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Collection of United States patents granted to Thomas A. Edison, 1869-1884

Title:
United States patents granted to Thomas A. Edison, 1869-79 DSI
United States patents of Thomas Alva Edison, June 1st, 1869 to May 20th, 1884 DSI
Author:
Edison, Thomas A (Thomas Alva) 1847-1931  Search this
United States Patent Office  Search this
Lithographer:
Peters, N (Norris)  Search this
Former owner:
Hammer, William Joseph 1858-1934 DSI  Search this
Inscriber:
Edison, Thomas A (Thomas Alva) 1847-1931 DSI  Search this
Subject:
Edison, Thomas A (Thomas Alva) 1847-1931  Search this
Physical description:
2 v. : ill. ; 29 cm
Type:
Catalogs
Patents
Place:
United States
Date:
1869
1869-1884
Topic:
Patents--Specifications  Search this
Inventions  Search this
Patents  Search this
Telegraph  Search this
Electric machinery  Search this
Electric apparatus and appliances  Search this
Phonograph  Search this
Telephone  Search this
Motors  Search this
Call number:
T223.B2 E23 1869
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_691276

Productions, 1976, 1985-1999

Creator:
Smithsonian Productions  Search this
Uniform title:
300 Years of American Papermaking (Video recording : 1990)  Search this
Covering the Environment: Front Page or Yesterday's News? (Video recording : 1990)  Search this
Men of Greatness, Feats of Daring (Video recording : 1985)  Search this
Monumental Propaganda (Video recording : 1994)  Search this
Phone Philm (Motion picture : 1976)  Search this
The Buried Mirror: Reflections on Spain and the New World (Video recording : 1991)  Search this
Thomas A. Edison and his Amazing Invention Factories (Motion picture : 1979)  Search this
Woody Guthrie's Legacy (Documentary film : 2000)  Search this
Yesterday's Tomorrows: Visions of the Future on Film (Video recording : 1984)  Search this
Subject:
Edison, Thomas A (Thomas Alva) 1847-1931  Search this
Fuentes, Carlos  Search this
Guthrie, Woody 1912-1967  Search this
Rittenhouse, William 1644-1708  Search this
Comisión Nacional del Quinto Centenario del Descubrimiento de América (Spain)  Search this
Discovery Channel (Firm)  Search this
National Museum of American History (U.S.)  Search this
Smithsonian Institution  Search this
Sogetel (Firm)  Search this
Iron Clad Agreement (Musical group)  Search this
National Museum of History and Technology (U.S.) Electricity Hall  Search this
Smithsonian Institution International Center  Search this
300 Years of American Papermaking (Exhibition) (1990-1991: Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Edison: Lighting a Revolution (Exhibition) (1980: Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Monumental Propaganda (Exhibition) (1994: Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Person to Person (Exhibition) (1976: Washington, D.C.)  Search this
This Land is Your Land: The Life and Legacy of Woody Guthrie (Exhibition) (2000: Washington, D.C.)  Search this
Physical description:
1 cu. ft. (1 record storage box)
Culture:
Columbus Quincentenary, 1992-1993  Search this
Type:
Documentary films
Collection descriptions
Audiotapes
Videotapes
Video recordings
Place:
Latin America
Spain
Germantown (Philadelphia, Pa.)
Date:
1985
1985-1999
1976, 1985-1999
Topic:
Earth Day  Search this
Environmental education  Search this
Exhibitions  Search this
Inventors  Search this
Journalism  Search this
Paper mills  Search this
Papermaking  Search this
Telephone  Search this
Civilization  Search this
Local number:
SIA Acc. 06-265
Restrictions & Rights:
Restrictions pertaining to the use of these materials may apply (based on contracts/copyright). Access restrictions may also apply if viewing/listening copies are not currently available. Viewing/listening copies can be made for a fee. Contact reference staff for details
See more items in:
Productions 1938-2009 and undated [Smithsonian Productions]
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_260979

Opening of Box Containing Thomas Edison's Graphophone

Creator:
Unknown  Search this
Subject:
Edison, Thomas A (Thomas Alva) 1847-1931  Search this
Bell, Alexander Graham 1847-1922  Search this
Grosvenor, Elsie May 1878-1964  Search this
Grosvenor, Gilbert Hovey 1875-1966  Search this
Grosvenor, Alexander Graham Bell  Search this
Abbot, C. G (Charles Greeley) 1872-1973  Search this
Dorsey, Harry Woodward  Search this
United States National Museum  Search this
Physical description:
8 x 10;
Type:
Black-and-white negatives
Date:
1937
October 27, 1937
Topic:
Phonograph  Search this
Local number:
SIA Acc. 11-006 [MAH-44312C]
Restrictions & Rights:
No access restrictions Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu
No Copyright - United States
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_396275

Museum of History and Technology, Electricity Exhibit

Subject:
Edison, Thomas A (Thomas Alva) 1847-1931  Search this
National Museum of History and Technology (U.S.)  Search this
Physical description:
4X6
Type:
Black-and-white photographs
Date:
Undated
Topic:
Electricity  Search this
Local number:
SIA RU000285 [SIA2010-2905]
Restrictions & Rights:
No access restrictions Many of SIA's holdings are located off-site, and advance notice is recommended to consult a collection. Please email the SIA Reference Team at osiaref@si.edu
Data Source:
Smithsonian Institution Archives
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_arc_310961

Gordon Hendricks Motion Picture History Papers

Creator:
Hendricks, Gordon  Search this
Names:
Dickson, William Kennedy Laurie  Search this
Edison, Thomas A. (Thomas Alva), 1847-1931  Search this
Extent:
27 Cubic feet (55 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Correspondence
Clippings
Field notes
Notes
Flip books
Professional papers
Date:
1895-1970
Summary:
Contains Gordon Hendricks's collection of clippings, correspondence, and research notes, and other professional papers related to his books and articles on motion picture history. Includes files on Edison, William Kennedy Laurie Dickson, and other pioneers in motion picture inventions.
Scope and Contents note:
This large collection contains correspondence, notes, and copies of documents from many repositories, which were used as research materials for Hendricks's publications in this field, as well as black-and-white photographs. Copies of photographs come from the Edison National Historic Site archives, Eastman House, the Smithsonian, and other museums. Gordon Hendricks stored his research material in grey binders, orange manuscript boxes, clay-colored folders, and black binders, hence the grey, orange, clay and black series. It is not certain whether this arrangement represented an identification or coding system related to separate projects or whether it simply reflects the chronology of his work through a succession of filing and boxing systems.

Hendricks's arrangement has been retained generally, and the series arrangement of the collection reflects Hendricks's original groupings. Series 1 consists of Lantern slides, Series 2 of material found in grey binders, Series 3 of material found in orange boxes, Series 4 of material in clay-colored folders, Series 5 of material in black binders and Series 6 is the miscellaneous series. [These groupings have been identified, as David Burgevin conducted an inventory while the collection was in its original containers.]

These papers contain much correspondence and other materials relating to Hendricks's books in the field of motion picture history, such as copies of manuscripts, and galley proofs. Photographs: Graphic materials included in the collection, such as photographs, frequently are not original but are copies of items from repositories in which Hendricks did research. However, there are a few noteworthy original items, such as examples of motion picture flip books (one partly intact, plus loose fragments from this flip book and others).
Biographical/Historical note:
Hendricks was an art historian who wrote works on painters such as Albert Bierstadt and Thomas Eakins, as well as on early motion picture history, including analyses of inventors of apparatus and technology; in his book THE EDISON MOTION PICTURE MYTH he showed how Edison's assistant, W. K. L. Dickson, and other inventors actually were responsible for the development of cinematic technology for which Edison unfairly took credit. Hendricks apparently was born in 1917 and died in 1980.
Related Materials:
Some materials from this collection, primarily photographs of apparatus, are in the National Museum of American HIstory Photographic History collection.

