Jurassic brachiopods of the order Rhynchonellida are classified according to modern concepts and techniques, with special attention to internal structures. They are grouped into 6 families and 16 subfamilies of which three are new: the Acanthorhynchiinae, the Cryptorhynchiinae, and the Piarorhynchiinae. Subfamilies emended or revised are the Acanthothyridinae Schuchert (1913) raised to family rank, Davanirhynchinae Ovtsharenko (1983), Dzhangirhynchinae Ovtsharenko (1983), Erymnariinae Cooper (1959), Indorhynchiinae Ovtsharenko (1975), Septocrurellinae Ager, Childs, and Pearson (1972), and Striirhynchiinae Kamyshan (1968). New genera are Aalenirhynchia (type-species Rhynchonella subdecorata Davidson, 1853), Bradfordirhynchia (type-species Cryptorhynchia bradfordensis Buckman, 1918), and Sharpirhynchia (type-species Kallirhynchia sharpi Muir-Wood, 1938). A new subgenus is Burmirhynchia (Hopkinsirhynchia) (type-species Burmirhynchia hopkinsi Davidson, 1854). The only new species is Pycnoria depressa. Eleven genera are revised, and many are transferred among the subfamilies; lectotypes are designated where needed.