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Aleš Hrdlička papers

Creator:
Hrdlička, Aleš, 1869-1943  Search this
Correspondent:
American Association of Physical Anthropologists  Search this
Names:
American Journal of Physical Anthropology  Search this
Army Medical Museum (U.S.)  Search this
Hyde Exploring Expedition (1902-1903)  Search this
Institute of Population  Search this
International Congress of Americanists  Search this
Panama-California Exposition (1915 : San Diego, Calif.)  Search this
Smithsonian Institution. Department of Anthropology. Division of Physical Anthropology  Search this
Extent:
206.71 Linear feet (294 boxes, 138 folders, 9 rolled items, and 4 folios)
Culture:
Indians of North America  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Place:
Saint Lawrence Island (Alaska) -- Archaeology
Australia
Alaska -- Archaeology
Mexico -- anthropology
Florida -- Archaeology
Egypt -- Archaeology
Czechoslovakia
Peru -- physical anthropology
Kodiak Island (Alaska)
Date:
1875-1966
bulk 1903-1943
Summary:
The papers of Aleš Hrdlička, curator in the Division of Physical Anthropology, Department of Anthropology, United States National Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, offer considerable insight into the development of physical anthropology in the first half of this century. The papers include honors bestowed on Hrdlička, autobiographical notes, correspondence with many of the leading anthropologists of the day, anthropometric and osteometric measurements and observations (forming most of the collection), extensive photographs of Hrdlička's field work, manuscripts, research materials, and "My Journeys" (essentially a diary Hrdlička kept of his field work). In addition, there is material of a personal nature. The papers date from 1875 to 1966, but the bulk of the materials date from 1903 to 1943, the time of Hrdlička's career at the USNM.
Scope and Contents:
This collection is comprised of both professional and personal materials. The professional material includes honors bestowed on Hrdlička, autobiographical notes, correspondence with many of the leading anthropologists of the day, anthropometric and osteometric measurements and observations (forming most of the collection), extensive photographs of Hrdlička's field work, manuscripts, research materials, and "My Journeys" (essentially a diary Hrdlička kept of his field work). The personal material primarily consists of correspondence with his first wife (Marie Dieudonnée Strickler) and other family members, but there are also financial records. The papers date from 1875 to 1966, but the bulk of the materials date from 1903 to 1943, the time of Hrdlička's career at the United States National Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Hrdlička investigated all major questions confronting physical anthropologists of his day (the fossil record of early humans, the arrival of humans in the Americas, human variation, and evolution) and made valuable contributions in all these areas. Hrdlička's interests in the establishment of physical anthropology as a distinct and important field, the welfare of the Czech people, early hominids, and variation within the human species are all documented in the collection as are the services he performed for various United States government agencies. He pursued field studies in many different parts of the world, but there are relatively few field notes as such among his papers. There is instead the edited journal "My Journeys," photographs, and physical anthropological forms. There is also relatively little material on his administrative involvement in the USNM. There is no material from Hrdlička's time at the Pathological Institution of the New York State Hospitals; after he resigned, fire destroyed the anthropological records Hrdlička collected as a member of the staff. There are materials in the collection which contradict, or at least complicate, many long-held criticisms of Hrdlička, particularly claims that he was racist and opposed feminist ideas. The collection contains materials of interest to genetic research, including anthropometric measurements, hair clippings and fingerprints.

There are a few items in the collection which are dated earlier than the collection's date span. These are publication dates, and the folders containing the items have been dated accordingly, but they have not affected the dates of the series or collection. There are also a few items which are dated after Hrdlička's death. These dates reflect the fact that the collection was added to by the Department of Physical Anthropology after Hrdlička's death and have been taken into account when formulating dates for the series and collection.