129 black-and-white photographs, many copy prints used as illustrations in Gordon Hendricks books, and other images of early motion picture apparatus are in the Gordon Hendricks Collection in the Photographic History Division. The Collection also includes 240 glass plate negatives, which appear to have been taken in Europe, and a binder of contact prints of the negatives.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Gordon Hendricks, through Guido Castelli, February 13, 1990.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Motion pictures -- History -- 1890-1930  Search this
Motion picture devices -- 1890-1930  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Clippings
Field notes
Notes
Flip books
Professional papers
Citation:
The Gordon Hendricks Motion Picture History Papers, 1895-1970, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0369
See more items in:
Gordon Hendricks Motion Picture History Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0369
Additional Online Media:

Thomas Edison and his original dynamo, Edison Works, Orange, N.J. 13002 interpositive

Topic:
PROMINENT MEN
Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
H.C. White Co.  Search this
Names:
Edison, Thomas A. (Thomas Alva), 1847-1931  Search this
Collection Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (3 3/4" x 7")
Type:
Archival materials
Stereoscopic photographs
Place:
New Jersey
Orange (N.J.)
Local Numbers:
RSN 7249

Video number 06186
General:
Similar to RSN 5176
Currently stored in box 1.2.8 [5], moved from [148].
Copy and Version Identification Note:
144
Collection Restrictions:
Researchers should view the positive videodisc image first or locate the image in SIRIS on the World Wide Web. The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center.

A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment.,Contact David Haberstich, 633-3721.

Digital image files linked to item-level records in SIRIS Webpac.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Factories -- New Jersey  Search this
Interior architecture -- New Jersey  Search this
Portraits  Search this
Genre/Form:
Stereoscopic photographs
Collection Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection / Series 1: H. C. White glass plates / 1.2: H.C. White Interpositives / RSN Numbers 7150-7249
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0143-ref16534

Thomas A. Edison with his family, at their beautiful home [Llewellyn Park, New Jersey]. [Active no. 10028 : stereo interpositive

Topic:
Other Famous Men (catalog "tour" title)
Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Names:
Edison, Thomas A. (Thomas Alva), 1847-1931  Search this
Collection Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (5" x 8".)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Stereoscopic photographs
Place:
Llewellyn Park (New Jersey)
New Jersey
Date:
[ca. 1900?]
Local Numbers:
RSN 23686
General:
Currently stored in box 3.2.33 [145].
Collection Restrictions:
Researchers should view the positive videodisc image first or locate the image in SIRIS on the World Wide Web. The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center.

A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment.,Contact David Haberstich, 633-3721.

Digital image files linked to item-level records in SIRIS Webpac.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Portraits, Group -- 1900-1910  Search this
Dwellings -- New Jersey  Search this
Family -- New Jersey  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1910 -- Interpositives -- Glass
Stereoscopic photographs
Collection Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection / Series 3: Underwood & Underwood glass plates / 3.2: Underwood and Underwood Positives / RSN Numbers 23676-23777
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0143-ref21453

Thomas Edison and his original dynamo, Edison Works, Orange, N.J. [Active no. 13002 : stereo photonegative.]

Topic:
PROMINENT MEN
Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
H.C. White Co.  Search this
Names:
Edison, Thomas A. (Thomas Alva), 1847-1931  Search this
Collection Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (3 3/4" x 7".)
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Stereoscopic photographs
Place:
New Jersey
Orange (New Jersey)
Local Numbers:
RSN 5176
General:
Similar to RSN 7249. Orig. no. 144.
Currently stored in box 1.1.28 [160A], moved from [148].
Collection Restrictions:
Researchers should view the positive videodisc image first or locate the image in SIRIS on the World Wide Web. The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center.

A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment.,Contact David Haberstich, 633-3721.

Digital image files linked to item-level records in SIRIS Webpac.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Factories -- New Jersey  Search this
Inventors -- New Jersey  Search this
Portraits -- Men -- New Jersey  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1910 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass
Stereoscopic photographs
Collection Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection / Series 1: H. C. White glass plates / 1.1: H.C. White Negatives / RSN Numbers 5137-5241
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0143-ref5153

Thomas Edison and his original dynamo, Edison Works, Orange, N.J. 13002 [photonegative.]

Topic:
PROMINENT MEN
Publisher:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
H.C. White Co.  Search this
Names:
Edison, Thomas A. (Thomas Alva), 1847-1931  Search this
Collection Creator:
Underwood & Underwood  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (3 3/4" x 7")
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Stereoscopic photographs
Place:
New Jersey
Orange (New Jersey)
Local Numbers:
RSN 5176

Video number 03960
General:
Currently stored in box 1.1.28 [160A], moved from [148].
Similar to RSN 7249
Copy and Version Identification Note:
144
Collection Restrictions:
Researchers should view the positive videodisc image first or locate the image in SIRIS on the World Wide Web. The original glass plate is available for inspection if necessary in the Archives Center.

A limited number of fragile glass negatives and positives in the collection can be viewed directly in the Archives Center by prior appointment.,Contact David Haberstich, 633-3721.

Digital image files linked to item-level records in SIRIS Webpac.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Factories -- New Jersey  Search this
Machinery -- New Jersey  Search this
Portraits -- Men -- New Jersey  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1910 -- Black-and-white negatives -- Glass
Stereoscopic photographs
Collection Citation:
Underwood &Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection
Underwood & Underwood Glass Stereograph Collection / Series 1: H. C. White glass plates / 1.1: H.C. White Negatives / RSN Numbers 5137-5241
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0143-ref5214

Thomas Alva Edison Photoprints

Creator:
Keystone View Company  Search this
Shinn, Walter Scott  Search this
Underwood & Underwood, Inc.  Search this
Fotograms (New York (N.Y.)  Search this
International Newsreel Corp (New York (N.Y.)  Search this
ETL Testing Laboratories, Inc.  Search this
Names:
Coolidge, Calvin, President, 1872-1933 -- Photographs  Search this
Eastman, George  Search this
Edison, Thomas A. (Thomas Alva), 1847-1931  Search this
Ford, Henry -- Photographs  Search this
Harding, Warren G. (Warren Gamaliel), 1865-1923  Search this
Hoover, Herbert, President, 1874-1964 -- Photographs  Search this
Lindbergh, Charles A. (Charles Augustus), 1902-1974  Search this
Extent:
0.67 Cubic feet (2 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Photographs
Date:
1890s-1933
Scope and Contents:
This collection is divided into two series: (a) Silver gelatin prints; and (b) xerographic copy prints made in the museum. The collection consists of approximately 340 photoprints (count to be verified) documenting the life of Thomas Alva Edison, especially the later period, beginning in his early fifties, continuing until his death in 1931 at age 84 (there are also later pictures, including his funeral, and awards and sculptures). The photographs are arranged chronologically and are clearly captioned with pasted labels containing dates, places, notations of circumstances and identification of persons. These photoprints show Edison, his family (including his wife and son Charles), friends, associates, and famous persons, including Charles Proteus Steinmetz, Henry Ford, Harvey Firestone, George Eastman, Charles Lindbergh, and Presidents Harding, Coolidge and Hoover, including scenes in New Jersey, Florida, Michigan, and other locations.

Some photographers' rubber stamps appear on the verso of prints. Photographers, studios, and agencies include Fotograms, Underwood & Underwood, Keystone View Co., International Newsreels Photos, and Walter Scott Shinn.

Many of the photographs are not original prints, but were made from copy negatives. Such copies, where fairly obvious, are identified in the Container List.Photographs are clearly captioned with dates, places, occasion and persons identified. More than 300 photoprints show Edison, his family, friends, associates, and famous persons, including Henry Ford, Harvey Firestone, George Eastman, Charles Lindbergh and Presidents Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover. Locations include New Jersey, Florida, Michigan. Photographers, studios, and agencies include Fotograms, Underwood & Underwood, Keystone View Co., International Newsreels Photos, and Walter Scott Shinn.
This collection is divided into two series: (a) Silver gelatin photoprints; and (b) xerographic reference copies made in the museum. The collection consists of approximately 340 photoprints (count to be verified) documenting the life of Thomas Alva Edison, especially the later period, beginning in his early fifties, continuing until his death in 1931 at age 84 (there are also later pictures, including his funeral, and awards and sculptures). The photographs are arranged chronologically and are clearly captioned with pasted labels containing dates, places, notations of circumstances and identification of persons. These photoprints show Edison, his family (including his wife and son Charles), friends, associates, and famous persons, including Charles Proteus Steinmetz, Henry Ford, Harvey Firestone, George Eastman, Charles Lindbergh, and Presidents Harding, Coolidge and Hoover, including scenes in New Jersey, Florida, Michigan, and other locations.

