Company, 1931

Meeker, Arthur, 1930

Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1916

Meunier, Maurice, 1926, 1927

Miller, Edgar, undated

Miller, John O'Fallon & Caroline, 1923, 1926, undated

Miller, Joseph Gilman, 1929

Milman, Ralph & Helen, 1937, 1938, 1955

Monnette, Orra Eugene, 1921

Montellier, J., 1930

Moody, Harriet, 1925

Moore, Grace, 1936

Morgan, Charles, 1933

Morley, R., 1908, 1918

Morse, Howard K., 1927

Morris Book Shop, 1921

Mowrer, Edgar, 1914, undated

Mowrer, Paul Scott & Winifred, 1912, 1913, 1914, 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918, 1922, undated

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1923

Museum of Modern Art, 1930, 1933, 1934

"Nadja", 1926

Nagel, Elizabeth, undated

Nashville Art Club, 1909

National Sculpture Society, 1928

National Soap Sculpture Committee, 1931

Navez, P., 1914

Needham, Louis & Brorby, Inc., 1930, 1935, 1936, 1945, 1946, 1948, 1949, undated

Nelson, Paul, undated

Neological Foundation, 1940, 1945

The Neoterics, 1935

Neue Gallerie, 1925

Neumann, A., 1940, 1945

Newark Museum, 1935

New Masses, 1925

The New Orient, 1930

Noel, Georges, 1945

Norton, John, 1929, undated

Oakley, Horace, 1921

Office of War Information, 1945

Olds, Abbie Storrs, 1950

O'Toole, James St. L, 1935, 1936, undated

Paas, Emily Anita, 1928

Packard, Mary Storrs, 1921

Palmer, Pauline, undated

Panama-Pacific International Exposition, 1913, 1916

Paris-Midi, 1925, undated

Paris Post, 1946

Parker, Eleanor Wayne, 1912, 1913

Parker, Kineton, 1922, 1930

Partridge, Charlotte Russell, undated

Pascal, Pietro, 1946

Pasquier, Gustave, 1924

Passani, F., 1930

Pearson, Ralph M., 1928, 1929

Peignin, Marius, 1925

Pelzer, Mildred W., 1936

Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, 1910, 1911, 1933

Perry, Ruth T., 1907

Phillips, S. G., (illustrated) 1911, 1914

Pichon, Leon, 1920

Pierron, M., 1920

Playboy, 1919

Polasek, Albin, 1926

Ponce, J., 1927

Post, Mary, 1906, 1907, undated

Potin, O., 1953

Provincetown Print Gallery, 1921

Putnam, Samuel, undated

Quattrocchi, Edmondo, 1929

Ray, Man, undated

Raynal, Maurice, 1928, 1929, undated

Reboul, Jacques, 1907

Recchia, Richard H., 1912, 1913, 1920, undated

Reed, John, 1917

Rendu, A., undated

Republique Francaise, Mairie D'Orleans, 1945, 1946, 1947, 1948

Rerolle, Gervaise, undated

Richard, E., 1932

Richard, Paul, 1923, 1927, 1928

Ritman, Louis, 1909

Roberts, Webb, 1936, 1938

Roche, Henri Pierre, 1924, 1927

Rockwell, 1920

Roger, Maurice, 1927

Roosevelt, Theodore, 1916

Root, Ellen, undated

Roseman, T., 1922

Rosenberg, Paul, 1939

Rotil, J., 1924

Roullier, Alice, 1920, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1927, 1928, 1931, 1935, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1945, 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1955, undated

Rowdon, J. T., 1905

Royer, Jean, 1945

Ruhlmann & Laurent, 1919, 1920

Russell, Ann, 1904, 1906

Safalgette, L., 1919, 1920, undated

Salmon, Andre, 1921, 1923, undated

Salon du Franc, 1926

Salons of America, 1923, 1924

Saltino, Andy, 1925

Schoenfeld, Flora, undated

School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1909

Schulberg, Stuart and Barbara, undated

Schutze, M., 1934, undated

Schwartz, Andrew T., 1910

Scott, Edwin & Josephine, 1907, 1909, 1911, 1912, 1914, undated

Segur, Adrienne, 1927

Senior, John L., 1935, 1936, undated

Seymour, Ruth, 1922

Shanlow?, Alexandra, 1914

Sheeler, Charles, 1923

Shenker, Harry, 1919

Slaiman, M. & Ruth, 1950

Smith, C. Powers, 1923

Smith, Howard E., 1912, 1913, 1914, 1914, 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918, 1920, 1925, 1926, undated

Societe de Saint-Jean, 1917

Sowerby, Leo, 1918

Spaulding, W. B., 1910

Sprague, Albert A., 1921

Stearns, Harold E., 1932

Stein, Gertrude, undated

Stein, Rita, undated

Stella, Joseph, 1929

Stephens, E. A., 1949

Stephens, Lucille Chandler, 1925

Sterne, Maurice, 1925

Sterner, Carl John, undated

Stieglitz, Alfred, 1930

Stinson, Roxie R., 1905, 1906, 1907, 1908, undated

Stora, M. & R., 1926

Storgo Laboratories (David Goldsmith), 1936, 1937

Storrs, Frank Herbert, 1924, 1926

Storrs, John W., 1918

Storrs, Louis, 1939

Storrs, Ronald, 1925, 1927, 1928

Sueur, G., 1926

Survage, Leopold & Germaine, 1930, 1931, 1932, 1937, 1945, undated

Tancrede, Robert, 1945

Tartarin, A., 1930

The Tavern, 1928

Taylor, Catherine, 1911, 1912

Texas Centennial Exposition, 1936

Thanlow, Ch. L. & Ingrid, 1919, undated

The Seven Arts Magazine, 1918

Thomas, Maxime, 1930

Tillson, Rex, 1923

Toledo Museum of Art, 1938

Tooker, Marion F., 1911

Toulouse, Roger, 1949, 1955, undated

The Transatlantic Review, 1924

Truman, Harry S., 1945 (letter to)

