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Harpo Marx

Artist:
Miguel Covarrubias, 22 Nov 1904 - 4 Feb 1957  Search this
Sitter:
Harpo Marx, 23 Nov 1893 - 28 Sep 1964  Search this
Medium:
Tempera and watercolor on paper
Dimensions:
Image/Sheet: 35.6cm x 30.5cm (14" x 12")
Type:
Drawing
Date:
c. 1935
Topic:
Caricature  Search this
Harpo Marx: Male  Search this
Harpo Marx: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Theater  Search this
Harpo Marx: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Movie  Search this
Harpo Marx: Performing Arts\Performer\Comedian  Search this
Harpo Marx: Performing Arts\Performer\Vaudeville  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.96.44
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm46bbad4fa-1c6f-4f9e-a55e-3bd164c15031
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.96.44

The Marx Brothers in "Horse Feathers"

Artist:
Joseph Grant, 15 May 1908 - 6 May 2005  Search this
Sitter:
Chico Marx, 22 Mar 1891 - 11 Oct 1961  Search this
Harpo Marx, 23 Nov 1893 - 28 Sep 1964  Search this
Groucho Marx, 2 Oct 1895 - 19 Aug 1977  Search this
Medium:
India ink, gouache and pencil on illustration board
Dimensions:
Image: 15.4cm x 45.5cm (6 1/16" x 17 15/16")
Sheet: 23.2cm x 51.7cm (9 1/8" x 20 3/8")
Type:
Drawing
Date:
1932
Topic:
Interior  Search this
Costume\Headgear\Hat  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Eyeglasses  Search this
Equipment\Smoking Implements\Cigar  Search this
Caricature  Search this
Equipment\Blackboard  Search this
Equipment\Sports Equipment\Football  Search this
Groucho Marx: Male  Search this
Groucho Marx: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Theater  Search this
Groucho Marx: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Movie  Search this
Groucho Marx: Performing Arts\Performer\Comedian  Search this
Groucho Marx: Performing Arts\Performer\Television Personality  Search this
Groucho Marx: Performing Arts\Performer\Vaudeville  Search this
Groucho Marx: Oscar  Search this
Chico Marx: Male  Search this
Chico Marx: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Theater  Search this
Chico Marx: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Movie  Search this
Chico Marx: Performing Arts\Performer\Comedian  Search this
Chico Marx: Performing Arts\Performer\Vaudeville  Search this
Harpo Marx: Male  Search this
Harpo Marx: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Theater  Search this
Harpo Marx: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Movie  Search this
Harpo Marx: Performing Arts\Performer\Comedian  Search this
Harpo Marx: Performing Arts\Performer\Vaudeville  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution; gift of Carol Grubb and Jennifer Grant Castrup
Object number:
NPG.93.451
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm44a99d2e7-e987-4423-80cb-9098fc2ceee6
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.93.451

Harpo Marx

Artist:
Joseph Grant, 15 May 1908 - 6 May 2005  Search this
Walt Disney Studios, founded 1922  Search this
Sitter:
Harpo Marx, 23 Nov 1893 - 28 Sep 1964  Search this
Medium:
Pencil and colored pencil on paper
Dimensions:
Image: 17.2cm x 14cm (6 3/4" x 5 1/2")
Sheet: 24.1cm x 30.5cm (9 1/2" x 12")
Type:
Drawing
Date:
c. 1935
Topic:
Nature & Environment\Animal\Horse  Search this
Caricature  Search this
Equipment\Sports Equipment\Polo Mallet  Search this
Costume\Headgear\Hat\Derby  Search this
Harpo Marx: Male  Search this
Harpo Marx: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Theater  Search this
Harpo Marx: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Movie  Search this
Harpo Marx: Performing Arts\Performer\Comedian  Search this
Harpo Marx: Performing Arts\Performer\Vaudeville  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.96.101
Restrictions & Rights:
© Disney Enterprises, Inc.
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4e17ea511-f747-4584-96db-e14ab24f5b3b
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.96.101

