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Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers, 1816, 1914-2008, bulk 1973-2001

Creator:
Lawrence, Jacob, 1917-2000  Search this
Knight, Gwendolyn, 1914-2005  Search this
Subject:
Halpert, Edith Gregor  Search this
Bearden, Romare  Search this
Evergood, Philip Howard  Search this
Dintenfass, Terry  Search this
Eichenberg, Fritz  Search this
Bocour, Leonard  Search this
Jacob and Gwendolyn Lawrence Foundation  Search this
Type:
Photographs
Topic:
African American artists  Search this
Painters  Search this
Painting, Modern  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9121
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211315
AAA_collcode_lawrjaco
Theme:
African American
Art Movements and Schools
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211315
Additional Online Media:

Bernarda Bryson Shahn papers, 1872-2004, bulk 1904-2004

Creator:
Bryson, Bernarda, 1903-2004  Search this
Subject:
Knight, Gwendolyn  Search this
Hayes, Helen  Search this
Calder, Alexander  Search this
Rockefeller, Nelson A. (Nelson Aldrich)  Search this
Javitz, Jacob  Search this
Lynes, Russell  Search this
Robbins, Warren M.  Search this
Shahn, Ben  Search this
Shahn, Jonathan  Search this
Lionni, Leo  Search this
Osborn, Robert Chesley  Search this
Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.)  Search this
Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture  Search this
Type:
Scrapbooks
Watercolors
Photographs
Prints
Drawings
Diaries
Sketches
Sound recordings
Sketchbooks
Topic:
Women painters  Search this
Printmakers  Search this
Painters  Search this
Illustrators  Search this
Women artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)5712
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)208550
AAA_collcode_brysbern
Theme:
Women
Lives of American Artists
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_208550
Additional Online Media:

Avis Berman research material on art and artists, 1976-1988

Creator:
Berman, Avis, 1949-  Search this
Subject:
Brooks, Romaine  Search this
Cassatt, Mary  Search this
Knight, Gwendolyn  Search this
Breeskin, Adelyn Dohme  Search this
Foster, James W.  Search this
Bearden, Romare  Search this
Sloan, John French  Search this
Child, Katherine B.  Search this
Lawrence, Jacob  Search this
Rosenthal, Gertrude  Search this
Toklas, Alice B.  Search this
Ivins, William Mills  Search this
Sloan, Helen Farr  Search this
Stein, Gertrude  Search this
Cone, Etta  Search this
Cone, Claribel  Search this
Nakian, Reuben  Search this
Gross, Chaim  Search this
Type:
Interviews
Topic:
Art historians  Search this
Museum directors  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)5923
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)208764
AAA_collcode_bermavis
Theme:
Lives of American Artists
Communities, Organizations, Museums
Art Theory and Historiography
Women
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_208764

