From card [for all 12 paintings, E77052-0 through E77052-11]: "12 Glue-color folk paintings on paper, used for room decoration or storeroom door amulets. - Chang-su Houchins. See pp. 468-9 in "The Bernadou, Allen, and Jouy Korean Collections in the U.S. National Museum" by Walter Hough in USNM AR 1891. All 12 paintings are described there.
From card [for E77052-0], painting original # 1: "Glue color folk painting on paper, "ten long lives" (sipchangsaeng-do). Depicted are: the sun, moon, mountain, water, turtle, deer, crane, pine, bamboo, and a plant called pulloch'o (immortal grass). Used for room decoration, especially during the new year holiday season. When done on a screen, it is placed behind the royal throne. 52 x 93 cm. Smithsonian Photographic Services color transparency negative number 79-11955"
"Late 19th century. Color on paper. The ten longevity symbols painted here are: the sun, moon, mountain, water, turtle, deer, crane, bamboo, pine tree and an imaginary plant called pulloch'o . "Pulloch'o" means immortal grass, known to the Chinese as lingchi, the sacred fungus, a symbol of immortality and longevity. This painting was popular in non-aristocratic households. Hough notes that such a painting is used for house decoration by "the lower-class Koreans." Founder of the Emille Museum in Seoul, and pioneer folk-art enthusiast Jo Ja-yong (1926-1999) produced, in the early 1970s, a number of publications dealing with Korean minhwa (folk painting)...Collected in Seoul. Ref: Hough Korean Catalog p. 468; Published (Houchins, 982: 58-60); "MBM 'Miguk bangmul-gwan sojang Hanguk munhwajae' or The Korean Relics in the United States", 1989: 50." [from: "An Ethnography of the Hermit Kingdom: The J.B. Bernadou Korean Collection 1884-1885", Chang-su Cho Houchins, 2004, number 118]