Marx Brothers

Title:
Chico Marx, Groucho Marx and Harpo Marx
Artist:
Al Hirschfeld, 21 Jun 1903 - 21 Jan 2003  Search this
Sitter:
Chico Marx, 22 Mar 1891 - 11 Oct 1961  Search this
Groucho Marx, 2 Oct 1895 - 19 Aug 1977  Search this
Harpo Marx, 23 Nov 1893 - 28 Sep 1964  Search this
Medium:
Ink, opaque white, sheet music, silk, felt, steel wool, fur, string and steel wool on illustration board
Dimensions:
Image: 31.3 x 27.6cm (12 5/16 x 10 7/8")
Mount: 43.8 x 38.8cm (17 1/4 x 15 1/4")
Mat: 44.2 x 40.3cm (17 3/8 x 15 7/8")
Frame: 58.4 × 43.2 × 4.1cm (23 × 17 × 1 5/8")
Type:
Collage
Date:
1935
Topic:
Costume\Headgear\Hat  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Eyeglasses  Search this
Equipment\Smoking Implements\Cigar  Search this
Caricature  Search this
Music\Sheet music  Search this
Drawing  Search this
Collage  Search this
Groucho Marx: Male  Search this
Groucho Marx: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Theater  Search this
Groucho Marx: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Movie  Search this
Groucho Marx: Performing Arts\Performer\Comedian  Search this
Groucho Marx: Performing Arts\Performer\Television Personality  Search this
Groucho Marx: Performing Arts\Performer\Vaudeville  Search this
Groucho Marx: Oscar  Search this
Chico Marx: Male  Search this
Chico Marx: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Theater  Search this
Chico Marx: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Movie  Search this
Chico Marx: Performing Arts\Performer\Comedian  Search this
Chico Marx: Performing Arts\Performer\Vaudeville  Search this
Harpo Marx: Male  Search this
Harpo Marx: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Theater  Search this
Harpo Marx: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Movie  Search this
Harpo Marx: Performing Arts\Performer\Comedian  Search this
Harpo Marx: Performing Arts\Performer\Vaudeville  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.87.92
Restrictions & Rights:
© Al Hirschfeld
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4e10067d8-1b28-4447-9984-1c2e14b51298
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.87.92

Thanatopsis Club

Artist:
William Auerbach-Levy, 1889 - 1964  Search this
Sitter:
Franklin Pierce Adams, 15 Nov 1881 - 23 Mar 1960  Search this
George Simon Kaufman, 16 Nov 1889 - 2 Jun 1961  Search this
Gerald Henry Brooks, c. 1895 - 1974  Search this
Harpo Marx, 23 Nov 1893 - 28 Sep 1964  Search this
Henry Wise Miller, 1876 - 1954  Search this
Matthew Heywood Campbell Broun, 7 Dec 1888 - 18 Dec 1939  Search this
Medium:
India ink, gouache and pencil on board
Dimensions:
Image: 25.1cm x 37.2cm (9 7/8" x 14 5/8")
Sheet: 35.6cm x 48.3cm (14" x 19")
Type:
Drawing
Date:
1930
Topic:
Home Furnishings\Furniture\Seating\Chair  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Eyeglasses  Search this
Equipment\Smoking Implements\Cigar  Search this
Home Furnishings\Furniture\Table  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Eyeglasses\Pince-nez  Search this
Interior\Domestic  Search this
Caricature  Search this
Home Furnishings\Lighting Devices\Lamp  Search this
Costume\Dress Accessory\Suspenders  Search this
Game\Playing cards  Search this
Food\Beverage\Alcoholic  Search this
Game\Poker chips  Search this
Container\Bottle\Liquor bottle  Search this
Franklin Pierce Adams: Male  Search this
Franklin Pierce Adams: Communications\Journalist\Columnist  Search this
Franklin Pierce Adams: Literature\Writer\Humorist  Search this
Matthew Heywood Campbell Broun: Male  Search this
Matthew Heywood Campbell Broun: Communications\Journalist\Reporter\Newspaper  Search this
Matthew Heywood Campbell Broun: Communications\Journalist\Columnist  Search this
Matthew Heywood Campbell Broun: Literature\Writer\Novelist  Search this
Matthew Heywood Campbell Broun: Literature\Writer\Essayist  Search this
Matthew Heywood Campbell Broun: Humanities and Social Sciences\Critic\Theater  Search this
Harpo Marx: Male  Search this
Harpo Marx: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Theater  Search this
Harpo Marx: Performing Arts\Performer\Actor\Movie  Search this
Harpo Marx: Performing Arts\Performer\Comedian  Search this
Harpo Marx: Performing Arts\Performer\Vaudeville  Search this
Henry Wise Miller: Male  Search this
Henry Wise Miller: Business and Finance\Broker\Stockbroker  Search this
George Simon Kaufman: Male  Search this
George Simon Kaufman: Communications\Journalist\Columnist  Search this
George Simon Kaufman: Performing Arts\Director\Theater  Search this
George Simon Kaufman: Literature\Writer\Playwright  Search this
George Simon Kaufman: Pulitzer Prize  Search this
Gerald Henry Brooks: Male  Search this
Gerald Henry Brooks: Society and Social Change\Socialite  Search this
Portrait  Search this
Credit Line:
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution
Object number:
NPG.92.20
See more items in:
National Portrait Gallery Collection
Data Source:
National Portrait Gallery
GUID:
http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/sm4afab6831-c394-436c-a597-ba1fbfcad8c4
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:npg_NPG.92.20