Bernarda Bryson Shahn papers

Creator:
Bryson, Bernarda  Search this
Names:
Calder, Alexander, 1898-1976 -- Photographs  Search this
Hayes, Helen, 1900-1993  Search this
Javitz, Jacob  Search this
Knight, Gwendolyn  Search this
Lionni, Leo, 1910-  Search this
Lynes, Russell, 1910-1991  Search this
Osborn, Robert Chesley, 1904-1994  Search this
Robbins, Warren M.  Search this
Rockefeller, Nelson A. (Nelson Aldrich), 1908-1979  Search this
Shahn, Ben, 1898-1969  Search this
Shahn, Jonathan, 1938-  Search this
Extent:
14.6 Linear feet
5.88 Gigabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gigabytes
Sound recordings
Scrapbooks
Sketches
Diaries
Photographs
Drawings
Sketchbooks
Watercolors
Date:
1872-2004
bulk 1904-2004
Summary:
The papers of painter, printmaker, and illustrator Bernarda Bryson Shahn measure 14.6 linear feet and 5.88 GB and date from 1872 to 2004, with the bulk of the materials dating from 1904-2004. Found within the papers are family and biographical materials, correspondence, writings including sound recordings of lectures by the Shahns, some in digital format, voluminous notebooks, five diaries, exhibition files, personal business records, printed material, seven scrapbooks, one sketchbook and other art work, and photographs. Although the bulk of the collection documents Bernarda's work, there are materials about or created by Ben Shahn scattered throughout the collection. There is a 2.7 linear foot unprocessed addition to this collection donated in 2011 that includes administrative files regarding Bernarda Shahn's work on the board of Skowhegan correspondence of both Bernarda and Ben Shahn; an inventory ledger with names of works of art by Ben Shahn; a scrapbook regarding Ben Shan's work in Japan; photographs of Ben and Bernarda Shahn and images of works of art by Ben Shahn; sketchbooks and notebooks by Ben and Bernarda Shahn; and printed material.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of painter, printmaker, and illustrator Bernarda Bryson Shahn measure 11.9 linear feet and 5.88 GB and date from 1872 to 2004, with the bulk of the materials dating from 1904-2004. Found within the papers are family and biographical materials, correspondence, writings including sound recordings of lectures by the Shahns, voluminous notebooks, five diaries, exhibition files, personal business records, printed material, seven scrapbooks, one sketchbook and other art work, and photographs. Although the bulk of the collection documents Bernarda's work, there are materials about or created by Ben Shahn scattered throughout the collection. There is a 2.7 linear foot unprocessed addition to this collection donated in 2011 that includes administrative files regarding Bernarda Shahn's work on the board of Skowhegan correspondence of both Bernarda and Ben Shahn; an inventory ledger with names of works of art by Ben Shahn; a scrapbook regarding Ben Shan's work in Japan; photographs of Ben and Bernarda Shahn and images of works of art by Ben Shahn; sketchbooks and notebooks by Ben and Bernarda Shahn; and printed material.

Biographical material includes biographical accounts for Bernarda and Ben Shahn, identification cards, membership cards, awards, appointment books and calendars, address books, and a video recording.

Correspondence is primarily between Bernarda Bryson Shahn and publishers, educational institutions, and colleagues and friends including Leo Lionni, Russell Lynes, Robert Osborn, and Warren Robbins.

There are four linear feet of notes, notebooks, typescripts, and other writings by Bernarda Bryson Shahn and others, many of which concern Ben Shahn. Included are numerous files of research notes for published and planned books about Ben Shahn, notebooks concerning art-related topics, card files of art work, lists, sound recordings of lectures by the Shahns and Gwen Knight, some in digital format, and many typescripts of writings about art and Ben Shahn, among other topics. There is also a folder of notes by Ben Shahn for the Mural for the Rural Rehabilitation Program. Five of Bernarda Shahn's diaries contain very brief daily entries and some illustrations. The 1972 diary contains much more elaborate illustrations.

The exhibition files contain letters, notes, and printed material concerning exhibitions of art work by Ben Shahn.

Personal business records include files concerning property, the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture, miscellaneous contracts, files concerning publishing, art price lists, and other scattered legal and/or financial records.

Printed material includes clippings, exhibition announcements and catalogs, press releases for Bernarda Bryson Shahn, Ben Shahn, and others, books including A Partridge in a Pear Tree, illustrated by Ben Shahn, and printed reproductions of art work. Seven scrapbooks also contain printed materials, notes, and photographs. Scrapbooks 1-4 document the creation of the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial for which Jonathan Shahn created the large portrait bust. Scrapbooks 5-7 concern a book by Bernarda Bryson Shahn, and scrapbook 8 contains obituaries for Ben Shahn.

Art work includes a sketchbook with annotations, drawings, a portfolio of drawings, lettering designs, watercolor sketches, and layouts for publications.