Turnbull, Yale, 1925, 1926

Tyson, Russell, 1922, 1927

Vallette, S., 1920

Valsuani, Claude, 1919, 1922, 1933, 1951, 1955

Vestal, Donald B., 1931

Villon, Jacques, undated

Vinton, Warren Jay & Helen Augur, 1924

Voccia, Luigi, 1914

Vogelgesang, Shepard, 1935

Wacker, Fred, 1955

Walpone, Marguerite, 1918

Ware, Mary, undated

Waring, P. A., 1921

Warwick, Katherine Murray, 1916

Webster, H. A., 1920

White, Charles E., 1932, 1933

Whitney Museum of American Art, 1933

Williams, Frederick, 1924

Williams, Walter R., 1909, 1911, 1912, undated

Wilson, A. J., 1935

Wolf, Walter, 1923

Worcester, Charles H., 1928, 1929, 1945, undated

Wright, Alan, 1910

Wright, Katherine, 1921

Zamoyski, August, 1921

Zorach, William & Marguerite, 1922, 1924
Restrictions:
This series contains access-restricted medical records.
Collection Rights:
The John Henry Bradley Storrs papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
John Henry Bradley Storrs papers, 1890-2007, bulk 1900-1956. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.storjohn, Subseries 2.1
See more items in:
John Henry Bradley Storrs papers
John Henry Bradley Storrs papers / Series 2: Correspondence
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-storjohn-ref45

Devil's Lake Indian Agency employees

Collection Creator:
Waugh, John Harold, Jr., 1878-1956  Search this
Extent:
1 glass plate negative
Container:
Box 47-2 (glass plate negatives)
Culture:
Wahpetonwan Dakota [Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe]  Search this
Type:
Archival materials
Negatives
Glass plate negatives
Date:
circa 1893
Scope and Contents:
Outdoor group portrait of the Devils Lake Agency Indian Service employees including Indian police, judges, and Indian agent, likely shot in Fort Totten on the Spirit Lake Reservation (Devils Lake Reservation). Standing row of Indian police (Wahpetonwan Dakota) L-R: Tyakmani, Jim, Swift Bear, Oyesna (Abraham), Thomas, Canpocksa (Caupaxsa), Sanica, Police Captain Wiyakamaza (Iron Feather), Louis Langin, Mike, [unknown]. Seated row in front L-R: [unknown], Ichnjanka/Ecanajinka (Chief Standing Steady, Judge), Waanatan II (Chief Wanata, Judge), Matochatka (Chief Left Bear, Judge), unknown child, John Waugh (Indian Agent) with daughter Edna Waugh on his lap. The man kneeling behind the front row was possibly an agency interpreter. See also N20168 for a similar group portrait.
Collection Restrictions:
Access to NMAI Archives Center collections is by appointment only, Monday - Friday, 9:30 am - 4:30 pm. Please contact the archives to make an appointment (phone: 301-238-1400, email: nmaiarchives@si.edu).

One of the photographs is restricted due to cultural sensitivity.
Collection Rights:
Permission to publish materials from the collection must be requested from National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center. Please submit a written request to nmaiphotos@si.edu. For personal or classroom use, users are invited to download, print, photocopy, and distribute the images that are available online without prior written permission, provided that the files are not modified in any way, the Smithsonian Institution copyright notice (where applicable) is included, and the source of the image is identified as the National Museum of the American Indian. For more information please see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use and NMAI Archive Center's Digital Image request website.
Collection Citation:
Identification of specific item; Date (if known); J. Harold Waugh photographs from the Spirit Lake Reservation (Devil's Lake Reservation) image #, NMAI.AC.143; National Museum of the American Indian Archives Center, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAI.AC.143, Item N20171
See more items in:
J. Harold Waugh photographs from the Spirit Lake Reservation (Devils Lake Reservation)
Archival Repository:
National Museum of the American Indian
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmai-ac-143-ref21

The Zorach Family papers

Creator:
Zorach Family  Search this
Names:
Art Students League (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Brooklyn Museum  Search this
Adams, Ansel, 1902-1984  Search this
Cunningham, Imogen, 1883-1976  Search this
Ipcar, Dahlov Zorach, 1917-  Search this
Newman, Arnold, 1918-2006  Search this
Partridge, Roi, 1888-1984  Search this
Zorach, Marguerite, 1887-1968  Search this
Zorach, Tessim  Search this
Zorach, William, 1887-1966  Search this
Extent:
4.4 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Interviews
Prints
Articles
Sketchbooks
Photographs
Drawings
Scrapbooks
Notes
Writings
Date:
1900-1987
Summary:
The Zorach Family papers measure 4.4 linear feet and consist of materials relating to the lives and careers of sculptor and painter William Zorach, his wife painter and weaver Marguerite, and their children, painter and multi-media artist Dahlov Ipcar and collector and art dealer Tessim Zorach. The bulk of the papers consists of letters to Tessim regarding his parent's artwork. Additional materials include scattered letters to William Zorach; writings and notes by William, Marguerite, and Tessim; a sketchbook and drawings by William; prints by Marguerite; Marguerite's scrapbook; printed materials; and photographs of the Zorach family and of William Zorach in his studio and at work.
Scope and Content Note:
The Zorach Family papers measure 4.4 linear feet and consist of materials relating to the lives and careers of sculptor and painter William Zorach, his wife painter and weaver Marguerite, and their children, painter and multi-media artist Dahlov Ipcar and collector and art dealer Tessim Zorach. The bulk of the papers consists of letters to Tessim regarding his parent's artwork. Additional materials include scattered letters to William Zorach; writings and notes by William, Marguerite, and Tessim; a sketchbook and drawings by William; prints by Marguerite; Marguerite's scrapbook; printed materials; and photographs of the Zorach family and of William Zorach in his studio and at work.

The majority of correspondence is between Tessim Zorach and various museums and galleries concerning exhibitions and donations of his parents' works of art. There are scattered letters to William Zorach among the correspondence. Business records consist of materials relating to the Collection of the Zorach Children, including lists of works of art by the Zorach's, a file relating to an exhibition of Zorach artwork at the Brooklyn Museum, and photographs of works of art considered for donation.

Writings and Notes include a typescript of an article written by Marguerite Zorach, writings by William Zorach, a typescript of Young Poems by William and Marguerite, as well as articles written by others about the Zorachs. Artwork by Marguerite Zorach includes two prints and a tracing. Also found is one sketchbook, and additional drawings by William Zorach. There is one unsigned lithograph.

The majority of exhibition announcements, catalogs, and clippings concern William and Marguerite Zorach although there are two announcements for Dahlov Ipcar. There is one scrapbook of clippings about Marguerite.

The papers include photographs of Marguerite and William Zorach, their parents, baby photos of Tessim and Dahlov, family pictures of the Zorachs, and of Marguerite and William in their studios. There are several folders of William Zorach working in his studios and additional photos of him carving a relief sculpture and a sculpture for the Southwest Bank. Most of these photographs contain detailed annotations written by William Zorach about the work. There is one folder of photographs of William in France in 1910-1911, including one of Zorach in Roi Partridge's studio. There is one photograph of Zorach taken by Ansel Adams in Yosemite, a photo of Zorach working by Arnold Newman, and several taken by Imogen Cunnigham.