Groucho Marx Collection

Artist:
Benton, Thomas Hart, 1889-1975  Search this
Collector:
Marx, Groucho (Julius Henry), 1890-1977 (comedian)  Search this
Names:
Four Nightingales  Search this
Marx Brothers  Search this
Paramount Pictures  Search this
RKO Pictures (studio)  Search this
Three Nightingales  Search this
United Artists  Search this
Warner Brothers  Search this
Marx, Chico  Search this
Marx, Harpo  Search this
Palmer, Minnie  Search this
Extent:
12 Cubic feet (39 boxes)
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Personal papers
Photographs
Motion pictures (visual works)
Photographic prints
Scrapbooks
Sheet music
Correspondence
Place:
Hollywood (Los Angeles, Calif.)
Date:
1911-1978
Scope and Contents:
Series 1: Correspondence, 1932-1977 is arranged alphabetically by correspondent. In 1965, Marx gave the Library of Congress a portion of his correspondence with well-known personages. The majority of the correspondence in this collection dates from the post World War II era (Marx's early correspondence is located at the Library of Congress.) This series includes correspondence from well-known persons, fans, admirers and friends. There is an extensive amount of correspondence with the screenwriter Nunnally Johnson. The series includes letters concerning public relations, Walt Disney caricatures of the Marx Brothers, The Grouchophile permission letters, unidentified correspondence and one letter from Chico Marx to Gummo Marx.

Series 2: Publications, Manuscripts and Print Articles by Marx, 1930-1958, undated is arranged chronologically with circa and undated material placed before the book manuscripts. This series contains written material by Groucho Marx excepting scripts and sketches. The series includes articles written by Marx for national magazines, various speeches and manuscripts for three of Marx's books.

Series 3: Scripts and Sketches, 1939-1959, undated, is arranged alphabetically with television scripts and sketches placed before full-length movie and theatre scripts. This series contains television, motion picture and theatre scripts and sketches, monologues, and related written material pertaining to works starring or featuring Marx. It also contains scripts for the one theatrical play written by Marx, A Time for Elizabeth.

Series 4: Scrapbooks, 1923-1978 is arranged chronologically and contains sixteen scrapbooks spanning Marx's career from his first Broadway success, I'll Say She Is to the year after his death. Of particular interest are the early scrapbooks for the Marx Brothers career, a scrapbook spanning the years 1934-1958 complied by Marx himself for his daughter Melinda, a photographic scrapbook compiled by the staff of Life magazine documenting a 1963 magazine layout of Marx and his then wife Eden Hartford Marx. There is also a scrapbook devoted to Chico Marx's brief career as a bandleader in the mid-late 1940s.

Series 5: Music,circa 1930-1975, undated is arranged alphabetically and includes original music manuscripts written by Marx and songs for Marx's shows and motion pictures and unidentified manuscripts perhaps written by Marx, his friends, his daughter Melinda or her music teacher. It also includes commercially produced sheet music purchased by Marx, copies of songs featured in Marx's motion pictures, music from "Minnie's Boys the theatrical production based on the Marx Brothers and their mother, an autographed copy of "Stay Down Here Where You Belong" by Irving Berlin, songs written by Marx published commercially, and Marx's copy of a collection of songs by Gilbert and Sullivan.

Series 6: Publicity, ca. 1911-1977 contains theatre programs, motion picture reviews, newspaper clippings both foreign and domestic, record album covers, a book cover and one poster of the Marx Brothers. There are items related specifically to Chico Marx. This series is arranged chronologically.