Please note that the language and terminology used in this collection reflects the context and culture of the time of its creation. As an historical document, its contents may be at odds with contemporary views and terminology. The information within this collection does not reflect the views of the Smithsonian Institution, but is available in its original form to facilitate research.
Arrangement:
This collection is arranged in 37 series:

(1) Miscellaneous Personal Papers, 1875-1940

(2) Early Personal Correspondence, 1883-1919

(3) Correspondence, 1885-1953

(4) News Clippings and Printed Matter, 1893-1953

(5) Financial Papers, 1910-1943

(6) Journeys to the Southwestern United States and Mexican Indians, 1898-1919

(7) Journeys to the Dakota, Chippewa, Kickapoo, and Shawnee, 1916-1917

(8) Florida Survey, 1918, 1918-1927

(9) Alaska Archeological Expeditions, 1912-1938 (bulk 1926-1938)

(10) Panama-California Exposition Expeditions, 1912-1914

(11) Journey to Egypt, Europe, and Russia, 1908-1909

(12) Journey to South America, 1910, 1910-1912

(13) Journey to the Far East, 1920, 1900-1930

(14) Journey to Australia, Java, India, South Africa, and Europe, 1924-1925

(15) Anthropometric Measurements of Indians Taken at the United States National Museum, 1904-1905, most undated

(16) Bone Studies, 1893-1929, most undated

(17) Old Americans, 1914-1930

(18) Children Who Run on All Fours, 1928-1936

(19) Early Man Studies, 1906-1930

(20) European Ethnic History, 1908-1938

(21) Miscellaneous Research Notes, 1887-1930

(22) Manuscripts of Writings, 1901-1944, most undated

(23) Writings by Other Authors, 1877-1942

(24) Anthropometry, undated

(25) "From My Journeys", 1898-1938

(26) -- American Journal of Physical Anthropology -- , 1918-1931

(27) American Association of Physical Anthropologists, 1924-1931

(28) International Congress of Americanists, 1900-1928

(29) Institute of Population, 1942

(30) Department of Anthropology, 1914-1943

(31) Lecture Notes, 1920-1932

(32) Maps and Charts, 1900-1932

(33) Miscellany, 1895-1954

(34) Index Cards, 1899-1948

(35) Bibliographic Index, undated

(36) Physical Anthropology Folios, undated

(37) Photographs, 1887-1944
Biographical Note:
Aleš Hrdlička was born in Bohemia in 1869 and came to America when he was thirteen. As a young man, he was trained in medicine at New York's Eclectic Medical College and the New York Homeopathic Medical College, receiving degrees from each. His first professional work was as a private practitioner, but he gave that up in 1894 when he joined the staff of the New York State Hospital for the Insane at Middletown. There, in addition to other duties, he began studies of the physical characteristics of inmates. This set in motion developments that would eventually lead him to become one of the world's most prominent anthropologists who has sometimes been referred to as "the founder of physical anthropology in America."

In 1896, in preparation for a research appointment with the Department of Anthropology in the Pathological Institute of the New York State Hospitals, Hrdlička went to Paris and studied with Leon Manouvrier. After his return to America, he worked for a short period with the Pathological Institute and came into contact with G.S. Huntington of the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York. Hrdlička arranged and studied Huntington's large collection of skeletal material, thus gaining knowledge of a well-documented collection representing largely normal persons of European ancestry. He came to the attention of Frederic Ward Putnam, of the American Museum of Natural History, who arranged for his first anthropological field studies.

It was thus that Hrdlička became a member of the Hyde Expeditions to the American Southwest and northern Mexico. In 1898, he traveled to Mexico with Carl Lumholtz to study the Tarahumaras, Huichols, and neighboring tribes. In subsequent years, he returned to Mexico and the Southwest alone and studied physical characteristics and medical conditions of several American Indian tribes. With this experience and examinations of the Trenton and Lansing skeletal material for Putnam, Hrdlička came fully into the world of anthropology. In 1903, he was appointed head of the newly formed Division of Physical Anthropology in the United States National Museum.

While in his position at the Smithsonian, Hrdlička returned to the Southwest for studies of Pima and Apache children in 1905 and, in the following year, traveled to Florida to examine allegedly ancient remains of man. In 1908, he worked among a number of Indian tribes, including the Menominee, Oglala Dakota, Quinailt, Hupa, and Mohave, in a study of tuberculosis among them. In 1909, he traveled to Egypt with an expedition of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York in order to study living Egyptians and to examine remains of Egypt's past population. The following year took him to Argentina, Peru, and Mexico. In the first of these, he again examined allegedly ancient remains of man. In Peru, he made a large collection of skeletal material near Trujillo, at Pachamac, and in the Chicama Valley.