Other photographs are of works of art, most of which depict William's works.

Artifacts include Marguerite's batik tools and approximately fifty commercially made printing blocks.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into 9 series:

Series 1: Biographical Information, circa 1907-1969 (Box 1, 6; 3 folders)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1922-1982 (Box 1-2; 1.75 linear feet)

Series 3: Business Records, 1967-1971, circa 1960s-1970s (Box 2-3; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 4: Writings and Notes, circa 1930s-1973, 1987 (Box 3; 8 folders)

Series 5: Artworks, 1900-circa 1920s (Box 3, 6; 12 folders)

Series 6: Scrapbooks, 1922-1953 (Box 3; 1 folder)

Series 7: Printed Material, 1912-1982 (Box 3; 0.25 linear feet)

Series 8: Photographs, 1908-1966 (Box 3-5; 1.0 linear feet)

Series 9: Artifacts, circa 1910s, circa 1950s (Box 4; 0.5 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
William Zorach (1887-1966) was a modernist painter and sculptor working primarily in New York city, along with his wife Marguerite (1887-1968) who worked as a fauvist painter, printmaker, and textile artist. Their children were painter Dahlov Ipcar (1917-) and art collector Tessim Zorach (1915-1995.)

Born in Lithuania, William Zorach immigrated to the United States where his family settled in Cleveland, Ohio. An early interest in art led to a printmaking apprenticeship. He then moved to New York City and enrolled in the National Academy of Design where he studied painting and drawing. In 1910, Zorach traveled to Paris to study and where he met his wife Marguerite Thompson at the La Palette art school. Marguerite grew up in Fresno, California and studied art at Stanford University. Both artists were heavily influenced by the fauvist and cubist art movements.

Returning to America, Marguerite and William married and both continued to create and experiment with varied media. Their paintings were featured in the 1913 New York City Armory Show and they are credited with being among the first artists to introduce European modernist styles to American modernism. The Zorachs were very close both as a couple and as working active artists.

In the 1920s, Marguerite began to experiment with textiles and created large, fine art tapestries and hooked rugs. Also, she used batik dying techniques on fabrics. William also expanded his genre by creating direct sculpture in 1918, which would become his primary medium.

In 1915, William and Marguerite started a family with their son, Tessim. Two years later, their daughter Dahlov was born. The Zorachs divided the year and lived in New York City, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts. In 1923, the family bought a farm on Georgetown Island, Maine where they lived, worked, and entertained friends.

Dahlov and Tessim were exposed to art from an early age. Dahlov showed artistic promise as a child and her parents supported her creativity by allowing her to express herself without formal training. Dahlov pursued painting and later became an illustrator for children's books. Additionally, she wrote fantasy novels and short stories. Dahlov married Adolf Ipcar in 1936. Like the rest of his family, Tessim Zorach developed an interest of art and along with his wife Peggy, he amassed a large private collection of ancient to modern art.

William and Marguerite continued to sculpt and paint until their deaths in 1966 and 1968, respectively.

Together, Dahlov and Tessim established the Collection of the Zorach Children which coordinated donations of their parents' art to many museums throughout the United States and the world. The artwork of both artists is found in the collections of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Brooklyn Museum, Whitney Museum of American Art, Delaware Art Museum, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Farnsworth Art Museum, Portland Museum of Art, National Gallery of Art, National Portrait Gallery and the Smithsonian American Art Museum, The Philips Collection, and educational institutions such as Colby College, University of Vermont, Williams College, Bowdoin College, and the University of Virginia. In addition William has works associated with many public buildings, among them: Radio City Music Hall, New York City Municipal Court, the U.S. Post Office in Washington D.C. as well as Farleigh Dickinson University.
Related Material:
The Archives of American Art holds the Dahlov Ipcar papers, 1906-1997. Also found is one oral history interview with William Zorach conducted by by John D. Morse on April 2, 1959 and an oral history interview with Dahlov Ipcar conducted by Robert F. Brown on November 13, 1979.

The bulk of William Zorach's papers are held by the Library of Congress.
Separated Material:
The Archives of American Art also holds material lent for microfilming on reels NY59-1-NY59-4 and NY59-19. Loaned materials were returned to the lender and are now held by the Library of Congress, Manuscript Division. This material is not described in the collection container inventory or finding aid.
Provenance:
William Zorach lent papers for microfilming to the Archives of American Art in 1959. Tessim Zorach donated materials between 1976-1987.
Restrictions:
Use of originals requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Zorach Family papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Art -- Collectors and collecting -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Art, American  Search this
Art dealers -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Artist couples  Search this
Painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Sculptors -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Women painters -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Artists' studios -- Photographs  Search this
Weavers  Search this
Works of art  Search this
Genre/Form:
Interviews
Prints
Articles
Sketchbooks
Photographs
Drawings
Scrapbooks
Notes
Writings
Citation:
The Zorach Family papers, 1900-1987. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.zorazora
See more items in:
The Zorach Family papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-zorazora

Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records

Creator:
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art  Search this
Names:
Art Institute of Chicago  Search this
Buffalo Fine Arts Academy  Search this
Corcoran Gallery of Art  Search this
Gallery of William Macbeth  Search this
M. Knoedler and Co.  Search this
Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Alexander, John White, 1856-1915  Search this
Beatty, John W. (John Wesley), 1851-1924  Search this
Beaux, Cecilia, 1855-1942  Search this
Brush, George de Forest, 1855-1941  Search this
Chase, William Merritt, 1849-1916  Search this
Church, Samuel Harden  Search this
East, Alfred, Sir, 1849-1913  Search this
Hassam, Childe, 1859-1935  Search this
Homer, Winslow, 1836-1910  Search this
Saint-Gaudens, Homer, b. 1880  Search this
Thayer, Abbott Handerson, 1849-1921  Search this
Extent:
265.8 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photographs
Letterpress books
Museum records
Place:
Spain -- History -- Civil War, 1936-1939
Date:
1883-1962
bulk 1885-1962
Summary:
The records of the Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art measure 265.8 linear feet and date from 1883-1962, with the bulk of the material dating from 1885-1940. The collection includes extensive correspondence between the museum's founding director, John Beatty, and his successor, Homer Saint-Gaudens, with artists, dealers, galleries, collectors, museum directors, representatives abroad, shipping and insurance agents, and museum trustees. The collection also includes Department of Fine Arts interoffice memoranda and reports; loan exhibition files; Carnegie International planning, jury, shipping, and sale records; Department of Fine Arts letterpress copy books, and a copy of the original card catalog index to these records.
Scope and Contents:
The records of the Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art measure 265.8 linear feet and date from 1883-1962, with the bulk of the material dating from 1885-1940. The collection includes extensive correspondence between the museum's founding director, John Beatty, and his successor, Homer Saint-Gaudens, with artists, dealers, galleries, collectors, museum directors, representatives abroad, shipping and insurance agents, and museum trustees. The collection also includes Department of Fine Arts interoffice memoranda and reports; loan exhibition files; Carnegie International planning, jury, shipping, and sale records; Department of Fine Arts letterpress copy books, and a copy of the original card catalog index to these records.