Some photographers' rubber stamps appear on the verso of prints. Photographers, studios, and agencies include Fotograms, Underwood & Underwood, Keystone View Co., International Newsreels Photos, and Walter Scott Shinn.

Many of the photographs are not original prints, but were made from copy negatives. Such copies, where fairly obvious, are identified in the Container List.
Arrangement:
Collection is arranged into two series.

Series 1: Silver Gealtin Prints

Series 2: Xerographic Copy Prints
Biographical / Historical:
Photographs cover Edison's later life, beginning in his early 50's and continuing until his death in 1931 at age 84. Edison with an electric car: the car is a 1914 Detroit Electric Brougham model 47, serial number 5426. It was shipped December 19, 1913 to East Orange New Jersey, with an Edison Battery but with no motor (very unusual) (according to Galen Handy, 2/09/07; see http://earlyelectric.com).

Dr. Bernard Finn, Curator of Electricity, National Museum of American History organized a traveling exhibition based on these and other photographs (most supplied by the Edison National Historic Site), "Edison After the Electric Light: The Challenge of Success," in 1986; it was circulated by the Association of Science-Technology Centers. In 1994 a revised version of the exhibition was prepared (again curated by Dr. Finn) for display in the National Museum of American History basement photography gallery; it was retitled "Edison After Forty: The Challenge of Success." In 1996, copies of the exhibit were given to museums in Japan, India, Yugoslavia, and China for circulation in those countries. Another version of this compilation had been published as "Thomas Alva Edison After Forty: The Challenge of Success in USA Today, July 1994, pp. 84-92.
One of the most famous of all Americans in any walk of life, Thomas Alva Edison hardly needs an introduction. He was the quintessential "genius" who invented or perfected a variety of electrical and technological devices which are still fundamental features of everyday life, not only in the United States, but around the world. Many of his or his companies' "inventions," of course, built on the pioneering work of others. Another Archives Center collection, the Gordon Hendricks Collection, includes the efforts of one scholar to debunk or minimize Edison's personal role in the development of motion picture cameras and projectors.

Edison was born in Milan, Ohio, February 11, 1847, and died October 18, 1931 at 84 years of age. His Edison Electric Light Company was the predecessor of the General Electric Co. While operating this company, and later working at laboratories in Menlo Park and West Orange, New Jersey, he was credited with patents for over one thousand inventions. A bibliography follows.
Provenance:
Collection donated by ETL Testing Laboratories in 1985.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.

Most images probably public domain due to expired copyrights.
Topic:
Inventors -- 1900-1950  Search this
Electricity -- 1900-1930  Search this
Automobiles -- 1910-1920  Search this
Inventions -- 1900-1930  Search this
Presidents -- United States  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1950
Citation:
Edison Photographs, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0299
See more items in:
Thomas Alva Edison Photoprints
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0299
Additional Online Media:

William J. Hammer Collection

Source:
Electricity and Modern Physics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Creator:
Hammer, William J. (Wiiliam Joseph), 1858-1934 ((electrical engineer))  Search this
Former owner:
Electricity and Modern Physics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Names:
Batchelor, George  Search this
Bell, Alexander Graham, 1847-1922  Search this
Berliner, Emile, 1851-1929  Search this
Curie, Marie  Search this
Curie, Pierre  Search this
Edison, Thomas A. (Thomas Alva), 1847-1931  Search this
Jehl, Francis  Search this
Johnson, Edward H.  Search this
Sprague, Frank J.  Search this
Tesla, Nikola, 1857-1943  Search this
Upton, Francis R.  Search this
Extent:
36 Cubic feet (84 boxes, 16 folders)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Correspondence
Photographs
Date:
circa 1874-1935
1955-1957
Summary:
Original documents and papers generated by William J. Hammer and by various companies and individuals with whom he was associated. Includes material related to the research and inventions of Edison, Bell, Tesla, the Curies, etc.
Scope and Contents:
This collection includes original documents and papers generated by Hammer and by various companies and individuals and various secondary sources assembled by Hammer between 1874 and 1934. Hammer's lifelong association with the foremost scientists of his day -- Edison, Bell, Maxim, the Curies, the Wright brothers, and others - afforded him a unique opportunity to collect materials about the development of science along many lines.

This collection, which includes rare historical, scientific, and research materials, was donated by the International Business Machine Corporation to the Museum of History and Technology in 1962 and held by the Division of Electricity. In 1983 it was transferred to the -Archives Center. The collection was badly disorganized when received and contained many fragile documents in poor condition. The collection was organized and arranged as reflected in this register.

The collection documents in photographs, manuscripts, notes, books, pamphlets, and excerpts, the beginnings of electrical technology. In its present state, it comprises four series: Series 1 contains twenty-two boxes of the William J. Hammer Papers, containing both biographical and autobiographical material; Series 2 has twenty boxes of material on Edison; Series 3 consists of thirty-three boxes of reference material; and Series 4 holds twenty-one boxes of photographs and portraits. See the container list beginning on page 39 for more detailed information on the contents of the collection.

Most of the material in the collection is chronologically arranged. However, in some cases alphabetical arrangement has been employed, for example, in the arrangement of portraits of eminent men of electrical science (Series 4, Boxes 78-80, 100-101), and the arrangement of publications (by authors' last names).

Hammer did original laboratory work upon selenium, radium, cathode rays, x-rays, ultra-violet rays, phosphorescence, fluorescence, cold light, and wireless. These aspects of his career are reflected in many parts of the collection: in Series 1 there are articles, notes, diagrams, sketches, graphs,, and correspondence; in Series 3 articles, magazines, news clippings, and bound pamphlets. Tie contributed many technical writings, some of which are found in Series 1.

Papers detailing Hammer's aeronautical activities were transferred to the National Air and Space Museum. They consist of two scrapbooks and one cubic foot of aeronautical photographs of balloons, airplanes, and gliders and one-half cubic foot of correspondence. For further information contact the National Air and Space Museum Archives at (202) 357-3133.
Arrangement:
The collection is divided into four series.

Series 1: William J. Hammer Papers

Series 2: Edisonia

Series 3: Reference Materials

Series 4: Photographs
Biography of William J. Hammer:
William Joseph Hammer, assistant to Thomas Edison and a consulting electrical engineer, was born at Cressona, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania, February 26, 1858, and died March 24, 1934. His parents were Martha Augusta Bech (1827-1861) and William Alexander Hammer (1827-1895). He attended private and public schools in Newark, New Jersey, and university and technical school lectures abroad.

On January 3, 1894, Hammer married Alice Maud White in Cleveland, Ohio. They had one daughter, Mabel (Mrs. Thomas Cleveland Asheton). Alice Hammer died in 1906.

In 1878 Hammer became an assistant to Edward Weston of the Weston Malleable Nickel Company. In December 1879 he began his duties as laboratory assistant to Thomas Edison at Menlo Park, New Jersey. He assisted in experiments on the telephone, phonograph, electric railway, ore separator, electric lighting, and other developing inventions. However, he worked primarily on the incandescent electric lamp and was put in charge of tests and records on that device. In 1880 he was appointed Chief Engineer of the Edison Lamp Works. In this first year, the plant under general manager Francis Upton, turned out 50,000 lamps. According to Edison, Hammer was "a pioneer of Incandescent Electric Lighting"! (Hammer's memoranda and notes, Series 2).

In 1881 Edison sent Hammer to London as Chief Engineer of the English Electric Light Co. In association with E. H. Johnson, general manager, Hammer constructed the Holborn Viaduct Central Electric Light Station in London. This plant included three, thirty-ton "Jumbo" steam-powered dynamos (generators), and operated 3,000 incandescent lamps. Holborn was the first central station ever constructed for incandescent electric lighting. Hammer began its operation on January 12, 1882, by lighting the Holborn Viaduct.