From 1912-1914, Hrdlicka undertook a physical anthropological exhibit for the Panama-California Exposition in San Diego and, for this, traveled to eastern Siberia, Mongolia, Peru, and Florida. He also examined fossil remains of man in Europe and directed field work of other anthropologists in South and East Africa, St. Lawrence Island in Alaska, the Philippines, eastern Siberia, and the Ukraine. In 1915, for the Department of Justice, he assessed the racial makeup of Chippewas on the Leech Lake and White Earth reservations in Minnesota and also studied Dakota Indians. In 1917, his field work was directed toward white American families with longtime residence in the United States. In 1918, he carried out a survey of ancient sites in eastern Florida for the Bureau of American Ethnology. In 1920, he traveled to Hawaii, Japan, Korea, and Manchuria in connection with an appointment to lecture at the Peking Union Medical College. As director of the American School for Prehistoric Studies in France, he again studied fossil remains of man in Europe in 1922 and 1923. In 1925, he carried out work in India, Ceylon, Java, Australia, South Africa, and Europe. In 1927, he was again in Europe to deliver the Huxley Memorial Lecture before the Royal Anthropological Society in Great Britain. Between 1929 and 1938, he traveled frequently to Alaska to carry on an anthropological survey. In 1939, he traveled to Russia and Siberia.

Beginning with much of the skeletal collection of the Army Medical Museum, which had been transferred to the Smithsonian in 1898 before he was appointed there, Hrdlička amassed a bone collection that included, among many other specimens, the Huntington collection, casts of fossil remains of man, and a large and diverse North American collection. He also gathered a large collection of human brains. Over three hundred publications resulted from his study of this material, his field work, and his study of specimens in other museums. In addition, he was involved in many other activities. For United States government agencies, he provided services ranging from examinations of human remains for law enforcement officials to providing information and opinions concerning national origins and traits that were needed to interpret laws and form foreign policy. During World War II, he also advised government officials on policies to be pursued with certain national groups following the war.

In 1918, Hrdlička founded the American Journal of Physical Anthropology and remained its editor until 1942. In 1928, he was the major force behind the organization of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists and served as its president from 1928 to 1932. He was also president of the Anthropological Society of Washington in 1907, the American Anthroplogical Association from 1925 to 1927, and the Washington Academy of Sciences from 1928 to 1929. He was chairman of Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1918 and secretary of the Committee on Anthropology of the National Research Council in 1917. In addition, Hrdlička was a member of the American Philosophical Society and the National Academy of Sciences. He represented the Smithsonian at several international gatherings of scholars, including meetings of the International Congress of Americanists.

Chronology

1869 March 29 -- Alois Ferdinand Hrdlička (Aleš Hrdlička) born in Humpolec, Bohemia

1882 September -- Emigrated to New York City

1888 -- While stricken with typhoid, met M. Rosenbleuth, a physician who arranged for Hrdlička to enroll at the Eclectic Medical College of New York City

1892 -- Enrolled in the New York Homeopathic Medical College and Hospital Published first article, "Scheme of Examination (Medical)," Publications of the Eclectic Medical College Graduated first in his class from the Eclectic Medical College

1894 -- Graduated first from his class from the Homeopathic Medical College Became research intern at the State Homeopathic Hospital for the Insane in Middletown, New York, where he began his studies in physical anthropology Passed state board examination (allopathic)

1895 -- Joined staff of the Pathological Institute of the New York State Hospitals as associate in anthropology

1896 -- Studied anthropology under Leon Manouvrier in Paris

1896 August 6 -- Married Marie Stickler (Dieudonnée)

1898 March-July(?) -- Accompanied Carl Lumholtz on his expedition to northern Mexico, sponsored by the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), and visited the Tarahumara, Huichol, and Tepecan Indians

1899 Spring -- Resigned from the Pathological Institute to take charge of physical and medical anthropological research on the Hyde Expeditions of the AMNH to the southwestern United States

1899 August -- Hyde expedition for the AMNH to Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, to excavate the site of Pueblo Bonito and to conduct somatological surveys among the Indians; visited Grand Gulch caves in southern Utah; included visits to the Navahos and southern Utes

1900 -- Hyde expedition for the AMNH to New Mexico, Arizona, and southern Colorado to conduct somatological surveys among the Indians; included visits to the Apaches, Yumas, and Pueblo Indians

1902 January-September -- Hyde expeditions for AMNH to southwestern Arizona, New Mexico, and northern Mexico to conduct somatological surveys; included visits to the Tepecanos, Papagos, Opatas, Pimas, Yaquis, Mayos, Huichols, Otomis, Tepehuanes, Maricopas, Yumas, Yavapais, Paiutes, Walapais, and Havasupais