This collection is a complete record of the museum's work, starting with the planning of the first loan exhibition in 1885 and ending with the cancellation of the International at the start of World War II in 1940. The museum's day-to-day relationships with all aspects of the contemporary art world are documented within the historical context of artists' reactions to World War I; the economic repercussions of the Great Depression on art sales and museum budgets; the ramifications of fascism on German, Italian, and European art; the impact of civil war on Spanish art; and the tensions introduced by the rise of 'radical' modernist art in Europe.

Correspondence (Series 1) is the largest series in the collection (152.5 linear feet) and is comprised of extensive correspondence between the Museum of Art and over 8700 correspondents, with over 3600 correspondents specifically related to art and artists.

Correspondents related to the art world include museum staff, artists, collectors, museums, galleries, dealers, shippers, insurance agencies, art directors, associations, societies, clubs, critics, press, and governments. These exchanges include general requests for information; requests related to the museum's exhibitions, including the International; letters regarding the museum's involvement in the events of other art organizations; loan, sales, and provenance information for specific works of art; and information regarding the events of other art organizations.

The correspondence of the museum's staff provides the greatest insight into understanding the museum's evolution into an international cultural institution. Both directors' correspondence touch on their personal opinions on art, their rationale behind policy decisions, and their understanding of the extent to which the museum's work was dependent on the good relations they maintained in the art world. Additionally, the extensive, opinionated correspondence between Saint-Gaudens' European agents and museum staff during the 1920s and 1930s provide a unique perspective on emerging art trends and the skill, growth, and personalities of individual artists.

The most prolific of the museum staff correspondents include museum directors John Beatty and Homer Saint-Gaudens, Board of Trustees president Samuel Harden Church, assistant director Edward Balken, and European agents Guillaume Lerolle , Ilario Neri, Arnold Palmer, Margaret Palmer, and Charlotte Weidler. Additional prominent staff members include Helen Beatty, Robert Harshe, Caroline Lapsley, Henry Jack Nash, John O'Connor, Charles Ramsey, George Shaw, George Sheers, August Zeller, and Fine Arts Committee members John Caldwell, William Frew, William Hyett, and John Porter.

The most prolific artist correspondents include John White Alexander, George Grey Barnard, Cecilia Beaux, Frank Benson, George de Forest Brush, William Merritt Chase, William Coffin, Bruce Crane, Andre Dauchez, Charles H. Davis, Alfred East, Ben Foster, Daniel Garber, Charles P. Gruppe, John Johansen, Johanna Hailman, John McLure Hamilton, Birge Harrison, Childe Hassam, Winslow Homer, Laura Knight, John la Farge, Gaston la Touche, John Lavery, Henri le Sidaner, Jonas Lie, Hermon A. MacNeil, Antonio Mancini, Gari Melchers, Emile Menard, Henry R. Poore, Edward Redfield, W. Elmer Schofield, Leopold Seyffert, Lucien Simon, Eugene Speicher, Abbott Handerson Thayer, Robert Vonnoh, J. Alden Weir, Irving R. Wiles, and Ignacio Zuloaga. Other artists of note include: Edwin Austen Abbey, George Bellows, Edwin Blashfield, Frank Brangwyn, Mary Cassatt, Kenyon Cox, Thomas Wilmer Dewing, Thomas Eakins, William Glackens, Robert Henri, Eastman Johnson, Rockwell Kent, Paul Manship, Henry Ranger, John Singer Sargent, Edward Steichen, Alfred Stieglitz, Edmund Tarbell, James McNeil Whistler, N.C. Wyeth, and Charles Morris Young.

Frequent museum collaborators include the Art Institute of Chicago, Boston Museum of Fine Arts, Brooklyn Museum, Buffalo Fine Arts Academy, Cleveland Museum of Art, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Detroit Institute of Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Museum of Modern Art, Saint Louis Museum of Fine Arts, Toledo Museum of Art, and Worcester Art Museum.

Other prolific correspondents include collectors Chauncey Blair, Andrew Carnegie, Charles Lang Freer, George Hearn, Alexander Humphreys, Roy Hunt, Mrs. B.F. Jones, Burton Mansfield, Frank Nicola, Duncan Phillips, John Stevenson, and William Stimmel; dealers and galleries M. Knoedler, William Macbeth, Central Art Gallery, Charles A. Walker, C.W. Kraushaar Art Galleries, Downtown Gallery, Durand-Ruel and Sons, Ehrich Galleries, Ferargil Galleries, Frank Rehn, Frederick Keppel, Haseltine Art Gallery, R.C. Vose Galleries, and W. Scott Thurber Fine Arts; insurance agent Macomber Co.; and shippers Dicksee and Co., J.W. Hampton, P. Navel/R. Lerondelle, Stedman and Wilder, and W.S. Budworth and Son.

Correspondents not specifically related to the contemporary art world include businesses, educational institutions, libraries, and the general public. These exchanges detail the daily work of the museum, including the estimates and work orders of office suppliers, contractors, printers, and etc.; programming and research inquiries of k-12 and college/university institutions; acknowledgements of the receipt of Museum of Art publications; and general public inquiries regarding museum policies, exhibitions, and the permanent collection. Companies and institutions who worked particularly closely with the museum include Alden and Harlow (architects), Detroit Publishing Co., and Tiffany and Co.

Department of Fine Arts (Series 2) consists of art and artist lists, correspondence, memoranda, notes, and reports. These files were begun under John Beatty's tenure and streamlined under Homer Saint-Gaudens' directorship to track activities directly related to the museum's interoffice affairs. File headings continued under Saint-Gaudens focus on art considered and purchased for the permanent collection, employee records, exhibition proposals and loans, Fine Arts Committee minutes, museum programming, museum publications, press releases, requests for images, and requests for general information.