Photographs are of unidentified and identified Shahn family members, Ben Shahn, Ben Shahn with friends and colleagues including Alexander Calder, Helen Hayes, Senator Jacob Javitz, and Nelson Rockefeller, Ben Shahn's studio, exhibition installations, and art work by Bernarda Bryson Shahn, Ben Shahn, and others. There are also travel photographs.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged as 11 series:

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1937-1999 (Box 1, 13; 35 folders)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1934-2004 (Box 1-5, 13, OV 14; 3.6 linear feet)

Series 3: Notes and Writings, 1946-2001 (Box 5-9; 4.0 linear feet, ER01-ER09; 5.88 GB)

Series 4: Diaries, 1965-1985 (Box 9; 5 folders)

Series 5: Exhibition Files, 1955-2000 (Box 9; 5 folders)

Series 6: Personal Business Records, 1932-2001 (Box 9, 10; 0.8 linear feet)

Series 7: Printed Material, 1904-2004 (Box 10-11, 13, OV 14-15; 1.2 linear feet)

Series 8: Scrapbooks, 1945-1978 (Box 11, 13, OV 15; 30 folders)

Series 9: Art Work, 1970-2002 (Box 11-13, OV 14; 70 folders)

Series 10: Photographs, 1872-1985 (Box 12; 34 folders)

Series 11: Unprocessed Addition, circa 1904-2004 (Box 16-19, OV 20; 2.7 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
Bernarda Bryson Shahn (1903-2004) worked primarily in New Jersey as a painter, printmaker, and illustrator. She was married to Ben Shahn and often collaborated with him.

Bernarda Bryson was born on March 7, 1903 in Athens, Ohio, the daughter of the owner-editor of newspaper The Athens Morning Journal. After receiving early drawing and painting lessons from her mother, Bryson attended a private girls' school where she continued her studies in art and art history.

At Ohio University, Bryson majored in philosophy and attended art classes in which David Smith was a classmate. She later attended the Cleveland Art School where she studied printmaking.

Following graduation, Bryson taught etching and lithography at the art school of the Columbus Gallery of Fine Art. She also wrote for The Ohio State Journal and became editor of community paper The South Side Advocate. While in New York City to interview Diego Rivera, she met Ben Shahn who was assisting Rivera in painting the mural at Rockefeller Center. Bernarda Bryson and Ben Shahn were married in 1935.

Bernarda Bryson Shahn moved to New York and helped organize the Artists' Union and exhibited at the Whitney Gallery on Eighth Street. She then went to Woodstock to study lithography with Bolton Brown and was invited to set up a lithographic shop for the Resettlement Administration in Washington, D.C.

During the 1950s and 1960s, Bernarda Bryson Shahn executed illustrations for Harper's Magazine, Scientific American and Fortune in addition to random assignments from Life, Sports Illustrated and other publications. She illustrated many books including Wuthering Heights and Pride and Prejudice as well as writing and illustrating her own books Gilgamesh, The Twenty Miracles of Saint Nicolas, and The Zoo of Zeus. Following the death of her husband in 1969, she wrote and designed a large monograph Ben Shahn, published by Abrams.

In the mid-1970s, Bernarda Bryson Shahn won further recognition when she returned to painting.

Bernarda Bryson Shahn died on December 12, 2004 in Roosevelt, New Jersey.
Related Material:
Also found in the Archives of American Art are two oral histories with Bernarda Bryson Shahn, one completed in 1983 by Liza Kirwin and another in 1995 by Pamela Meecham. The Archives also holds the Ben Shahn papers.
Provenance:
Donated 1983 by Bernarada Bryson Shahn and in 2005 and 2011 by Bernarda Brsyon Shahn estate via Jonathan Shahn and Abigail Shahn, co-executors.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment. Use of archival audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Rights:
The Bernarda Bryson Shahn papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
Women painters -- New Jersey -- Roosevelt  Search this
Illustrators -- New Jersey -- Roosevelt  Search this
Painters -- New Jersey -- Roosevelt  Search this
Printmakers -- New Jersey -- Roosevelt  Search this
Women artists -- New Jersey -- Roosevelt  Search this
Genre/Form:
Sound recordings
Scrapbooks
Sketches
Diaries
Photographs
Drawings
Sketchbooks
Watercolors
Citation:
Bernarda Bryson Shahn papers, 1872-2004, bulk 1904-2004. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.brysbern
See more items in:
Bernarda Bryson Shahn papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-brysbern