1902 October-December -- Hyde expedition for the AMNH to Mexico for Hrdlička to complete his somatological investigations; included visits to the Tepehuanes, Coras, Huichols, "Nahuas," "Aztecs," and Tarascans

1903 May 1 -- Became assistant curator in charge of the new Division of Physical Anthropology, Department of Anthropology, at the United States National Museum, Smithsonian Institution

1905 -- Expedition under the auspices of the Bureau of American Ethnology to Arizona and New Mexico to complete the observations on the tribes of this region; Hrdlička especially studied Apache and Pima Indian children

1906 February -- Expedition to western Florida to investigate remains of alleged ancient man

1907 -- President of the Anthropological Society of Washington

1908 -- Expedition to Indian schools and reservations in Wisconsin, Washington, California, Arizona, and South Dakota to study tuberculosis for a report to the International Congress of Tuberculosis

1908 December - 1909 May -- Traveled to Egypt, Greece, Turkey, Hungary, Bohemia, Russia, Poland, and Germany to examine human skeletal remains from an excavation in Egypt by the Metropolitan Museum of Art and to study peoples of the Near East

1910 March 28 -- Promoted to curator in the Division of Physical Anthropology

1910 April-September -- Attended the 17th International Congress of Americanists in Buenos Aires and Mexico City Traveled to Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Mexico, and Panama

1912 -- Planned and directed seven expeditions for the physical anthropology exhibit at the Panama-California Exposition held at San Diego in 1915; expeditions included Hrdlička to Siberia and Mongolia and later to Peru; Riley D. Moore to St. Lawrence Island, Alaska; Philip Newton to the Philippine Islands; Vojtech Suk to Africa; Stanislaw Poniatowski to eastern Siberia; Kazimir Stolyhwo to the Birusa caves in Siberia and to the Ukraine; and Jindřich Matiegka to Bohemia

1912 May-Summer -- Traveled to London to attend 18th International Congress of Americanists Traveled to Siberia and Mongolia for the Panama-California Exposition

1912 September -- Traveled to Geneva for the 14th International Congress of Prehistoric Anthropology and Archaeology

1913 January-April -- Expedition to Peru as part the effort for the Panama-California Exposition

1914 November 18 - 1915 January 18 -- Attended Panama-California Exposition

1915 May -- Research for the Department of Justice at the White Earth and Leech Lake reservations in Minnesota to determine non-Indian mixture among Chippewas

1915 December -- Served as General Secretary for the 19th International Congress of Americanists held in Washington

1916 Fall -- Traveled to Florida to examine remains of supposed ancient man

1917 March-July -- Served as Secretary on the Committee on Anthropology of the National Research Council

1917 Summer -- "Old American" research at Yale University, Harvard University, and the University of Virginia and in Tennessee

1917 August -- Sponsored by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, traveled to Oklahoma to visit the Shawnee Agency in eastern Oklahoma and the Kickapoo Indians in McCloud to search for adequate samples of pure blood Indians

1918 -- Elected to the American Philosophical Society Served as Chairman of Section H of the American Association for the Advancement of Science Founded the American Journal of Physical Anthropology and became its long-time editor Surveyed prehistoric sites on the southwest coast of Florida

1918 October 8 -- Death of his wife Marie

1920 -- Anthropometry published by the Wistar Institute Elected an honorary fellow of the Royal Anthropological Society of Great Britain

1920 Summer -- Married Mina (Vilemina) Mansfield

1920 January-May -- Visited Japan, Korea, Manchuria, northern China, Mongolia, and Hawaii Lectured at Peking Union Medical College in China

1920 Fall -- Visited Minnesota Chippewa (at the White Earth Reservation?) to help the Department of Justice setter the question of mixed and pure bloods among the Chippewa

1921 -- Elected to the National Academy of Sciences

1922 -- Visited Spain, France, Germany, Moravia, and England Awarded honorary Sc.D. degree from the University of Prague Chairman of the American delegation to the 20th International Congress of Americanists in Rio de Janiero

1923 -- Served three and one-half months as Director of the American School in France for Prehistoric Studies Visited England, Holland, Belgium, France, Germany, Bohemia, Austria, Croatia, and Italy

1925 -- The Old Americans published by Williams and Wilkins Co.