Series 7: Artwork and Photographs, 1911-1976, undatedis arranged according to subject matter and includes artwork, features cartoons and caricatures of the Marx Brothers by various artists including the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer art department and Hirschfield, sketches of the Marx Brothers by Sheila Smith, Peggy Jacobs, Bridget Crowe and Mark E. Williams (all probably fans of the Marx Brothers), various candid photographs, publicity photographs and studio portraits of Marx, his brothers, his immediate family, correspondence and related images and photographic negatives and transparencies.

Series 8: Personal and Family Documents, 1925-1975, undated contains documents relating to Marx's personal life and his brothers Chico Marx, Harpo Marx, and his daughter Melinda. Of particular interest is Marx's copy of the transcript of his divorce deposition from Eden Hartford Marx, two proclamations from the City of Los Angeles and a portfolio cover made for him by his daughter Melinda. This series is arranged chronologically.

Series 9: Audiovisual, 1929-1970 includes home movies of Groucho, brothers Harpo and Chico, and Groucho's wife and children as well as film and kinescope copies of television programs featureing Groucho as the star or guest.
Arrangement:
The collection is organized into 9 series.

Series 1: Correspondence,1932-1977

Series 2: Publications, Manuscripts, and Print Articles by Groucho Marx, 1930-1958, undated

Series 3: Scripts and Sketches, 1939-1959, undated

Series 4: Scrapbooks, 1923-1978

Series 5: Music, circa 1930-1975, undated

Subseries 5.1: Original Music Manuscrpts

Subseries 5.2: Commercially Produced Sheet Music and Collections

Series 6: Publicity, circa 1911-1977

Series 7: Artwork and Photographs, 1911-1976, undated

Subseries 7.1: Artwork

Subseries 7.2: Photographs

Subseries 7.3: Photographic Negatives and Transparencies

Series 8: Personal and Family Documents, 1925-1978, undated

Series 9: Audiovisual

Subseries 9.1: Moving Images

Subseries 9.2: Sound Recordings
Biographical / Historical:
One of 20th century America's most enduring comics and cultural icons was Groucho Marx. Julius Henry Marx, better known as Groucho, was born in New York City on October 2, 1890. He was the third of five sons born to Minna and Samuel Marx. Minna's brother, Al Shean, was a part of the well-known vaudeville team, Gallagher and Shean.

The Marx family consisted of five boys: Leonard (Chico), Arthur (Harpo), Julius (Groucho), Milton (Gummo) and Herbert (Zeppo). The family lived in the Yorkville section of New York City. Groucho had a high soprano singing voice and his first job was singing in the choir of an Episcopal church. He joined Gus Hall and his vaudeville troupe when he was eleven. Groucho attended P.S. 86 but never went beyond the 7th grade. Minna organized the Three Nightingales with Groucho, Gummo and a girl singer. The girl was eventually replaced by a boy tenor and Harpo joined the troupe. The name of the group was changed to The Four Nightingales. Minnie acted as the group's manager. The group became known as the Marx Brothers with everyone except Gummo taking part in the act. The family moved to Chicago ca. 1904 where their grandfather lived.

The brothers toured the South and Midwest performing a vaudeville skit called, "Fun in Hiskule". It is noted that the comedy act began in Nacogdoches, Texas. The Marx Brothers first big success came in 1919 with their vaudeville act entitled "Home Again". In 1920, they were booked into the Palace Theatre in New York City and played there for thirteen months. They were later banished from the circuit due to a contract violation - they had accepted employment without Albee's permission. Groucho married Ruth Johnson on February 4th, 1920 and divorced her in July 1942. They had one daughter, Miriam and one son, Arthur born in 1921.

In 1923, they toured with the show, "I'll Say She Is", a collection of vaudeville routines that Groucho had written in collaboration. The show ran on Broadway for thirty-eight weeks. On December 8, 1925, the brothers (using their nicknames professionally for the first time) opened on Broadway in "The Cocoanuts". The play was written expressly for them by George S. Kaufman and Morris Ryskind with music by Irving Berlin. The brothers made a silent film circa 1924 called "Humor Risk" but it was never released. "Animal Crackers" opened on October 23, 1928. It was in this show that Groucho created one of his most famous characters, Captain Spaulding, the African explorer. Groucho was by this time paired with Margaret Dumont, stooge and foil, whom Groucho claimed never, really understood the Marx Brothers comedy.