In 1882 Hammer also installed a large isolated lighting plant containing twelve Edison dynamos at the Crystal Palace Electric Exposition and the Edison Exhibit at the Paris Electrical Exposition.

At this time Hammer also designed and built the first electric sign. The sign spelled the name "Edison" in electric lights, and was operated by a hand controlled commutator and a large lever snap switch. It was erected over the organ in the Crystal Palace concert hall.

In 1883 Hammer became Chief Engineer for the German Edison Company (Deutsche Edison Gesellschaft), later known as Allegemeine Elektricitaets Gesellschaft. Hammer laid out and supervised the installations of all Edison plants in Germany. While in Berlin he invented the automatic motor-driven "flashing" electric lamp sign. The sign, which flashed "Edison" letter by letter and as a whole, was placed on the Edison Pavilion at the Berlin Health Exposition in 1883.

On his return to the United States in 1884, Hammer took charge of some of Edison's exhibits, including Edison's personal exhibit, at the International Electrical Exhibition held under the authority of the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia. There he built the first flashing "Column of Light." He also became confidential assistant to E. R. Johnson, president of the parent Edison Electric Light Company. Together with Johnson and Frank J. Sprague, he became an incorporator of the Sprague Electric Railway and Motor company. He also was elected a trustee and the company's first secretary.

Hammer installed an all-electric house at Newark, New Jersey in 1884 and he devised various electrical devices and contrivances for an unusual party for friends and colleagues. (See "Electrical Diablerie" beginning on page 6).

At the end of 1884 Hammer became chief inspector of central stations of the parent Edison Electric Light Company. For over two years he made financial, mechanical, and electrical reports on the various stations throughout the United States. During 1886-87 he was chief engineer and general manager of the Boston Edison Electric Illuminating Company. He also acted as contractor for the company. He laid $140,000 of underground tubing and installed Sprague Electric Motors.

In 1888, acting as an independent engineer, he was placed in charge of completing the 8,000 light plant of the Ponce de Leon Hotel in St.Augustine Florida. At the time this was the largest isolated incandescent lighting plant ever constructed. Also in 1888 Hammer was appointed consulting electrical engineer to the Cincinati Centennial Expostition, and as a contractor designed and installed over $40,000 worth of electrical effects.

Hammer was appointed Edison's personal representative remarked, "There are a lot of crowned heads in the Edison business. How many of them am I subservient to?" Mr. Edison answered "You take no instructions except from Thomas A. Edison." Hammer asked "What are your instructions?" Mr. Edison replied, 'Hammer, I haven't any. Go and make a success of it.' In Paris he set up and operated all of Edison's inventions, which embraced nineteen departments and covered 9,800 square feet of space. He also built a huge Edison lamp forty-five feet high employing 20,000 lamps. Edison remarked, 'He had entire charge of my exhibit at the Paris Exposition, which was very successful." This was the largest individual exhibit at the Exposition, costing $100,000. Mr. Edison replied, "I want you to go right out and have a card engraved William J. Hammer, Representative of Thomas A. Edison. You are the only representative I have here," and he complimented him on his work adding, "The French government will do something handsome for you for your work." Hammer replied that he would not raise his hand to get it and did not believe in giving such honors to people who seek them. Mr. Edison said, "You are wrong. You are a young man and such things are valuable. At any rate if there's anyone in this exhibition who deserves recognition, you do, and I'm going to see you get it' (Hammer's memoranda and notes, Series 2). Thirty-four years later, in 1925, through the personal influence of Edison, Hammer was made Chevalier of the Legion of Honor by the French government.

In 1890 Hammer returned to the United States and opened an office as a consulting electrical engineer. He was in private practice until 1925, making reports, conducting tests, and giving expert testimony in patent suits.

On January 31, 1890, Hammer formed the Franklin Experimental Club of Newark where boys could come and carry on experiments, build apparatus, and listen to lectures. Hammer equipped the laboratory at his own expense. One side was an electrical laboratory and the other a chemical laboratory. About forty-five boys joined. Each boy had a key to the club and a section of a bench with his own drawer for keeping notes, tools, and other equipment. In 1892 the structure was destroyed by fire from a saloon next door, ending Hammer's plans for a large and useful institution.

In 1896 Hammer was elected president of the National Conference of Standard Electrical Rules, which prepared and promulgated the "National Electric Code."

In 1902 in Paris, Hammer visited Pierre and Marie Curie, the discoverers of radium and polonium. They gave him nine tubes of radium and one of polonium to bring back to the United States. He also acquired some sulphide of zinc, with which he mixed radium carbonates, producing a beautifully luminous powder. This was the first radium-luminous material ever made. By mixing the powder with Damar varnish he produced the first radium-luminous paint. He was also the first person to make colored (and white) luminous materials. In 1907 he invented and patented a process for producing colored phosphorescent materials by combining phosphorescent and fluorescent substances.

Back in the United States in the fall of 1902 and into 1903, Hammer applied his radium-luminous materials to thirty different objects: luminous dials for clocks and watches, toys, artificial flowers, radium luminous gun sights, taps and pulls for lamp sockets, switches, keyholes, push buttons, telephone transmitters, poison bottle labels, a small plaster figure, push pins, and writing implements among others. He did not patent the invention due to the scarcity and high cost of radium, but later in an important suit involving foreign and American patents of radium-luminous materials, his testimony and that of other noted scientists and professionals of the day who had visited his home and laboratory proved that his work completely anticipated that of all inventors both in the United States and abroad. In 1902 he was one of the first persons to be burned with radium.

Hammer gave eighty-eight lectures on the Curies' work and on radium and radioactive substances. He wrote the first book published on radium, Radium and other Radioactive Substances, 1903. Hammer proposed and used radium for cancer and tumor treatment, successfully treating and curing a tumor on his own hand in July 1903. Tie also supplied several hospitals with radioactive water he had made and conducted extensive experiments with x-rays, cathode-rays, radium-rays, ultraviolet lights, phosphorescence, fluorescence, and cold-light. He was probably the first to suggest many wartime uses for radium-luminous materials, such as airplanes, instruments, markers, barbed-wire, and landing fields.

Hammer also did important work with selenium, a nonmetallic element that resembles sulphur and tellurium chemically. It is obtained chiefly as a by-product in copper refining, and occurs in allotropic forms. A grey stable form varies in electrical conductivity depending on the intensity of its illumination and is used in electronic devices. Hammer invented selenium cells and apparatus, and suggested industrial uses for selenium and other light-sensitive cells.

In 1886 Hammer devised a system for automatically controlling street and other lights by use of a selenium cell. In 1892 he designed a torpedo that could be steered by searchlight and selenium cell. In the early 1900s he suggested many other uses for "light" cells, including burglar alarms, dynamo control, buoy, railroad signaling, automatic gun firing, transmission of music, stethoscope recorder, automatic operating shutters, automatic boiler feed, snow recorder, and electric motor control.

At the St. Louis Exposition of 1904 Hammer was Chairman of the Jury for Telegraphy, Telephony, and Wireless. He was also a member of the "Departmental" Jury ("Applied Science: Electricity") and of the committee appointed to organize the International Electrical Congress at St. Louis in 1904.

In 1906 Hammer received the "Elliott Cresson" gold medal from the Franklin Institute for his "Historical Collection of Incandescent Electric Lamps," accumulated over thirty-four years. This collection received a special silver medal at the International Electrical Exposition at the Crystal Palace, London, England, in 1882, and "the Grand Prize" at the St. Louis Exposition of 1904.

During the First World war Hammer served as a major on the General Staff of the, Army War College, Washington, D.C., where he was attached to the Inventions Section of the War Plans Division and later to the operations Division at the war Department in charge of electrical and aeronautical war inventions. He did special work at the U.S. Patent office, marking and delaying patents that might be useful to the enemy and served on the Advisory Board of Experts attached to the Alien Property Commission. He was elected Historian general of the Military order of the World War (1926-1928) and was a member of the Society of American Military Engineers. Hammer was an early aeronautics enthusiast and became the owner of one of the first airplanes sold in the United States to an individual. Even in his last few years of his life, Hammer's interest in airplanes did not wane. In 1931, by the permission of the Secretary of the -Navy, Hammer made a twelve-hour flight in the Los Angeles dirigible from the Lakehurst, New Jersey airdrome along the coast of the Atlantic Ocean to New York, flying over New York City at night.