New York Artists Equity Association records, 1920-2012

Creator:
New York Artists Equity Association  Search this
Subject:
Marinoff, Elaine  Search this
Steinbaum, Bernice  Search this
Gross, Chaim  Search this
Simon, Sidney  Search this
O'Hanlon, Richard E. (Richard Emmett)  Search this
Cherry, Denny Winters  Search this
Stirton, Laura  Search this
Laufman, Sidney  Search this
Walker, Hudson D. (Hudson Dean)  Search this
Zerbe, Karl  Search this
Mandel, Howard  Search this
Carswell, Mary  Search this
Newman, Elias  Search this
Diener, Bert  Search this
Nevelson, Louise  Search this
Kramer, Hilton  Search this
Gillespie, Dorothy Muriel  Search this
Phillips, Renée  Search this
Gussow, Alan  Search this
Frankenthaler, Helen  Search this
Poroner, Palmer  Search this
Knight, Gwendolyn  Search this
Zaleski, Jean  Search this
Facci, Domenico Aurelio  Search this
Fiene, Ernest  Search this
Lipsky, Eleanor  Search this
Sloan, John French  Search this
Karp, Ivan C.  Search this
Goulet, Lorrie H.  Search this
Fuller, Sue  Search this
Sandler, Irving  Search this
Kertess, Klaus  Search this
Gussow, Roy  Search this
Bibro, Denise  Search this
Golub, Leon  Search this
Waterson, Harry  Search this
Ashford, Doug  Search this
Lawrence, Jacob  Search this
Brodski, Judith  Search this
Hayter, Stanley William  Search this
Kotik, Charlotte  Search this
Cohen, Jean  Search this
Rothschild, Lincoln  Search this
Wayne, June Claire  Search this
Kroll, Leon  Search this
Babin, Angela  Search this
Smith, David  Search this
Searles, Charles Robert  Search this
Teller, Susan  Search this
Newman, Arnold  Search this
Berger, Ted  Search this
Bolotsky, Marvin  Search this
Morris, George L. K. (George Lovett Kingsland)  Search this
Smart, Bill  Search this
Phillips, Helen  Search this
Hall, Nan  Search this
Hasen, Burt  Search this
Reeves, Ruth  Search this
deLisser, Carolyn  Search this
Refregier, Anton  Search this
Marxer, Donna  Search this
Kuniyoshi, Yasuo  Search this
Avery, Frances  Search this
Concholar, Dan  Search this
Millman, Edward  Search this
Art Bank (U.S.)  Search this
Artists Welfare Fund  Search this
Broome Street Gallery  Search this
Type:
Sketches
Video recordings
Sound recordings
Photographs
Scrapbooks
Topic:
Art galleries, Commercial  Search this
Art  Search this
Artists  Search this
Record number:
(DSI-AAA_CollID)9541
(DSI-AAA_SIRISBib)211741
AAA_collcode_nyarteqa
Theme:
Communities, Organizations, Museums
Data Source:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
edanmdm:AAADCD_coll_211741
Additional Online Media:

Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers

Creator:
Knight, Gwendolyn  Search this
Lawrence, Jacob, 1917-2000  Search this
Names:
Bearden, Romare, 1911-1988  Search this
Bocour, Leonard, 1910-1993  Search this
Dintenfass, Terry, 1920-  Search this
Eichenberg, Fritz, 1901-1990  Search this
Evergood, Philip, 1901-1973  Search this
Halpert, Edith Gregor, 1900-1970  Search this
Extent:
25.35 Linear feet
0.001 Gigabytes
Type:
Collection descriptions
Archival materials
Gigabytes
Photographs
Date:
1816
1914-2008
bulk 1973-2001
Summary:
The papers of African American painter and educator Jacob Lawrence and his wife, artist Gwendolyn Knight measure 25.35 linear feet and 0.001 GB date from 1914 to 2008, with one item from 1816 and the bulk of the material dating from 1973 to 2001. The collection includes biographical material; correspondence including condolence letters to Gwendolyn Knight after Jacob Lawrence's death; writings by Jacob Lawrence and others; printed and digital material; photographs; personal business records; artwork; records from the Jacob Lawrence Catalogue Raisonné Project; materials related to the Jacob and Gwendolyn Knight Lawrence Foundation; professional files; and material related to awards and honors received by Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight.
Scope and Content Note:
The papers of African American painter and educator Jacob Lawrence and his wife, artist Gwendolyn Knight measure 25.35 linear feet and 0.001 GB and date from 1914 to 2008, with one item from 1816 and the bulk of the material dating from 1973 to 2001. The collection includes biographical material; correspondence including condolence letters to Gwendolyn Knight after Jacob Lawrence's death; writings by Jacob Lawrence and others; printed and digital material; photographs; personal business records; artwork; records from the Jacob Lawrence Catalogue Raisonné Project; materials related to the Jacob and Gwendolyn Knight Lawrence Foundation; professional files; and material related to awards and honors received by Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight.

Biographical material includes appointment and address books; education and personal identification certificates and documents; awards, certificates, curriculum vitae, and chronologies; biographical material related to other individuals, including identification documents and memorial programs; and transcripts of interviews with Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight.

The correspondence series includes extensive personal and professional correspondence with family, friends, artists, admirers (including students in a number of elementary and middle schools), university students, government agencies, art schools, galleries, museums, publishing houses, and others. Included in this series are condolence letters received by Gwendolyn Knight after Jacob Lawrence's death in 2000.

Writings include published and unpublished writings by and about Jacob Lawrence, as well as writings by others. These writings include speeches, notes, essays, articles, lists, and short stories. Also included is a visitor comment book from the Los Angeles County Museum exhibition of Jacob Lawrence's Harriet Tubman and Frederick Douglass series.

Printed material includes books; brochures; business cards; clippings; exhibition and event announcements, invitations, catalogs, and programs; magazines; newsletters; posters; post cards; and press releases. Books in this collection may include illustrations by Jacob Lawrence or have personal inscriptions from the author to Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight.

Photographs include photographs of Jacob Lawrence artwork, photographs and reproductions of Gwendolyn Knight artwork, and photographs of Jacob Lawrence, Gwendolyn Knight, and other individuals. Also included in this series are photographs and reproductions of work by others.

Personal business records include a ledger; consignment, financial, and shipping records related to the Terry Dintenfass Gallery; contracts and agreements; and estate documents.

Artwork includes sketches by Jacob Lawrence, a blank sketchbook inscribed by Jacob Lawrence to Gwendolyn Knight, and artwork by other artists.

Jacob Lawrence Catalogue Raisonné Project Records include materials generated by the Jacob Lawrence Catalogue Raisonné Project, a non-profit created with the goal of producing a catalogue raisonné (and later, a digital archive) of Jacob Lawrence's work. These records include address books and phone logs; copies of Jacob Lawrence's CV; founding documents, bylaws, and meeting minutes; correspondence; writings, including draft pages of the catalogue raisonné; business records, including employment files, contracts, invoices, insurance, and tax information; printed and digital material; and photographs and artwork.

The Jacob and Gwendolyn Knight Lawrence Foundation and Related Material series includes founding documents and foundation bylaws, correspondence, financial documents, reports, and proposals. Found within this series are materials related to the Lawrence Center for the Visual Arts, a subsidiary foundation of the Jacob and Gwendolyn Knight Lawrence Foundation.

Professional files include material related to projects and exhibitions, teaching files and inclusion in curricula, files regarding possible fake Jacob Lawrence works, and gallery files.