Under Saint-Gaudens, the Fine Arts Committee files contain voluminous impressions of contemporary European artists, which he composed during his annual studio tours of the continent in the early 1920s and late 1930s. These informal reports provide insight into the shaping of the International and include a running commentary on historical events of the time. The Fine Arts Committee files also document the artistic and budgetary compromises that were struck, particularly during the Great Depression and early run-up to World War II.

Exhibitions (Series 3) includes correspondence with collectors, museums, galleries, dealers, shippers, and many of the artists themselves. Additional documents include catalogs, lists, planning notes, and telegrams related to 185 traveling and loan exhibitions held at the Museum of Art from 1901 to 1940. Of these, over 100 are one-artist shows and 82 are group, survey, regional, or topical shows. The one-artist exhibitions tend to showcase contemporary artists of the time. Regional shows focused on American and European art, with two shows featuring the art of Canada and Mexico. Survey themes focused on animals, children, cities, gardens, landscapes, Old Masters, and portraitures. Many of the genre shows venture into art not typically collected by the Museum of Art, including architecture, crafts, engravings, figure studies, graphic arts, illustrations, miniatures, mural decorations, oriental rugs, prints, printed books, sculpture, small reliefs, stained glass, theater models, watercolors, and wood engravings.

The most important shows organized and curated by Museum of Art staff include the Panama-Pacific International Exposition (1915), American Sculpture Show (1915, 1920), Applied Arts Show (1917), Original Illustrations Show (1921), Mexican Art Show (1929), Garden Club Show (1922), Industrial Art Show (1924), Pittsburgh Artists Show (1935), French Survey Show (1936), English Painting Survey Show (1937), American Paintings, Royal Academy Show (1938), and Survey of American Painting Show (1940).

Important one-artist shows include Abbot Handerson Thayer (1919), George de Forest Brush (1922), Frank W. Benson (1923), Rockwell Kent (1923, 1939), Anders Zorn (1924), John Lavery (1925), Paul Manship (1925), Mary Cassatt (1925), Laura Knight (1925), Edouard Manet (1932), Edward Hopper (1936), Winslow Homer (1922, 1936), Paul Cezanne (1936), Charles Burchfield (1937), and William Glackens (1938).

International (Series 4) is comprised of catalogs, correspondence, art and artist lists, itineraries, jury selection ballots, minutes, notes, and reports related to the planning, logistics, and promotion of the International Exhibition from 1895 to 1940. These documents were originally grouped and filed separately under John Beatty and were more rigorously streamlined under Homer Saint-Gaudens. The folder headings continued under Saint-Gaudens focus on art purchases, artists' invitations, artists' request for information, general exhibition planning, Foreign Advisory Committees, foreign governments, jury reception planning, loan requests, and touring logistics.

Letterpress books (Series 5) consist of 75 volumes that chronologically collect all of the Museum of Art's outgoing correspondence from 1896 to 1917. Volumes 1-8 contain the only copy of outgoing correspondence from 1896 to 1900. Duplicate copies of all outgoing correspondence dating from 1901 to 1917 were filed in Correspondence (Series 1) by museum staff.

Card catalogs (Series 6) also include three sets of catalogs created by the Museum of Art to track the outgoing and incoming correspondence contained in this collection. Set 1 (1895-1906) consists of the original cards. Set 2 (1907-1917) and Set 3 (1918-1940) consists of photocopies of the original cards that were merged together into one contiguous set.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged into six series:

Series 1: Correspondence, 1883-1962, (Boxes 1-153, OV 267; 152.5 linear feet)

Series 2: Department of Fine Arts, 1896-1940, (Boxes 153-184, OV 268; 31.6 linear feet)

Series 3: Exhibitions, 1901-1940, (Boxes 184-204; 20 linear feet)

Series 4: International, 1895-1940, (Boxes 204-234, 265-266; 30.2 linear feet)

Series 5: Letterpress Books, 1900-1917, (Boxes 235-251; 17 linear feet)

Series 6: Card Catalogs, 1895-1940, (Box 252-264; 11 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
The Carnegie Institute Museum of Art was established in 1895 by industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. One of the first modern contemporary art museums in the United States, its flagship exhibition, the Carnegie International, is recognized as the longest running contemporary exhibition of international art in North America and is the second oldest in the world.

Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919) was born in Dumfermline, Scotland and migrated to America with his family in 1848. Often regarded as the second-richest man in history behind John D. Rockerfeller, Carnegie built his industrialist fortunes in the steel industry and spent the remainder of his life in support of major philanthropic projects. By the age of 33, he had developed his personal philosophy of philanthropy, which saw it as the responsibility of the wealthy to foster educational opportunities and disseminate the ideals of high culture among all levels of society. In addition to establishing over 2500 free public libraries, in 1895, he provided the funds to build the Carnegie Institute, located in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Carnegie Institute originally maintained three separate departments under the auspices of the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, and the Carnegie Museum of Art.

The Carnegie Institute was administered by a Board of Trustees selected by Carnegie, all prominent professional men of Pittsburgh. Within this group, eight men were selected to serve on the Museum of Art's Fine Arts Committee, which was initially granted the final say on gallery affairs. The first Fine Arts Committee was composed of two artists, Alfred Bryan Wall and Joseph Ryan Woodwell, and six businessmen. Among the latter group, John Caldwell, Henry Clay Frick, William Nimick Frew, and David Thompson Watson were also knowledgeable art patrons and collectors. Over time, the Fine Arts Committee's sway over gallery affairs would be measured by the dedication of its various members and tempered by the vision and authority of the Museum's directors, John Beatty and Homer Saint-Gaudens, and the Carnegie Institute Board of Trustees president, Samuel Harden Church.

From 1896 to 1921, John Wesley Beatty (1851-1924) served as the first director of the Museum of Art. A native Pittsburgher and an accomplished silver engraver, illustrator, and painter, Beatty attended the Royal Bavarian Academy in Munich and upon his return to America, made a living as an artist. He also taught at the Pittsburgh School of Design for Women and co-founded a small school of art with fellow local artist George Hetzel. In 1890, while serving as the secretary of the Pittsburgh Art Society, he became the primary organizer of a loan exhibition to be displayed at the opening of the Carnegie Free Library in Allegheny, Pennsylvania. In 1895, when the Carnegie Institute trustees began discussing the possibility of a similar loan exhibition for the opening of their new institution, Beatty was contacted and eventually enlisted to take on the task. Upon the success of that exhibition, he was invited to direct the gallery's affairs and served as the Museum of Art's director until his retirement.