Hammer served on numerous committees. In 1916 he was a member of a special committee, appointed by the Aeronautical Society of America. one of his responsibilities on this committee was to recommend methods for the formation of a reserve force of civilian aviators for the Army. At the start of World War I, Hammer was appointed chairman of a committee on camouflage by the Aeronautical Society. During the war, he flew airplanes and tested sound devices and was also among the first five selected out of thousands for the dissemination of propaganda into many countries. He also examined documents and papers captured from spies and prisoners of war to see if these material contained any technical matter of value to the U. S. Army.

Hammer traveled extensively as a delegate of the Military Order of World War I. For example, in 1922 he attended the aeronautical Congress and Flying Meet in Detroit, Michigan. In the same year he also attended Immigration Conferences of the National Civic Federation in New York.

Between 1922 and 1928 Hammer intensified his efforts in collecting and organizing autographed portraits of eminent scientific men, a project he had been working on for over forty-five years. Tie displayed many of these portraits with his Historical Collection of Incandescent Electrical Lamps in -his New York home. At this time he also prepared an elaborate bibliography on selenium and its industrial and scientific applications.

Major William Joseph Hammer, described by Edison as "my most valuable assistant at Menlo Park" died of pneumonia March 24, 1934.
'Electrical Diablerie':
"ELECTRICAL DIABLERIE"

N.Y. World, January 3, 1885 and Newark, N.J. Daily Advertiser and Journal, January 3, 1885

Some years ago, (1884) on New Year's eve, an entertainment was given at the home of Mr. William J. Hammer, in Newark, N.J., which, for the display of the powers of electricity has seldom, if ever, been equaled. Mr. Hammer, who has for years been associated with Mr. Edison, both in this country and in Europe, desiring to give his old classmates, the "Society of Seventy-Seven," a lively and interesting time, invited them to "an electrical dinner" at his home.

The invitations which were sent out were written upon Western Union telegram blanks with an Edison electric pen. When the guests arrived and entered the gate, the house appeared dark, but as they placed foot upon the lower step of the veranda a row of tiny electric lights over the door blazed out, and the number of the house appeared in bright relief. The next step taken rang the front door bell automatically, the third threw open the door, and at the same time made a connection which lit the gas in the hall by electricity.

Upon entering the house the visitor was invited to divest himself of his coat and hat, and by placing his foot upon an odd little foot-rest near the door, and pressing a pear-shaped pendant hanging from the wall by a silken cord, revolving brushes attached to an electric motor brushed the mud and snow from his shoes and polished them by electricity. As he was about to let go of the switch or button, a contact in it connected with a shocking coil, caused him to drop it like a hot potato. Up-stairs was a bedroom which would be a fortune to a lazy man; he had only to step on the door sill and the gas was instantly lighted. The ceiling was found to be covered with luminous stars, arranged to represent the principal constellations in the heavens-while comets, moons, etc., shone beautifully in the dark. By placing one's head on the pillow, the gas, fifteen feet away, would be extinguished and the phosphorescent stars on the ceiling would shine forth weirdly, and a phosphorescent moon rose from behind a cloud over the mantel and slowly describing a huge arch disappeared behind a bank of phosphorescent clouds on the other side of the room; by pressing the toe to the foot-board of the bed the gas could again be relit.

Pouring a teacup of water into the water clock on the mantel and setting the indicator would assure the awakening of the sleeper at whatever hour he might desire. There was also in the hall outside the room a large drum, which could be set to beat by electricity at the hour when the family wished to arise. The whole house was fitted throughout with electric bells, burglar alarms, fire alarms, telephones, electric cigar lighters, medical coils, phonographs, electric fans, thermostats, heat regulating devices, some seven musical instruments, operated by electricity, etc.

Upon the evening referred to nearly every. piece of furniture in the parlor was arranged to play its part. Sit on one chair and out went the gas, take another seat and it would light again; sitting on an ottoman produced a mysterious rapping under the floor; pressure on some chairs started off drums, triangles, tambourines, cymbals, chimes and other musical instruments; in fact, it seemed unsafe to sit down anywhere. The quests stood about in groups and whispered, each hoping to see his neighbor or a new comer caught napping.

One visitor (Brown) secured an apparently safe seat, and was telling a funny story--he had left electricity far behind--but just as he reached the climax, a pretty funnel-shaped Japanese affair like a big dunce cap, that seemed but a ceiling ornament which was held in place by an electromagnet, dropped from overhead and quietly covered him up, thus silently extinguishing the story and the story-teller.

A big easy chair placed invitingly between the folding doors joining the double, parlors sent the unwary sitter flying out of its recesses by the sudden deafening clamor of twenty-one electric bells hidden in the folds of the draperies hanging in the doorway. In a convenient position stood the silver lemonade pitcher and cup, the former was filled with the tempting beverage, but no matter how much a guest might desire to imbibe one touch convinced him that the pitcher and cup were so heavily charged with electricity as to render it impossible for him to pour out a drink or even to let go until the electricity was switched off from the hidden induction coil.

Some one proposed music, and half a selection had been enjoyed when something seemed to give way inside the piano, and suddenly there emanated from that bewitched instrument a conglomeration of sounds that drowned the voices of the singers, and the keys seemed to beat upon a horrible jangle of drums, gongs and various noise-producing implements which were fastened inside of and underneath the piano.

After the guest were treated to a beautiful display of electrical experiments, under the direction of Mr. Hammer, and Professor George C. Sonn, they were escorted to the dining-room, where an electrical dinner had been prepared and was presided over by 'Jupiter," who was in full dress, and sat at the head of the table, where by means of a small phonograph inside of his anatomy he shouted, "Welcome, society of Seventy-Seven and their friends to Jove's festive board." The menu was as follows: "Electric Toast," "Wizard Pie," "Sheol Pudding," "Magnetic Cake," "Telegraph Cake," "Telephone Pie," "Ohm-made Electric Current Pie," "Menlo Park Fruit," "Incandescent Lemonade," "'Electric Coffee" and "Cigars," etc., and music by Prof. Mephistopheles' Electric Orchestra.

About the table were pretty bouquets, and among the flowers shone tiny incandescent lamps, while near the center of the table was placed an electric fan which kept the air cool and pure, and at each end was a tiny Christmas tree lighted with small incandescent lamps, planted in a huge dish of assorted nuts and raisins. Each lamp had a dainty piece of ribbon attached to it upon which the initials of the Society and the date were printed, and each guest received a lamp to take away with him as a souvenir of the occasion. Plates of iced cakes made in the form of telephones, switches, bells, electric lamps, batteries, etc., stood on each side of the center piece.

Promptly at 12 o'clock, as the chimes of the distant churches came softly to the ears of the assembled quests, pandemonium seemed to change places with the modest dining-room. A cannon on the porch, just outside the door, and another inside the chimney, were unexpectedly discharged; and at this sudden roar, every man sprang back from the table; the lights disappeared; huge fire-gongs, under each chair beat a tattoo. The concussion produced by the cannon in the fireplace caused several bricks to come crashing down the chimney, and as the year of 1884 faded away, the table seemed bewitched. The "Sheol Pudding" blazed forth green and red flames illuminating the room, tiny tin boxes containing 'Greek" fire which had been placed over each window and door were electrically ignited by spirals of platinum iridium wire heated by a storage battery and blazed up suddenly; the "Telegraph Cake" clicked forth messages said to be press reports of the proceedings (it was also utilized to count the guests and click off the answers to various questions put to it); bells rang inside the pastry; incandescent lamps burned underneath the colored lemonade; the thunderbolt pudding discharged its long black bolts all over the room (long steel spiral springs covered with black cloth) and loud spirit rapping occurred under the table. The silver knives, forks and spoons were charged with electricity from a shocking coil and could not be touched, while the coffee and toast (made by electricity) were made rapidly absorbed; the "Magnetic Cake' disappeared; the "Wizard" and "Current Pies' vanished, and 'Jupiter" raising a glass to his lips began to imbibe.