The honors series is divided into two subseries: awards and certificates, and government honors. Awards and certificates includes honorary degrees, arts prizes, and any other honors awarded to Jacob Lawrence or Gwendolyn Knight. Government honors include resolutions, proclamations, and keys to cities. Also included in this series are correspondence related to awards and honorary degrees, commencement programs, plaques, and medals.
Arrangement:
The collection is arranged in 11 series.

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1914-2005 (Boxes 1, 11, 26, OV 10; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 2: Correspondence, 1943, 1952-2005 (Boxes 1-5, 12-14, 26; 7.7 linear feet)

Series 3: Writings, 1954-1959, 1973-2005, undated (Boxes 5-6, 14-15; 0.5 linear feet)

Series 4: Printed Material, 1816, 1926, 1937, 1945-2008 (Boxes 6-9, 15-17, 26, OV 30, OV 31; 6.8 linear feet)

Series 5: Photographs, circa 1970-1997, undated (Boxes 9, 17, OV 10; 0.4 linear feet)

Series 6: Personal Business Records, 1962-2005 (Boxes 9, 17; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 7: Artwork, 1984, 1990-1994, undated (Boxes 9, 18, 26; 0.3 linear feet)

Series 8: Jacob Lawrence Catalogue Raisonne Project Records, 1982-2002 (Boxes 18-23, Box 26; 5.1 linear feet, ER01; 0.001 GB)

Series 9: Jacob and Gwendolyn Knight Lawrence Foundation and Related Material, 1997-2005 (Box 23; 0.6 linear feet)

Series 10: Professional Files, 1964-2004 (Boxes 23-24; 1.2 linear feet)

Series 11: Honors, 1948, 1966-2005 (Boxes 24-25, 27-29, OV 30; 2.3 linear feet)
Biographical Note:
Modernist painter and educator Jacob Lawrence (1917-2000) was born in 1917 as Jacob Armstead Lawrence in Atlantic City, New Jersey. He began his art studies at the Utopia Children's Center in New York City's Harlem district where he studied under the painter Charles Alston. Lawrence dropped out of high school at the age of sixteen to continue his art instruction with Alston, this time at the Harlem Art Workshop, where he met several artists associated with the Harlem Renaissance including the sculptor Augusta Savage.

Gwendolyn Knight (1913-2005) was born in Barbados and moved to New York City with her adoptive parents when she was seven. She attended New York's Wadleigh High School and later Howard University in Washington, D.C. where she studied fine arts with Lois Mailou Jones and James Porter. Forced to leave her studies at Howard because of the Depression, Knight returned to Harlem and continued her artistic pursuits in Augusta Savage's workshop. In 1935, Knight joined the Harlem Mural Project of the Works Progress Administration (WPA) working under Selma Day and Charles Alston. Lawrence and Knight met in Savage's workshop and married in the summer of 1941.

During the Depression, Lawrence also joined the WPA Federal Arts Project in Harlem. Finding WPA murals overwhelming, Lawrence concentrated on traditional painting instead. He produced his first major works in the late 1930s, most notably the Toussaint L'Ouverture series, images that document the life of the revolutionary hero and Haiti's struggle for independence. Other significant works include visual narratives of the lives of abolitionists Harriet Tubman and Frederick Douglass. In 1940, Lawrence received the prestigious Julius Rosenwald Fellowship, which made it possible for him to purchase his first art studio on 125th Street in the heart of Harlem. He soon portrayed Harlem street life in paintings that became commentaries on the role of African Americans in United States society with highly developed themes of resistance and social opposition. That same year, Lawrence began his most celebrated series, The Migration of the American Negro, multiple tempera panels depicting the exodus of African American sharecroppers in the south to northern industrial cities in search of better employment and social opportunities. Edith Halpert exhibited the works in their entirety at her Downtown Gallery in 1941, establishing Lawrence as the first African American artist to exhibit in a top New York gallery. The following year, New York's Museum of Modern Art and the Phillips Collection in Washington, DC each bought half of the sixty panels in the series, helping to further Lawrence's career within the larger world of American art.