Beatty was an enthusiastic supporter of Impressionism, Realism, Tonalism, Symbolism, and the critically acclaimed contemporary art of the 1890s. He also shared Carnegie's vision for the Museum of Art and believed in the educational and uplifting role aesthetic beauty could provide to the general public. Pursuant to the stated goals of Andrew Carnegie, under Beatty's direction the museum began to purchase important contemporary works to add to its chronological collection of "Old Masters of tomorrow" and almost immediately began planning the first of its Internationals.

The Internationals were viewed as the primary means of showcasing the Museum of Art's selection of the best in contemporary American and European painting, thereby elevating its role as an influential cultural institution on a national and international level. Juried monetary prizes would be awarded to the two best works by American artists, additional awards would be offered to artists of all nationalities, and the Museum of Art's purchases for the year would be selected from the exhibition. Certain artists and collectors were tapped to serve as unofficial representatives of the Museum of Art at home and abroad, among them John White Alexander, William Coffin, I.M. Gaugengigl, Walter Shirlaw, and Edmund Tarbell. Many of the most prominent Pittsburgh art collectors were also asked to lend works to the exhibition. While details of the jury and artist selection process, number of representatives, exhibition show dates, and amount and total number of prizes would change over the years, the planning template was set and would remain the same for future Internationals.

Beatty continued to rely on a stable of close friends and confidantes to help smooth over relations with artists, dealers, shipping agents, and galleries alike, relying heavily on John White Alexander and W. Elmer Schofield, in addition to artists Thomas Shields Clarke, Walter Gay, Robert Henri, Frank D. Millet, and critic Charles M. Kurtz. Over time, many of the artists who served on International juries or Foreign Advisory Committees also became reliable friends and advocates of the International, including Edwin Austen Abbey, Edmond Aman-Jean, Edwin Howland Blashfield, William Merritt Chase, Charles Cottet, Kenyon Cox, Charles Harold Davis, Alfred East, Ben Foster, Charles Hopkinson, John la Farge, Gari Melchers, Leonard Ochtman, Irving R. Wiles, and Robert W. Vonnoh.

From 1896 to 1921, the Museum of Art held twenty-one Internationals, with the only exceptions coming in 1906 (construction of the Hall of Architecture, Hall of Sculpture, and Bruce Galleries), 1915 (deference to the San Francisco Panama-Pacific International), and 1916-1919 (World War I). During these years, the scope and administration of the International slowly expanded, though not without growing pains. At the turn of the century, new modernist styles of art that were appearing in galleries across Europe had not yet entered major American museums and the Carnegie Museum of Art maintained this trend. The museum's generally conservative selection policies, combined with criticism regarding the timing of the exhibition and the jury selection process, led to increasingly tense relations with artists, and were only partially resolved by changes made to the format of the International. In spite of these challenges, the Carnegie International retained its reputation as a preeminent venue for contemporary art and awarded top prizes to John White Alexander, Cecilia Beaux, George W. Bellows, Frank W. Benson, Andre Dauchez, Thomas Wilmer Dewing, Thomas Eakins, Childe Hassam, Winslow Homer, John Lavery, Henri le Sidaner, Edward W. Redfield, W. Elmer Schofield, Edmund C. Tarbell, Abbot Handerson Thayer, Dwight W. Tryon, and J. Alden Weir.

In addition to the International, Carnegie's mission of bringing cultural and educational opportunities to Pittsburgh was a central priority of the museum's daily operations. Beatty cultivated relationships with fellow museum directors, which allowed for the easy co-ordination and planning of traveling exhibitions benefiting the city. The museum developed educational programs for children and adults, including lectures, gallery talks, Saturday morning classes, fine art extension classes, guided tours, and outreach to local schools. As popular Pittsburgh art societies and clubs formed, the museum also provided meeting and exhibition spaces for groups such as the Associated Artists of Pittsburgh, the Art Society of Pittsburgh, the Art Students League, the Garden Club of Allegheny County, and the Junior League.

After more than 25 years of service, Beatty made the decision to retire and put out an informal call for candidates. Being the right man at the right time, in 1921, Homer Schiff Saint-Gaudens (1880-1958) became the Museum of Art's second director.

The only child of American sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens and his wife and artist, Augusta Fisher Homer, Saint-Gaudens frequently traveled abroad and grew up in the company of his parents' wide circle of friends, many of them artists, poets, writers, and performers who frequented the Cornish Artists' Colony. More intimate friends of the family included former students, assistants, and colleagues, the architect Stanford White, and successful artist-couples who resided near the family's Cornish, New Hampshire home, among them Louise and Kenyon Cox, Maria and Thomas Dewing, Florence and Everett Shinn, and Emma and Abbott Thayer.

Homer Saint-Gaudens attended the preparatory school Lawrenceville, graduated from Harvard in 1903, married the artist and suffragist Carlota Dolley (1884-1927) in 1905, and remarried to Mary Louise McBride (n.d.-1974) in 1929. He began his professional career as a journalist and worked as assistant editor of The Critic (1903) and managing editor of Metropolitan Magazine (1905). During those years, he was introduced to a number of the Ash Can school artists, wrote articles on contemporary art, and honed his abilities as a writer. In 1907, Saint-Gaudens took a break from professional editing and began a second career as the stage manager for Maude Adams, the most highly paid and successful stage actress of her day, with a yearly income of over one million dollars at the peak of her popularity. Working in theater and as Adams' manager for over ten years, Saint-Gaudens learned the ins and outs of event promotion and logistics, media coverage, and maintaining diplomatic relations through compromise, ideal skills he would later use in organizing the Carnegie Internationals.

With the United States' entry into World War I, Saint-Gaudens served as the chief of the U.S. Army's first camouflage unit and was awarded the Bronze Star. After his discharge, he managed Adams' 1918 final season and simultaneously helped his mother organize a major retrospective of his father's sculptures. While organizing a section of his father's work for the 1921 International, he was invited to step into the position of assistant director of the Carnegie Museum of Art, and was promoted to the directorship upon John Beatty's retirement.