1925 March-October -- Traveled to Australia, Java, India, South Africa, and Europe on a trip sponsored by the Buffalo [New York] Society of Natural Science to obtain cranial measurements of Australian aborigines and Tasmanians, to investigate the Rhodesian Man site in South Africa, to survey the field of early man, and to collect data to support his hypothesis about the peopling of the Earth

1925-1926 -- President of the American Anthropological Association

1926 -- Awarded honorary Sc.D. degree from University of Brno and D.Nat.Sc. degree from Brunn University

1926 May-September -- First fieldwork in Alaska: reconnaissance down the Yukon River to its mouth, around the Bering Sea and through the Bering Strait along the Alaskan coast to Point Barrow

1927 -- Received Huxley Memorial Medal and gave Huxley Lecture on "the Neanderthal Phase of Man" before the Royal Anthropological Society of Great Britain

1928 -- Helped found the American Association of Physical Anthropologists (AAPA)

1928-1929 -- President of the Washington Academy of Sciences

1928-1932 -- Served as first president of the AAPA

1929 -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Yukon River from Tanana to its mouth, to St. Lawrence and the Diomede Islands, to Cape Prince of Wales, up to Point Barrow and back to Unalaska Awarded honorary Sc.D. degree from Charles University, Prague

1930 -- Published The Skeletal Remains of Early Man, Vol. 83 Smithsonian Miscellaneous collections Published "Anthropological Survey in Alaska," Forty-sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, pp. 21-374

1930 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Kuskokwim River from Bethel down river to Apogak and up river to Stony River

1931 -- Children Who Run on All Fours published by McGraw-Hill Book Co.

1931 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) point site, trial excavations at Chief's Point and other sites, and a survey of Kodiak Island

1932 -- Kober Foundation lecturer of Georgetown University

1932 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site, trial excavations at Chief's Point and other sites, and a survey of Kodiak Island

1934 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site and surveyed Cooks Inlet sites and the mainland opposite the Our Point site

1935 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site

1936 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: excavated at Our (Jones) Point site and surveyed the Dutch Harbor caves, some of the Aleutian Islands, and the mummy cave on Kagamil Island

1937 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Aleutian Islands and Commander Islands

1938 Summer -- Fieldwork in Alaska: surveyed the Aleutian Islands, Dutch Harbor caves, and Commander Islands

1939 April 4 -- Testimonial dinner given by the American Association of Physical Anthropologists in honor of his 70th birthday

1939 April-June -- Recuperated in London hospital after suffering a coronary occlusion

1942 March 31 -- Retired from curatorship at United States National Museum, becoming an associate in anthropology

1942 December -- Resigned as editor of the American Journal of Physical Anthropology

1943 -- Alaska Diary published by Cattell Press

1943 September 5 -- Died of heart attack

1944 -- Anthropology of Kodiak Island published by Wistar Institute

1945 -- The Aleutian and Commander Islands and Their Inhabitants published by Wistar Institute

1969 -- Tenth Anthropological Congress of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences dedicated to Hrdlička in the 100th anniversary year of his birth

Selected Bibliography

1908 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Physiological and Medical Observations Among the Indians of Southwestern United States and Northern Mexico. Bulletin 34, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1908.

1912 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Early Man in South America. Bulletin 52, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1912.

1919 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Physical Anthropology: Its Scope and Aims. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1919.

1920 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Anthropometry. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1920.

1925 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. The Old Americans. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins Co., 1925.

1930 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. The Skeletal Remains of Early Man. Vol. 83, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. City of Washington: The Smithsonian Institution, 1930. Hrdlička, Aleš. Anthropological Survey in Alaska. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1930.

1931 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Children Who Run on All Fours, and Other Animal-like Behaviors in the Human Child. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1931.

1943 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Alaska Diary, 1926-1931. Lancaster, PA: The Jacques Cattell Press, 1943.

1944 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. Anthropology of Kodiak Island. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1944.

1945 -- Hrdlička, Aleš. The Aleutian and Commander Islands and Their Inhabitants. Philadelphia: The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1945.
Related Materials:
Additional material in the National Anthropological Archives relating to Aleš Hrdlička can be found in the papers of William Louis Abbott, Henry Bascom Collins, Herbert William Krieger, and Frank Spencer; records of the American Anthropological Association, Bureau of American Ethnology, Department of Anthropology of the United States National Museum (National Museum of Natural History), Science Service, Anthropological Society of Washington, and the United States Army Medical Museum (anatomical section, records relating to specimens transferred to the Smithsonian Institution); and glass negatives of Indians collected by the Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution illustrations.