In the summer of 1946, the artist Joseph Albers invited Lawrence to teach at North Carolina's Black Mountain College. It was the first in a series of teaching positions in prestigious art schools including Pratt Institute (1956-1971), Brandeis University (1965), The New School (1966), the Art Students League (1967), and others. During the 1950s and 1960s, Lawrence's work continued to focus on racism and political activism but in the late 1960s shifted to themes of racial harmony.

Both Lawrence and Knight continued independent careers in art. Knight pursued her art studies at the New School in New York and the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture in Maine. In the mid-1960s, she collaborated with other female artists to form the Studio Gallery in New York City. Knight's main body of work consists of portraits and still-lifes that incorporate expressions of African sculpture, Impressionism, dance, and theater. Focusing on gesture, her art is described as light and airy with a minimum of lines allowing empty space to define the work. In 1970, Lawrence traveled to Seattle to teach as a visiting artist at the University of Washington. He was hired on a permanent basis the following year and remained on staff until his retirement in 1986.

Jacob Lawrence died June 9, 2000, in Seattle, Washington at the age of 83. Gwendolyn Knight continued to paint and exhibit her work around the country until her death on February 18, 2005 in Seattle, Washington at the age of 92.
Related Material:
Also found at the Archives of American Art are an oral history interview with Jacob Lawrence conducted by Carroll Greene (1968 October 26), interviews conducted by Avis Berman (1982 July 20-August 4), and an oral history interview with Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight conducted by Paul Karlstrom (1998 November 18). The Archives of American Art also holds a collection of Jacob Lawrence papers, available on microfilm only, reels D286 and 4571-4573. Originals reside at Syracuse University Library, Special Collections.
Provenance:
The Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers were donated to the Archives of American Art in five accretions between 1979 and 1997. Additional papers were donated in 2012 by the Jacob and Gwendolyn Knight Lawrence Foundation via Barbara Earl Thomas, representative.
Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Rights:
The Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Topic:
African American artists -- Washington (State) -- Seattle  Search this
Painters -- New York (State)  Search this
Painters -- Washington (State)  Search this
Painting, Modern -- 20th century -- United States  Search this
African American artists -- New York (State) -- New York  Search this
Genre/Form:
Photographs
Citation:
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers, 1816, 1914-2008, bulk 1973-2001. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Identifier:
AAA.lawrjaco
See more items in:
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_collection:sova-aaa-lawrjaco
Additional Online Media:

Harry N. Abrams, Inc.

Collection Creator:
Knight, Gwendolyn  Search this
Lawrence, Jacob, 1917-2000  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 31
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1971-1986
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers, 1816, 1914-2008, bulk 1973-2001. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers / Series 2: Correspondence
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-lawrjaco-ref100

Two Short Stories by Unidentified Authors

Collection Creator:
Knight, Gwendolyn  Search this
Lawrence, Jacob, 1917-2000  Search this
Container:
Box 15, Folder 4
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers, 1816, 1914-2008, bulk 1973-2001. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers / Series 3: Writings
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-lawrjaco-ref1000

Notes and Notebooks

Collection Creator:
Knight, Gwendolyn  Search this
Lawrence, Jacob, 1917-2000  Search this
Container:
Box 15, Folder 5
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers, 1816, 1914-2008, bulk 1973-2001. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers / Series 3: Writings
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-lawrjaco-ref1001

Religious Books

Collection Creator:
Knight, Gwendolyn  Search this
Lawrence, Jacob, 1917-2000  Search this
Container:
Box 15, Folder 6
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1816
circa 1926
circa 1966
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers, 1816, 1914-2008, bulk 1973-2001. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers / Series 4: Printed Material
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-lawrjaco-ref1002