Throughout his tenure, Saint-Gaudens was able to call upon long-standing family friendships with artists and art patrons to the museum's benefit. His connections to the art world can clearly be seen in his first major stand-alone exhibition, the Garden Club Show (1922). In this, he enlisted the aid of Elizabeth Alexander, wife of John White Alexander, and Johanna Hailman, artist and wife of John Hailman, who reached out to their circle of artists and art collecting friends in search of works appropriate for the show. Their efforts, combined with the relationships Beatty had established with museum directors, galleries, and dealers, as well as Saint-Gaudens' own friendships with Kenyon Cox, Thomas Dewing, Barry Faulkner, and Gari Melchers, resulted in an assemblage of 150 paintings of note. Coming immediately upon the heels of the 1922 International, the show was a resounding success. The exhibition's opening attracted over 300 delegates of the Garden Club of America and the entirety of Pittsburgh high society, settling any concerns regarding his leadership abilities.

As director of the Museum of Art, Saint-Gaudens instituted measures intended to streamline the Internationals and improve diplomatic relations with artists. Though the basic format of the juried exhibition remained the same, his solutions to the complaints many artists raised with the artist invitation, art selection, and jury systems reformed the International's reputation at a critical time. Though he was naturally inclined to appreciate the art and artists he had grown up with, Saint-Gaudens understood the immediate necessity of introducing modernist contemporary art into the museum's exhibitions and galleries. He circumvented the conservative Fine Arts Committee's resistance to the accolades of European modernists by choosing the tamest of the new 'radical' works. Eventually, he balanced the Internationals with a mix of conservative, moderate, and advanced works that appealed to a large range of audiences and increased the status and diversity of the Internationals.

To aid in his reformation of the International, Saint-Gaudens formalized a team of European agents who worked year round to scout artists' studios, recommend suitable art and artists, navigate local politics, arrange local transportation and logistics, and maintain cordial relations with artists abroad. In the spring, Saint-Gaudens would travel to Europe to meet with his agents in person, tour the most promising studios, and meet with artists personally. His team was headed by Guillaume Lerolle, who shared Saint-Gaudens' distinction of being the son of a well regarded national artist, Henry Lerolle. Like Saint-Gaudens, Lerolle was able and willing to call upon longstanding family friendships and networks on behalf of the Museum of Art. The other core members of the team were Ilario Neri (Italy), Arnold Palmer (England), Margaret Palmer (Spain), and Charlotte Weidler (Germany).

From 1922 to 1940, the Museum of Art held seventeen Internationals, with the exceptions coming in 1932 (Great Depression) and 1940 (World War II). After a brief period of change, growth, and experimentation in the early 1920s, the museum eventually settled on a routine of planning the Internationals, arranging for traveling exhibitions, and expanding upon the most popular of their educational programs. In addition to those programs put into place under Beatty's tenure, Saint-Gaudens paved the way for a revamped lecture series featuring visiting critics and traveled as a visiting lecturer himself.

During the 1930s, financial difficulties and increasing political tensions in Europe presented ample challenges to the diplomatic skills of Saint-Gaudens and his agents, and they found themselves increasingly forced to navigate through political minefields presented by the fascist ideologies of Germany and Italy, the chaos of the Spanish civil war, and the eventual outbreak of World War II in Europe. In spite of these challenges, under Saint-Gaudens' direction, the museum remained true to Andrew Carnegie's vision. The International was expanded to accept on average over sixty additional works of art, and at its peak, included art from twenty-one countries. Beginning in 1927, top prizes and recognition were awarded to Georges Braque, Marc Chagall, Salvador Dali, Andre Derain, Raoul Dufy, Karl Hofer, Rockwell Kent, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, and Edouard Vuillard.

Works by Arthur B. Davies, Charles Hawthorne, Edward Hopper, Augustus John, Oskar Kokoschka, Leon Kroll, Ernest Lawson, and William Orpen were added to the museum's permanent collection. And, as under Beatty's tenure, many of the artists selected to serve on the Jury of Award became advocates and friends of the museum, including Emil Carlsen, Anto Carte, Bruce Crane, Charles C. Curran, Daniel Garber, Charles Hopkinson, Laura Knight, Jonas Lie, Julius Olsson, Leopold Seyffert, Lucien Simon, Eugene Speicher, Maurice Sterne, Gardner Symons, Horatio Walker, and Charles H. Woodbury.

The monumental task of establishing the Carnegie Institute Museum of Art and the Carnegie International has left an archival record that is unique and unparalleled in documenting its relations with every aspect of the contemporary art world from the turn of the century through the first forty years of the twentieth century.
Provenance:
The Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records were loaned for microfilming in 1966 and later donated to the Archives of American Art in 1972. A small addition of corrrespondence was donated in 2017 by Elizabeth Tufts Brown.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
The Carnegie Institute Museum of Art records are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Art -- Economic aspects  Search this
World War, 1914-1918  Search this
Art museums -- Pennsylvania -- Pittsburgh  Search this
Depressions -- 1929  Search this
Art, Modern -- Exhibitions  Search this
Fascism  Search this
World War, 1939-1945  Search this
Museum directors  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Letterpress books
Museum records
Citation:
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records, 1883-1962, bulk 1885-1940. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.carninst
See more items in:
Carnegie Institute, Museum of Art records
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-carninst
Online Media:

Kamekichi Tokita Papers

Creator:
Tokita, Kamekichi  Search this
Names:
Art Institute of Seattle  Search this
Henry Art Gallery  Search this
Hotel Cadillac (Seattle, Wash.)  Search this
Minidoka Relocation Center  Search this
Public Works of Art Project  Search this
Seattle Art Museum  Search this
Baker, Burt Brown  Search this
Boynton, Roy  Search this
Callahan, Kenneth, 1905-1986  Search this
Tokita, Elsie  Search this
Tokita, Shokichi  Search this
Extent:
1.5 Linear feet
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Photograph albums
Photographs
Sketches
Scrapbooks
Diaries
Date:
circa 1900-circa 2010
bulk 1900-1948
Summary:
The scattered personal papers of Seattle area painter Kamekichi Tokita (1897-1948) measure 1.5 linear feet and date from circa 1900 to circa 2010 with the bulk of the material dating from circa 1910 to 1948. The papers include biographical materials, including documents about the closing of the War Relocation Authority's Minidoka Camp in Idaho; correspondence; three diaries written in Japanese documenting Tokita's war time experiences and relocation to Minidoka, two earlier notebooks, also written in Japanese, and scattered notes; a few personal business records; printed materials; one scrapbook; sketches; and one family photograph album.
Scope and Contents:
The scattered personal papers of Seattle area painter Kamekichi Tokita (1897-1948) measure 1.5 linear feet and date from circa 1900 to circa 2010 with the bulk of the material dating from circa 1910 to 1948. The papers include biographical materials, including documents about the closing of the War Relocation Authority's Minidoka Camp in Idaho; correspondence; three diaries written in Japanese documenting Tokita's war time experiences and relocation to Minidoka, two earlier notebooks, also written in Japanese, and scattered notes; a few personal business records; printed materials; one scrapbook; sketches; and one family photograph album.