Additional related photographs can be found in Photo Lot 8, Division of Physical Anthropology collection; Photo Lot 9, Photographs of Indians for the Panama-California Exposition, San Diego; Photo Lot 24, Bureau of American Ethnology, United States National Museum photographs of American Indians; Photo Lot 70, Department of Anthropology portrait file; Photo Lot 78, Miscellaneous negatives; Photo Lot 97, Division of Ethnology collection ("USNM" Collection); Photo Lot 73-26B, Aleš Hrdlička photographs relating to the Panama-California Exhibition; Photo Lot 73-26G, Miscellany; Photo Lot 77-48, Group portraits of International Congress; Photo Lot 79-38, Division of World Archeology collection; Photo Lot 83-41, Division of Physical Anthropology collection of photographs of human bones; and Photo Lot 92-46, Anthropology lantern slides.

Related films can be found in the Human Studies Film Archive under the accession numbers HSFA 1982.2.1, 1982.2.2, 1986.12.1, and 2015.13.1.

Hrdlička's extensive collection of reprints is maintained in the Division of Physical Anthropology.

Frank Spencer's doctoral dissertation "Aleš Hrdlička, M.D., 1869-1943: A Chronicle of the Life and Work of an American Physical Anthropologist" (1979) is the only book length biography of Hrdlička. The Frank Spencer papers, 1836-1999, are available at the NAA and contain original correspondence between Hrdlička and his first wife, Marie Strickler; his childhood report card from 1869; copies of family photos obtained from Lucy Miller, Hrdlička's niece; and an audio recording of Hrdlička speaking at Wistar Institute.

Further material may be found in the Smithsonian Institution Archives.
Provenance:
Hrdlička bequeathed his papers to the Smithsonian Institution. The Division of Physical Anthropology maintained them until they were deposited in the National Anthropological Archives in the 1960s. Some papers have come into the collection since then, most recently in 2018. These new accretions came to the collection through Donald Ortner, David Hunt, T. Dale Stewart, the Department of Anthropology, and the University of Alaska.
Restrictions:
The Aleš Hrdlička papers are open for research.

Access to the Aleš Hrdlička papers requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Topic:
Human evolution  Search this
Physical anthropology  Search this
Children -- Physical anthropology  Search this
anthropometry  Search this
Ethnology  Search this
Fossil hominids  Search this
Citation:
Aleš Hrdlička papers, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
Identifier:
NAA.1974-31
See more items in:
Aleš Hrdlička papers
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-1974-31
Online Media:

Peter Goddard Gates photograph album of "Museum-Gates" archaeological expedition to the Southwest

Creator:
Gates, Peter Goddard  Search this
Names:
Gates, Gertrude  Search this
Extent:
48 Prints (Album :, silver gelatin)
Culture:
Pima Indians  Search this
Hopi Indians  Search this
Tohono O'Odham Indians  Search this
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Prints
Photographs
Date:
circa 1901
Scope and Contents note:
Photograph album was compiled by Peter Goddard Gates and his wife Gertrude as a gift for Crawford Lewis, Gates' eight year old nephew who accompanied him on the trip. Photographs include images of the Arizona landscape, campsites, Tucson, Mission San Xavier del Bac, possibly the Pima reservation, and several depictions of Oraibi Pueblo buildings and surrounding area. There is also one image of Hopi Indian girls at Oraibi.
Biographical/Historical note:
Peter Goddard Gates (1855-1925) retired from a career in the lumber industry in 1900 and devoted much of his time afterward to philanthropy and archaeology. In about 1900 Gates proposed to fund a joint archaeological expedition to the southwest in the summer of 1901 with the provision that the material collected would be divided equally between the Smithsonian's National Museum and himself. Walter Hough, ethnologist in the Department of Anthropology of the National Museum, led the 1901 expedition and preceded Gates to the southwest to collect for the museum prior to the official expedition.
Local Call Number(s):
NAA Photo Lot 2011-38
Location of Other Archival Materials:
Additional Gates photographs held by the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 24.
Additional photographs relating to the Museum-Gates expeditions can be found in the National Anthropological Archives in Photo Lot 37.
Material collected on the expeditions is held in the Department of Anthropology in accessions 45821 and 45884 .
Material collected by Gates is held in the Department of Anthropology in accession 38480.
Restrictions:
The collection is open for research.