The effect was astonishing! The gas instantly went out, a gigantic skeleton painted with luminous paint appeared and paraded about the room, while Jupiter's nose assumed the color of a genuine toper! His green eyes twinkled, the electric diamonds in his shirt front (tiny lamps) blazed forth and twinkled like stars, as he phonographically shouted "Happy New Year'. Happy New Year!" This "Master of Cererionies' now becoming more gentle, the guests turned their attention to the beautiful fruit piece, over four feet high, that stood in the center of the table. From the fruit hung tiny electric lamps, and the whole was surmounted by a bronze figure of Bartholdils "Statue of Liberty;" uplifted in "Miss Liberty's" right hand burned an Edison lamp no larger than a bean.

The dinner finished, and there was much that was good to eat, notwithstanding the "magical" dishes which they were first invited to partake of, speeches were delivered by Messrs. Hammer, Rutan, McDougall, 'Brown, Duneka, and Dawson, and an original poem was read by Mr. Van Wyck. Upon repairing to the parlors the guest saw Mr. Hammer's little sister, May, dressed in white and mounted upon a pedestal, representing the "Goddess of Electricity:" tiny electric lamps hung in her hair, and were also suspended as earrings, while she held a wand surmounted by a star, and containing a very small electric lamp.

Not the least interesting display of electricity took place in front of the house, where a fine display of bombs, rockets, Roman candles, Greek fire and other fireworks were set off by electricity, which was by the way, the first time this had been accomplished. The guests were requested to press button switches ranged along the front veranda railing thus causing electricity from a storage battery to heat to a red heat tiny platinum iridium spirals attached to each fuse of the various pieces of fireworks thus sending up rocket after rocket, as well as igniting the other pieces which had been placed in the roadway in front of the house.

An attempt was made to send up a large hot air balloon to which was attached a tiny storage battery and an incandescent signal lamp but a sudden gust of wind caused the ballon to take fire as it rose fr(xn the ground. This constituted the only experiment made during the evening which was not an unqualified success. The innumerable electrical devices shown during the progress of the dinner were all operated by Mr. Hammer, who controlled various switches fastened to the under side of the table and attached to a switchboard, which rested on his lap, while the two cannons were fired by lever switches on the floor, which he operated by the pressure of the foot. Electricity was supplied by primary and storage batteries placed under the table. After an exhibition of electrical apparatus and experiments with a large phonograph, the guests departed with a bewildered feeling that somehow they had been living half a century ahead of the new year."
Expositions and Exhibitions:
The many Expositions held at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries were important for the Edison Electric Company's future business. In particular the Paris Electrical Exposition, 1881, and the Crystal Palace Exposition in London in 1892 were introductions for the company's international business enterprises. Edison, therefore, sent his ablest men from the Menlo Park staff (Batchelor, Hammer, Jehl, Johnson) to Europe to oversee the installation and promotion of the company's exhibits.

THE INTERNATIONAL PARIS EXPOSITION OF 1881

The International Paris Electrical Exposition was held during the summer of 1881. Many of Edison's electric lighting systems, ranging from arc lights to incandescent devices, were exhibited. A model of the Edison central-station lighting system showed an arrangement of incandescent lights within a complete electrical distributing system, including novel appliances and controls of the Edison system. "The completeness of its conception made a profound impression on the foremost European electrical engineers of that era." (Josephson, Matthew. Edison, A Biography. p. 252). Edison also exhibited his first "Jumbon generator. It was "direct-connected" to its driving engine, another area in which Edison pioneered. Edison improved upon the original design of William Wallace's "Telemachon' - a generator coupled to a water-powered turbine. Wallace had earlier in the decade produced the first dynamo in America.

Charles Batchelor headed the Edison exhibits within Paris. Edison received many gold medals and diplomas and was awarded the ribbon of the Legion of Honor.

The William J. Hammer Collection contains various reports and catalogues exhibited at the International Exposition of Electricity. (Series 3, Box 44, Folders 1-4)

THE CRYSTAL PALACE EXHIBITION OF 1882

At the Crystal Palace Exhibition of 1882 in London, Edison displayed a great many of his inventions, including: the steam dynamo; specimens of street pipes and service boxes used in the Edison underground system of conductors, and the system of house conductors with devices for preventing abnormal increase of energy in house circuits; apparatus for measuring the resistance of his lamps, for measuring the energy consumed in lamps, and rheostats for restoring currents; also thermogalvano-meters, carbon rheostats, dynamometers, photometers, carbon regulators, Weber meters,, current regulators, and circuit breakers for controlling electric light circuits; the carbon relay, the pressure relay, and the expansion relay; the telegraph system in Morse characters; and the Roman character automatic telegraph.

Thomas Edison also exhibited the carbon telephone, the musical telephonograph, telephone repeater, and numerous apparatus for demonstrating the method of varying the resistance of a closed circuit by contact with carbon, illustrative of the experimental factors of the Edison carbon transmitter. Incandescent lamps, the process of the manufacture of lamps, and various designs of electric light chandeliers were also on display.

Hammer won the silver medal at the exposition for the first complete development of the incandescent electric lamp from its initial stages to date. At the exhibition the first hand-operated flashing electric lamp sign was displayed, which was invented and built by Hammer.

The collection contains photographs of the Edison dynamo, and the Edison Electric Lighting Plant of 1882 erected by Hammer. The official Catalogue of the International Electric and Gas Exhibition, and various articles from the Daily Telegraph, Daily Chronicle, and Daily News are also included within the collection (Series 4, Box 99 and Series 3, Box 42, Folder 1-2).

THE BERLIN EXPOSITION OF 1883.

The Berlin Exposition of 1883 had the first motored flashing electric sign designed, built and operated by Hammer. The electric sign spelled out the word "Edison" letter by letter and was used on the Edison pavilion in the Health Exposition. It has most features of today's flashing sign.

The collection contains two photographs of the first flashing sign (Series 4, Box 99).

THE FRANKLIN INSTITUTE INTERNATIONAL ELECTRICAL EXHIBITION OF 1884

The Franklin Institute International Electrical Exhibition was held in Philadelphia from September 2 to October 14, 1884. Many of Edison's companies had display booths at the exhibition. The Edison Electric Light Company showed in operation their system of house lighting as supplied from a central station. The Edison Company for Isolated Lighting exhibited their system of lighting factories, hotels, hospitals, and other places situated beyond the reach of a central lighting station. A full assortment of Edison lamps and dynamos also made up parts of other exhibits. Also displayed at the exhibition was the first flashing column of light, which Hammer designed and built.

Included within the collection are a variety of photographs of the exhibitions. Four pamphlets also are contained in the collection (Series 3, Box 1, Folder 3), (Series 4, Box 99).

THE EXPOSITION OF THE OHIO VALLEY AND THE CENTRAL STATES OF 1888

The Exposition of the Ohio Valley and Central States, in Cincinnati from July 4 to October 27, was in honor of the one hundredth anniversary of the settlement of Cincinnati. The exposition showed the progress and ramifications of the first hundred years of this settlement.

The space occupied by permanent buildings was greater than that covered by any building for exhibiting purposes on the Western continent. T',ie exposition developed the Electric Light Plant to make a special feature of electric lighting in the evening. Several companies used this opportunity to make exhibits of their apparatus and for their equipment to be used for illumination. The Edison Lamps were used for displays in showcases and pavilions of exhibitors of the Park Building.

The collection contains photographs of the halls of the exposition and a poster which is a souvenir of the electrical display of the exposition. An official Guide of the Centennial Exposition of the Ohio Valley and Central States is included within the collection. (Series 4, Box 99), (Series 3, Box 42, Folder 4).