On the strength of their success in "The Cocoanuts", they were signed to a film contract. In 1929, they made the film version of "The Cocoanuts" while performing "Animal Crackers" on the stage. Their mother, Minna Marx died the same year. The following year they starred in the film version of "Animal Crackers". Both films were made in New York City. In 1931, Groucho moved to Hollywood where The Marx Brothers made thirteen films. The brothers signed with Paramount Pictures and made "Monkey Business" (1931), "Horsefeathers" (1932) and "Duck Soup" (1933) while at the studio. In 1933, Zeppo left the troupe and Samuel Marx died.

In February 1934, Groucho and Chico teamed up in a radio program called, "Flywheel, Shyster and Flywheel", about characters who were comic lawyers. In March 1934, they replaced Ethel Waters on a weekly radio series sponsored by the American Oil Company. In 1935, the brothers starred in "A Night at the Opera" for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, a film produced by Irving Thalberg and a sequel, "A Day at the Races" (1937). In addition to working for MGM, the brothers starred in "Room Service" (1938) for the RKO studio.

The brothers discontinued the act in September 1941 but reunited for the film "A Night in Casablanca" (1946) and "Love Happy" (1949). Groucho found work as a solo artist making films for RKO, Warner Brothers and Paramount. In March 1943, the Pabst Blue Ribbon Brewery sponsored a half-hour variety show on CBS starring Groucho. Groucho married his second wife, Catherine "Kay" Gorcey in July 1945, they had one daughter Melinda. They divorced in 1951. Groucho continued to guest on many radio shows and continued to be at his peak when ad-libbing. John Guedel created "You Bet Your Life" for Groucho in October 1947. The show aired over the ABC radio network. It moved to CBS and in 1950 it was purchased by NBC and ran on television until 1961. The show ran for a total of four years on radio and eleven years on television. Groucho won radio's Peabody Award as best comedian on radio in 1948; an Emmy award in 1951; and the Motion Picture Daily Annual TV poll from 1951-1954.

Groucho was also musical. He played the guitar, but never as part of his shows. He was also an author and a playwright. He wrote the stage play, "A Time for Elizabeth", in 1948 with Norman Krasna. The play ran for eight days on Broadway but had longer runs in summer stock. In July 1954, Groucho married his third and final wife Eden Hartford. They divorced in December of 1969. In 1967, Simon and Schuster published excerpts from letters Groucho had donated to the Library of Congress in 1965. The book was entitled The Groucho Letters. Groucho authored other books, Groucho and Me (1959) his autobiography, The Secret Word is Groucho (1976) with Hector Arce and The Grouchophile (1976).

Groucho retired in 1961 but in 1972 with the help Erin Fleming, his companion and manager since 1969, he toured in a solo act. The show entitled, "An Evening with Groucho" played Carnegie Hall in New York City in May 1972. Groucho was made a Commander of the French Order of Arts and Letters at the Cannes Film Festival in 1972. In 1974, Groucho received an honorary Academy Award (Oscar) for the contribution of the Marx Brothers to the art of film. Marx died on August 19th, 1977.
Provenance:
Collection donated by Julius H. (Groucho) Marx, through the Estate of Groucho Marx, August 5, 1987.
Restrictions:
Collection is open for research. Reference copies of audiovisual materials must be used.
Rights:
Collection items available for reproduction, but the Archives Center makes no guarantees concerning copyright restrictions. Other intellectual property rights may apply. Archives Center cost-recovery and use fees may apply when requesting reproductions.
Topic:
Comedians -- 1920-1970  Search this
Entertainment  Search this
Radio comedies  Search this
Comedy  Search this
Theater  Search this
Radio programs  Search this
Vaudeville  Search this
Television programs  Search this
Genre/Form:
Personal papers
Photographs -- 20th century
Motion pictures (visual works)
Photographic prints
Scrapbooks
Sheet music
Correspondence -- 1930-1950
Citation:
Groucho Marx Collection, 1911-1978, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
NMAH.AC.0269
See more items in:
Groucho Marx Collection
Archival Repository:
Archives Center, National Museum of American History
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-nmah-ac-0269
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