Access to the collection requires an appointment.
Rights:
Contact the repository for terms of use.
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Photo Lot 2011-38, Peter Goddard Gates photograph album relating to "Museum-Gates" archaeological expedition to the Southwest, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NAA.PhotoLot.2011-38
Archival Repository:
National Anthropological Archives
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-naa-photolot-2011-38

Pima Indian Reservation : hearing before the Committee on Indian Affairs, United States Senate, Sixty-second Congress, Second Session, on H.R. 18244. A bill providing for the construction of irrigation works for impounding the waters of the Gila River, Ariz., and its tributaries, for irrigation of the lands of Gila River Valley, and for the protection of the interests of the Pima and other Indian tribes, and for other purposes. March 14, 1912

Author:
United States Congress Senate Committee on Indian Affairs  Search this
Physical description:
22 p. ; 23 cm
Type:
Electronic resources
Place:
Arizona
Date:
1912
Topic:
Irrigation  Search this
Pima Indians--Government relations  Search this
Call number:
HD1739.A6 U55 1912
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_923169

Basket

Collector:
Dr. John W. Hudson  Search this
Donor Name:
Victor J. Evans  Search this
Culture:
Pima (Akimel O'odham)  Search this
Object Type:
Basket
Place:
Los Angeles, California, United States, North America
Accession Date:
20 Mar 1931
Collection Date:
1894
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
113605
USNM Number:
E360832-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3fb5a06de-0a4e-439f-b0ff-aae549bc1b0b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8407704
Online Media:

Wooden War Club.

Collector:
Mrs. Georgia Stout  Search this
Donor Name:
Mrs. Georgia Stout  Search this
Length - Object:
38 cm
Diameter - Object:
6.667 cm
Culture:
Pima (Akimel O'odham)  Search this
Maricopa (Piipaash)  Search this
Object Type:
Club
Place:
Gila River Reservation, Arizona, United States, North America
Accession Date:
2 Jun 1877
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
77A00050
USNM Number:
E27846-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3f35ff80b-bc64-4dde-8370-a42ece9f725e
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8381588
Online Media:

Parching Pan

Collector:
Frank Russell  Search this
Donor Name:
Frank Russell  Search this
Culture:
Pima (Akimel O'odham)  Search this
Object Type:
Pot
Place:
Sacaton, Gila River Reservation, Arizona, United States, North America
Accession Date:
3 Oct 1902
Collection Date:
1902
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
039990
USNM Number:
E218022-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/34c0b77f4-219a-4ecc-954d-7229ba9eb7b8
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8363224
Online Media:

Dish For Baking

Collector:
Frank Russell  Search this
Donor Name:
Frank Russell  Search this
Culture:
Pima (Akimel O'odham)  Search this
Object Type:
Pot
Place:
Sacaton, Gila River Reservation, Arizona, United States, North America
Accession Date:
3 Oct 1902
Collection Date:
1902
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
039990
USNM Number:
E218024-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3520c5562-5b9b-47d4-997d-b375e39cf7c6
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8363226
Online Media:

Playing Cards 40

Collector:
Frank Russell  Search this
Donor Name:
Frank Russell  Search this
Culture:
Pima (Akimel O'odham)  Search this
Object Type:
Card
Place:
Sacaton, Gila River Reservation, Arizona, United States, North America
Accession Date:
3 Oct 1902
Collection Date:
1902
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
039990
USNM Number:
E218047-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/385aa1a9d-26a3-410b-b337-86bd6e1f6299
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8363249
Online Media:

Bu (Bulb) Dish Basket

Collector:
Dr. John W. Hudson  Search this
Donor Name:
Bureau Of American Ethnology  Search this
Diameter - Object:
34.3 cm
Culture:
Pomo  Search this
Object Type:
Basket
Place:
California, United States, North America
Accession Date:
12 Aug 1899
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
035435
USNM Number:
E203345-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/36e22be65-ad28-4019-81cb-ab702be9c451
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8355908

Sandals (1 Pair)