A Long Way From Home by Claude McKay, Inscribed to Jacob Lawrence

Collection Creator:
Knight, Gwendolyn  Search this
Lawrence, Jacob, 1917-2000  Search this
Container:
Box 15, Folder 7
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1937
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers, 1816, 1914-2008, bulk 1973-2001. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers / Series 4: Printed Material
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-lawrjaco-ref1003

The Dream Keeper by Langston Hughes, Inscribed to Jacob Lawrence

Collection Creator:
Knight, Gwendolyn  Search this
Lawrence, Jacob, 1917-2000  Search this
Container:
Box 15, Folder 8
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1948
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers, 1816, 1914-2008, bulk 1973-2001. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers / Series 4: Printed Material
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-lawrjaco-ref1004

One Way Ticket by Langston Hughes, Inscribed to Jacob Lawrence

Collection Creator:
Knight, Gwendolyn  Search this
Lawrence, Jacob, 1917-2000  Search this
Container:
Box 15, Folder 9
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1948
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers, 1816, 1914-2008, bulk 1973-2001. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers / Series 4: Printed Material
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-lawrjaco-ref1005

Shakespeare in Harlem by Langston Hughes, Inscribed to Jacob Lawrence

Collection Creator:
Knight, Gwendolyn  Search this
Lawrence, Jacob, 1917-2000  Search this
Container:
Box 15, Folder 10
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1948
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers, 1816, 1914-2008, bulk 1973-2001. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers / Series 4: Printed Material
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-lawrjaco-ref1006

Negro: U.S.A. A Graphic History of the Negro People in America

Collection Creator:
Knight, Gwendolyn  Search this
Lawrence, Jacob, 1917-2000  Search this
Container:
Box 15, Folder 11
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1949
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers, 1816, 1914-2008, bulk 1973-2001. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers / Series 4: Printed Material
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-lawrjaco-ref1007

Simple Speaks His Mind by Langston Hughes, Inscribed to Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight

Collection Creator:
Knight, Gwendolyn  Search this
Lawrence, Jacob, 1917-2000  Search this
Container:
Box 15, Folder 12
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1950
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers, 1816, 1914-2008, bulk 1973-2001. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers / Series 4: Printed Material
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-lawrjaco-ref1008

Montage of a Dream Deferred by Langston Hughes, Inscribed to Jacob Lawrence

Collection Creator:
Knight, Gwendolyn  Search this
Lawrence, Jacob, 1917-2000  Search this
Container:
Box 15, Folder 13
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1951
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers, 1816, 1914-2008, bulk 1973-2001. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers / Series 4: Printed Material
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-lawrjaco-ref1009

Hawthorne Elementary School, Seattle, WA

Collection Creator:
Knight, Gwendolyn  Search this
Lawrence, Jacob, 1917-2000  Search this
Container:
Box 2, Folder 32
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
undated
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers, 1816, 1914-2008, bulk 1973-2001. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers / Series 2: Correspondence
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-lawrjaco-ref101

The Sweet Flypaper of Life by Roy DeCarava and Langston Hughes, Inscribed to the Lawrences

Collection Creator:
Knight, Gwendolyn  Search this
Lawrence, Jacob, 1917-2000  Search this
Container:
Box 15, Folder 14
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1955
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers, 1816, 1914-2008, bulk 1973-2001. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers / Series 4: Printed Material
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-lawrjaco-ref1010

Race: How Blacks and Whites Think and Feel About the American Obsession by Studs Terkel, Inscribed to Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight

Collection Creator:
Knight, Gwendolyn  Search this
Lawrence, Jacob, 1917-2000  Search this
Container:
Box 15, Folder 15
Type:
Archival materials
Date:
1992
Collection Restrictions:
Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C. Research Center.
Collection Rights:
The Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
Collection Citation:
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers, 1816, 1914-2008, bulk 1973-2001. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
See more items in:
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers
Jacob Lawrence and Gwendolyn Knight papers / Series 4: Printed Material
Archival Repository:
Archives of American Art
EDAN-URL:
ead_component:sova-aaa-lawrjaco-ref1011

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