Biographical materials include a file on the Public Works of Art Project, a file on the War Relocation Authority and the closing of the Minidoka internment camp, an immigration document, and an essay on Tokita written by Shokichi and Elsie Tokita.

Correspondence is primarily professional in nature and concerns exhibitions at the Seattle Museum of Art (previously the Art Institute of Seattle) and other topics. Correspondents include Burt Brown Baker, Roy Boynton, Kenneth Callahan, Henry Gallery, the Seattle Art Museum, and others.

Tokita's writings consist of three diaries, two notebooks, and scattered general writings, most of which are in Japanese. The diaries were kept during World War II and document the family's confinement at the Minidoka Relocation Camp in Idaho. Included is a transcript of the diaries which were translated from prewar to modern Japanese by Haruo Takasugi and from modern Japanese to English by Naomi Kusunoki-Martin.

Scattered business records include a patent application, records from the Cadillac Hotel, and a claim filed through the Department of Justice. A few published books in English and Japanese are about art and religion. Also found are exhibition catalogs for shows in which Tokita participated and clippings. There is one mixed media scrapbook about Tokita's exhibitions.

Artwork consists of unsigned pencil and watercolor sketches by Tokita. There is also a family photo album containing snapshots and portraits of the Tokita family and friends.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 8 series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1934-1985 (Box 1; 4 folders)

Series 2: Correspondence, circa 1920-1944 (Box 1; 6 folders)

Series 3: Writings and Notes, 1923-circa 1950 (Box 1; 0.2 linear feet)

Series 4: Personal Business Records, 1928-1950 (Box 1; 3 folders)

Series 5: Printed Material, circa 1910-1940 (Box 1-3; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 6: Scrapbook, 1929-1933 (Box 2-3; 0.1 linear feet)

Series 7: Artwork, circa 1910-1940s (Box 2-3; 0.1 linear feet)

Series 8: Photograph Album, circa 1900-1930 (Box 2; 0.2 linear feet)
Biographical / Historical:
Kamekichi Tokita (1897-1948) was a painter and businessman who emigrated from Japan in 1919 and settled in Seattle, Washington. Tokita was a member of the Seattle area progressive artists' collective known as the "Group of Twelve" and widely exhibited his artwork throughout the Pacific Northwest.

Kamekichi Tokita was born in Shizouka City, Japan and immigrated to the United States at the age of twenty-two. He settled in the Japantown neighborhood of Seattle, Washington where he opened the Noto Sign Company with business partner Kenjiro Nomura. Nomura was also an artist and encouraged Tokita's interest in oil painting. They both used the sign shop as their studio after-hours. In 1936, the Noto Sign Company closed and Tokita took over management of the Cadillac Hotel, although he continued to paint commercial signs. Tokita married Haruko Suzuki in 1932 and together they had eight children.

As a child in Japan, Tokita studied calligraphy in China. Although he attended a few art school classes in in the U.S. and went on weekend painting trips with Nomura and other Seattle artists, Tokita is considered to be a largely self-trained artist. Support and recognition came from Dorothy V. Morrison of the Henry Gallery at the University of Washington who wrote to Tokita to inquire whether a "group of Japanese artists in the city" would be interested in exhibiting their work. Although the exhibition of Japanese artists did not happen, Tokita later loaned paintings to the gallery for inclusion in an exhibition sponsored by the American Federation of Arts. Throughout the late 1920s and 1930s Tokita exhibited widely in the Seattle area. In 1935, the Seattle Daily Times touted the work of Tokita and other painters in the "Group of Twelve" that also included Morris Graves, Kenneth Callahan, Walter F. Isaacs, and Ambrose and Viola Patterson, among others. In 1942, after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, Kamekichi Tokita and his family (five children at the time), along with the 110,000 – 120,000 Japanese and Japanese-American citizens living on the West Coast, were ordered under President Franklin Roosevelt's Executive Order 9066 to relocate to one of several confinement camps. For the first six months of their confinement, the family lived at a temporary Civilian Assembly Center in Puyallup, Washington. They were transferred to the Minidoka Relocation Camp in Hunt, Idaho where they remained until their release in 1945. The confinement camps were organized much like communes and independent cities (fenced and guarded) where the residents were self-reliant for most of their basic necessities, including schooling. While interned in Minidoka, Tokita worked as a sign painter and continued to privately paint, using whatever materials he could find, including beaver board. His work was featured in art shows at the camp. Many of his camp scenes are now lost or were given away.

At the end of World War II, Tokita and his family (now seven children) moved back to the Seattle-area. Unable to find housing, the Tokitas lived at a Japanese language school until Tokita was able to re-establish his business. During this period he painted very little. In 1946 Tokita and his wife purchased the New Lucky Hotel in the Chinatown area of Seattle. Shortly thereafter, Tokita fell ill and died in 1948. Many of his works are believed to have been destroyed or lost. Some of his work remains, however, and is among the permanent collections of the Seattle Art Museum, the Tacoma Art Museum, the Portland Art Museum.

Note: Much of this biographical note was taken from "A Biographical Resume" written by Shokichi and Elsie Y. Tokita.
Separated Materials:
A watercolor painting on paper by Kamekichi Tokita, Untitled (Still Life), 9 x 12 in. was transferred to the Smithsonian American Art Museum in 2012.
Provenance:
The Kamekichi Tokita papers were donated by his son, Shokichi Tokita in 1990. He donated a third and final diary in 2017. They were collected as part of the Archives of American Art Northwest Asian American project in Seattle, Washington.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Kamekichi Tokita papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Occupation:
Painters -- Washington (State) -- Seattle  Search this
Topic:
Art, American -- Northwestern States  Search this
World War, 1939-1945 -- Japanese Americans  Search this
Japanese Americans -- Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945 -- Diaries  Search this
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- Washington (State) -- Seattle  Search this
Art, Modern -- 20th century -- Northwestern States  Search this
Asian American artists  Search this
Japanese American art  Search this
Japanese Americans  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photograph albums
Photographs
Sketches
Scrapbooks
Diaries
Citation:
Kamekichi Tokita papers, circa 1900-circa 2010, bulk circa 1910-1948. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.tokikame
See more items in:
Kamekichi Tokita Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-tokikame

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