Collector:
Frederick W. Hodge  Search this
Donor Name:
Frederick W. Hodge  Search this
Culture:
Pima (Akimel O'odham)  Search this
Object Type:
Sandal
Place:
Arizona, United States, North America
Accession Date:
13 May 1898
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
033579
USNM Number:
E178337-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3753b04aa-41ea-4062-809c-b2f75bb537eb
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8352566
Online Media:

Bow, Strung

Collector:
William Dinwiddie  Search this
William J. McGee  Search this
Donor Name:
Bureau Of American Ethnology  Search this
Culture:
Pima (Akimel O'odham)  Search this
Object Type:
Bow
Place:
Arizona, United States, North America
Accession Date:
19 Apr 1895
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
029280
USNM Number:
E175046-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/34c41843b-3c81-4a68-8653-87847b1bc379
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8350389
Online Media:

Arrows 4

Collector:
William Dinwiddie  Search this
William J. McGee  Search this
Donor Name:
Bureau Of American Ethnology  Search this
Culture:
Pima (Akimel O'odham)  Search this
Object Type:
Arrow
Place:
Arizona, United States, North America
Accession Date:
19 Apr 1895
Topic:
Ethnology  Search this
Accession Number:
029280
USNM Number:
E175047-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/31986844f-891c-4456-9594-dff14abae186
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8350390
Online Media:

Earthen Pot.

Donor Name:
Bureau Of American Ethnology  Search this
Object Type:
Pot
Place:
Pima Indian Agency (Near), Pinal County, Arizona, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1885
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
015930
USNM Number:
A114734-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/32fd3b4b8-490e-4130-a7e2-192cb8db3a6f
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8007141
Online Media:

Earthen Jar. (Red And White Ornamented.)

Donor Name:
Bureau Of American Ethnology  Search this
Object Type:
Jar
Place:
Pima Indian Agency (Near), Pinal County, Arizona, United States, North America
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
015930
USNM Number:
A114735-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3b08930ae-b652-4d93-b4b4-d8b039b911e0
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8007142
Online Media:

Faunal bone

Donor Name:
Bureau Of American Ethnology  Search this
Object Type:
Archaeofauna
Place:
Pima Indian Agency (Near), Pinal County, Arizona, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1885
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
015930
USNM Number:
A114736-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Archaeobiology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/372cb0336-c8ed-46e4-84dd-73ce50fd9743
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8007143
Online Media:

Fragments Of Red Ornamented Bowl. (1 Lot)

Donor Name:
Bureau Of American Ethnology  Search this
Object Type:
Sherd
Place:
Pima Indian Agency (Near), Pinal County, Arizona, United States, North America
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
015930
USNM Number:
A114737-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3d04a602e-bf13-4502-a517-e4b072ce9278
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8007144
Online Media:

Fragments Of Red Ornamented Pottery

Donor Name:
Bureau Of American Ethnology  Search this
Object Type:
Sherd
Place:
Pima Indian Agency (Near), Pinal County, Arizona, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1885
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
015930
USNM Number:
A114738-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3a00081b4-1572-46f4-a093-9cb893292e74
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8007145
Online Media:

Fragment Of Perforated Pottery. (4)

Donor Name:
Bureau Of American Ethnology  Search this
Object Type:
Sherd
Place:
Pima Indian Agency (Near), Pinal County, Arizona, United States, North America
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
015930
USNM Number:
A114739-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3521cdb2f-cfa7-4d68-8e86-236e70f7c429
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8007147
Online Media:

Fragments Of Shell. (1 Lot)

Donor Name:
Bureau Of American Ethnology  Search this
Object Type:
Shell
Place:
Pima Indian Agency (Near), Pinal County, Arizona, United States, North America
Accession Date:
1885
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
015930
USNM Number:
A114740-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/3d7645074-5c6a-438a-ae44-e8e39dc29b63
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8007148
Online Media:

Pottery Handle, (Face.)

Donor Name:
Bureau Of American Ethnology  Search this
Object Type:
Handle
Place:
Pima Indian Agency / Gila River, Pinal County, Arizona, United States, North America
Topic:
Archaeology  Search this
Accession Number:
015930
USNM Number:
A114741-0
See more items in:
Anthropology
Data Source:
NMNH - Anthropology Dept.
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/36eed0c74-58a0-437c-bed7-31cb8a1b3afb
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:nmnhanthropology_8007149
Online Media:

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