THE SUMMER CARNIVAL AND ELECTRICAL EXHIBITION, ST. JOHN, NEW BRUNSWICK, 1889

The Summer Carnival and Electric Exhibition held at St. John, New Brunswick, Canada was to celebrate the opening of the Canadian Pacific Short Line to St. John and Portland. The Electrical Exhibition was the most popular of the displays present, containing the Monster Edison Lanm, the Mysterious Electric Fountain, and many other inventions.

The William J. Hammer Collection contains a poster that illustrates some of the leading exhibits at the Electrical Exhibition (Series 4, Box 99).

PARIS UNIVERSAL EXPOSITION OF 1889

The Universal Exposition of 1889 held in Paris was larger than all previous expositions held there. The famous Eiffel Tower was its principal attraction.

A large portion of the exhibit hall within the Palace of Mechanical Industries contained Thomas Edison's electrical inventions, including various electric lamps for use in houses. Variations of the telephone also were shown. During the Paris Exposition Europeans were exposed to the phonograph for the first time. Hammer represented Edison's interests at the Paris Exhibition.

The collection contains articles from New York World, New York Herald and Electrical World on Edison's exhibits at the Paris Exposition (Series 3, Box 44, folder 6). A scrapbook of photographs from the exhibition showing exhibit buildings and halls and loose photographs showing Edison's exhibits are included in the collection (Series 4, Box 98).

THE CRYSTAL PALACE EXHIBITION OF 1892

The Crystal Palace Exhibition of 1892 was held in London. Hammer displayed a great variety of products in the machine room of the Electrical Exhibition. Sockets for controlling individual incandescent lamps on alternating currents and the Ward Arc Lamp for use on incandescent circuits were just a few of the items displayed. Edison's companies displayed specimens of all types of incandescent electric lamps for public and private illumination. They also displayed primary batteries for use in telegraphy, telephony, household work, and engines.

The William, J. Hammer Collection contains a variety of photographs of the electrical exhibition. The Official Catalogue and Guide of the Electrical Exhibition is also contained within the collection (Series 4, Box 99), (Series 3, Folder 2, Box 42).

LOUISIANA PURCHASE EXPOSITION, 1904

The Louisiana Purchase Expostition of 1904, held in St. Louis, Missouri from April 30 to December 1, celebrated the centennial of the Louisiana Purchase. The nineteen million people who attended made it the largest exposition ever. The year 1904 marked the twenty-fifth anniversary of Edison's invention of the carbon filament lamp and central power station system.

F.J.V. Skiff, the exhibits classifier for the fair, developed a twofold classificatory arrangement. He organized exhibits in a sequential synopsis corresponding to the sixteen different departments of the exposition. The principal exhibition buildings were built in the shape of a fan. The departments of education, art, liberal arts, and applied sciences-including electricity - headed the classification, Skiff noted, because they "equip man for the battle and prepare him for the enjoyments of life.' Departments devoted to displays of raw materials such as agriculture, horticulture, !inning, forestry, fish and game came next. Anthropology, social economy, and physical culture concluded the classification.

The Hammer collection contains photographs of Hammer with other Chairmen of Domestic and Foreign Jurors of the Electricity Section of the International Jury of Awards of the Louisiana Exposition and Hammer as chairman of the jury on telegraphy, telephony, and wireless. (Series 4, Box 102). A pamphlet by the American Telephone and Telegraph Company on the exhibit of the Radiophone at the Department of Applied Science is also part of the collection (Series 3, Box 42, Folder 5).

THE PANAMA-PACIFIC EXPOSITION OF 1915

The Panama Pacific Exposition celebrated the opening of the Panama Canal and the four hundredth anniversary of the European discovery of the Pacific Ocean. It was held in San Francisco from February 20 to December 4, 1915. Approximately nineteen million people attended the exposition.

The eleven main buildings of the exposition were grouped around a central court of the Sun and Stars at the entrance of which was the famous Tower of Jewels. The main group of exhibits comprised the Palaces of Education, Liberal Arts, Manufactures, Varied Industries, Mines,

Transportation, Agriculture, Horticulture and all kinds of food products. During the exposition special days were set aside to honor industrialists Henry Ford and Thomas Edison. The Pacific Gas and Electric Company provided a large searchlight to flash out a Morse code greeting on the nighttime sky for their arrival.

The William J. Hammer Collection contains a pamphlet on the "Illumination of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition." The pamphlet describes the lighting of the exposition, and the use of arc lamps ' searchlights, incandescent electric lamps, and gas lamps (Series 4, Box 99), (Series 3, Box 43).
Provenance:
Collection donated by IBM, 1962.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Fluorescence  Search this
Electrical engineering  Search this
Incandescent lamps  Search this
Phosphorescence  Search this
Selenium cells  Search this
Cathode rays  Search this
X-rays  Search this
Radium  Search this
Genre/Form:
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Photographs -- 1850-1900
Photographs -- 20th century
Citation:
William J. Hammer Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0069
See more items in:
William J. Hammer Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0069
Additional Online Media:

Arthur Williams, Thomas A. Edison, John W. Lieb, Nicholas F. Brady and Thomas E. Murray in office of Mr. Murray [photoprint]

Donor:
ETL Testing Laboratories, Inc.  Search this
Names:
Edison, Thomas A. (Thomas Alva), 1847-1931  Search this
Collection Creator:
Keystone View Company  Search this
Shinn, Walter Scott  Search this
Underwood & Underwood, Inc.  Search this
Fotograms (New York (N.Y.)  Search this
International Newsreel Corp (New York (N.Y.)  Search this
ETL Testing Laboratories, Inc.  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on paper., 9.0" x 10.1")
Container:
Box 1, Folder 28 or 12
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1908
Local Numbers:
AC0299-0000001 (AC Scan)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use by appointment. Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.

Most images probably public domain due to expired copyrights.
Topic:
Inventors  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1950 -- Black-and-white photoprints -- Silver gelatin
Collection Citation:
Edison Photographs, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
See more items in:
Thomas Alva Edison Photoprints
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0299-ref583

[Edison and other men on the stairs and porch, black & white photoprint]

Collector:
Hammer, William J., (electrical engineer) (Wiiliam Joseph), 1858-1934  Search this
Names:
Edison, Thomas A. (Thomas Alva), 1847-1931  Search this
Collection Source:
Electricity and Modern Physics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Hammer, William J. (Wiiliam Joseph), 1858-1934 ((electrical engineer))  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (Silver gelatin on paper., 9.6" x 13.0")
Container:
Box 97, Folder 2
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
Circa 1880
Scope and Contents:
Edison is in the center.
Local Numbers:
AC0069-0000021 (AC scan number)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment. Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Laboratories  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1890-1910 -- Black-and-white photoprints
Collection Citation:
William J. Hammer Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
William J. Hammer Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0069-ref3847

[Thomas Edison to Leo Baekeland: typescript letter.]

Author:
Edison, Thomas A. (Thomas Alva), 1847-1931  Search this
Names:
Baekeland, L. H. (Leo Hendrik), 1863-1944  Search this
Weston, Edward, Dr.(inventor)  Search this
Collection Creator:
Baekeland, L. H. (Leo Hendrik), 1863-1944  Search this
Extent:
2 Pages (Ink on paper., 11.1" x 8.4".)
Container:
Box 9, Folder 3
Type:
Archival materials
Pages
Signatures (names)
Letters (correspondence)
Typescripts
Date:
21 October 1924
Scope and Contents:
Typed on stationery with letterhead, "From the Laboratory / of / Thomas A. Edison, / Orange, N.Y." Edison writes to contest statements made by Baekeland about the efficiency of electrical dynamos built by Dr. Edward Weston, a competitor of Edison's. With Edison's signature and a handwritten postscript: "All this is well known to the Electrical [sic] / world and article is often quoted in / derision."
Local Numbers:
AC0005-0000036-1.tif (AC Scan: p. 1)

AC0005-0000036-2.tif (AC Scan, p. 2)
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Electric generators  Search this
Dynamos  Search this
Genre/Form:
Signatures (names)
Letters (correspondence) -- 1920-1930
Typescripts -- 1920-1930
Collection Citation:
Leo Baekeland Papers, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
See more items in:
Leo H. Baekeland Papers
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0005-ref3048
Additional Online Media:

[World's Fair photographs]

Collector:
Hammer, William J., (electrical engineer) (Wiiliam Joseph), 1858-1934  Search this
Names:
Exposition universelle de 1889 (Paris, France)  Search this
Louisiana Purchase Exposition (1904 : Saint Louis, Mo.)  Search this
Edison, Thomas A. (Thomas Alva), 1847-1931  Search this
Collection Source:
Electricity and Modern Physics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Hammer, William J. (Wiiliam Joseph), 1858-1934 ((electrical engineer))  Search this
Extent:
2 Boxes (Approx. 150 photographs)
Container:
Box 98
Box 99
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Place:
Tour Eiffel (Paris, France)
Paris (France)
Saint Louis (Mo.) -- 1900-1910
Berlin (Germany)
Philadelphia (Pa.)
Date:
[1881-1904]
Scope and Contents:
Approx. 150 photographs of five World's Fairs: the Exposition Universelle (Paris 1889); the Berlin Exposition (1883, with an 1881 photograph); the London Crystal Palace Exposition (1882); the 1884 Philadelphia fair; the St. Louis fair, 1904; etc. Edison's inventions are numerous, but other scenes, such as the Eiffel Tower, are also included.
Local Numbers:
85-8784 (OIPP Neg.)
General:
Photographs in boxes 98-99, Series 4, Photographs.
Collection Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Exhibitions  Search this
World's fairs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- Archives Center
Collection Citation:
William J. Hammer Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
William J. Hammer Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0069-ref3826

Scrapbook

Author:
Edison, Thomas A (Thomas Alva) 1847-1931 http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/relators/aut http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n80126308 http://viaf.org/viaf/66552944/ http://dbpedia.org/resource/Thomas_Edison  Search this
Donor:
Dibner, Bern http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/relators/fmo http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/relators/dnr DSI http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n80015691 http://viaf.org/viaf/29661946  Search this
Burndy Library http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/relators/fmo http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/relators/dnr DSI http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n83827146 http://viaf.org/viaf/149783636  Search this
Author:
Burndy Library Manuscripts Collection (Smithsonian Libraries) DSI  Search this
Physical description:
[34] pages : illustrations, portraits ; 31 cm
Type:
Mixed archival materials
Manuscripts (documents).)
Sources
Date:
1879
1879-1897
Topic:
Science--History  Search this
Technology--History  Search this
History  Search this
Science  Search this
Technology  Search this
Call number:
MSS 000251 B
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_169448

Papers

Author:
Edison, Thomas A (Thomas Alva) 1847-1931 http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/relators/aut http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n80126308 http://viaf.org/viaf/66552944/ http://dbpedia.org/resource/Thomas_Edison  Search this
Donor:
Dibner, Bern http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/relators/fmo http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/relators/dnr DSI http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n80015691 http://viaf.org/viaf/29661946  Search this
Burndy Library http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/relators/fmo http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/relators/dnr DSI http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n83827146 http://viaf.org/viaf/149783636  Search this
Author:
Burndy Library Manuscripts Collection (Smithsonian Libraries) DSI  Search this
Physical description:
6 items
Type:
Mixed archival materials
Manuscripts (documents).)
Sources
Date:
1879
1879-1924
Topic:
Electricity  Search this
Science--History  Search this
Technology--History  Search this
History  Search this
Science  Search this
Technology  Search this
Call number:
MSS 000470 A
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_169735

Letter

Author:
Stearns, J. B http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/relators/aut http://viaf.org/viaf/47353615/ http://dbpedia.org/resource/Joseph_Barker_Stearns  Search this
Donor:
Dibner, Bern http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/relators/fmo http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/relators/dnr DSI http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n80015691 http://viaf.org/viaf/29661946  Search this
Burndy Library http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/relators/fmo http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/relators/dnr DSI http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n83827146 http://viaf.org/viaf/149783636  Search this
Author:
Edison, Thomas A (Thomas Alva) 1847-1931 http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n80126308 http://viaf.org/viaf/66552944/ http://dbpedia.org/resource/Thomas_Edison  Search this
Burndy Library Manuscripts Collection (Smithsonian Libraries) DSI  Search this
Physical description:
1 item (6 leaves)
Type:
Manuscripts
Manuscripts (documents).)
Sources
Date:
1878
Topic:
Science--History  Search this
Scientific apparatus and instruments  Search this
Technology--History  Search this
History  Search this
Science  Search this
Technology  Search this
Call number:
MSS 001408 A
Data Source:
Smithsonian Libraries
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:siris_sil_179570

E. R. Beers Electric Company Collection

Source:
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of  Search this
Creator:
Beers, E.R.  Search this
Names:
E.R. Beers Electric Supply Company.  Search this
General Electric Company  Search this
Schuylkill Construction and Supply Company.  Search this
Edison, Thomas A. (Thomas Alva), 1847-1931  Search this
Former owner:
Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Division of  Search this
Extent:
6.3 Cubic feet (6 boxes)
Type:
Archival materials
Collection descriptions
Business records
Papers
Place:
Shenandoah (Pa.)
Bloomsburg (Pa.)
Date:
1909-1938
Summary:
The collection documents E.R. Beers's business records, his personal collection of Edison trivia, and correspondence between Beers and General Electric (1909-1922).
Scope and Contents note:
This collection consisting of records of the Schuylkill Electric Construction & Supply Co. and the E.R. Beers Electric Co. and includes correspondece, advertisements, sales receipts, limited cash statements, and bids for electrical modifications. The bulk of the data is from the period from 1909 through the 1920's and mid 1930's. The collection contains advertisements that reflect the introduction of the electrical appliance to the home. Important transitions in the electrical industry are represented. For example, in July 1910 there is an acceptance by Lehigh Valley Railroad of rewiring of the Shenandoah Station according to "the rules and regulations of the Underwriter's Association" and agreement to furnish certificate of approval. Further, in February 1922 there the statement "Service for direct current motors is gradually being eliminated and will eventually be discontinued ... ."
Biographical/Historical note:
The Schuylkill Electric Construction & Supply Co., a small electrical operation in a very important period of time, 1909 to 1938, particularly for electrical appliances reflecting the conversion of gas lighting to incandescent lighting to decorative and arc lighting. At first there were two stores, one in Reading, Pennsylvania and one in Shenandoah, PA. The partnership was dissolved January 1911, resulting in the closing of the Reading, Pennsylvania store and the continued operation of the Shenandoah, Pennsylvania store. The Kauffman Electric Co., Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania was purchased in 1919 and named the E.R. Beers Electric Company.
Provenance:
Collection donated by E.R. Beers, December 1985.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Electrical engineering  Search this
Electric apparatus and appliances  Search this
Electrical equipment  Search this
Genre/Form:
Business records -- 20th century
Papers
Citation:
E.R. Beers Electric Co. Collection,1909-1938, Archives Center, National Museum of American History.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0232
See more items in:
E. R. Beers Electric Company Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0232

[Edison with voice recording machine and large globe, black & white photoprint]

Collector:
Hammer, William J., (electrical engineer) (Wiiliam Joseph), 1858-1934  Search this
Names:
Edison, Thomas A. (Thomas Alva), 1847-1931  Search this
Collection Source:
Electricity and Modern Physics, Division of, NMAH, SI.  Search this
Collection Creator:
Hammer, William J. (Wiiliam Joseph), 1858-1934 ((electrical engineer))  Search this
Extent:
1 Item (10.4" x 13.5")
Type:
Archival materials
Photographs
Date:
1907
Scope and Contents:
Photograph by Pach Bros. in New York.
Arrangement:
Series 4, box 97a. folder ?.
Local Numbers:
AC0069-0000016 (AC scan number)
Restrictions:
Unrestricted research use on site by appointment. Photographs must be handled with cotton gloves unless protected by sleeves.
Collection Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Sound -- Recording and reproducing  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs -- 1900-1910 -- Black-and-white photoprints
Collection Citation:
William J. Hammer Collection, Archives Center, National Museum of American History
See more items in:
William J. Hammer Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-nmah-ac-0069-ref3843

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